See also: ruń, rún, rùn, Rún, and rǔn

EnglishEdit

 Run on Wikipedia

Alternative formsEdit

  • rin (dialectal)

EtymologyEdit

From Middle English runnen, ronnen (to run), alteration (due to the past participle runne, runnen, yronne) of Middle English rinnen (to run), from Old English rinnan, iernan (to run) and Old Norse rinna (to run), both from Proto-Germanic *rinnaną (to run) (compare also *rannijaną (to make run)), from Proto-Indo-European *h₃reyH- (to boil, churn). Cognate with Scots rin (to run), West Frisian rinne (to walk, march), Dutch rennen (to run, race), German rennen (to run, race), rinnen (to flow), Danish rende (to run), Swedish ränna (to run), Icelandic renna (to flow). Non-Germanic cognates include Albanian rend (to run, run after). See random.

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

 
a runner running (sense 1)
Women running (sense 1) in a 100-meter foot race

run (third-person singular simple present runs, present participle running, simple past ran, past participle run)

  1. To move swiftly.
    1. (intransitive) To move forward quickly upon two feet by alternately making a short jump off either foot. (Compare walk.)
      Run, Sarah, run!
      • 1967, Sleigh, Barbara, Jessamy, 1993 edition, Sevenoaks, Kent: Bloomsbury, →ISBN, page 122:
        Through the open front door ran Jessamy, down the steps to where Kitto was sitting at the bottom with the pram beside him.
      • For more examples of usage of this term, see Citations:run.
    2. (intransitive) To go at a fast pace, to move quickly.
      The horse ran the length of the track.
      I have been running all over the building looking for him.
      Sorry, I've got to run; my house is on fire.
    3. (transitive) To cause to move quickly; to make move lightly.
      Every day I run my dog across the field and back.
      I'll just run the vacuum cleaner over the carpet.
      Run your fingers through my hair.
      Can you run these data through the program for me and tell me whether it gives an error?
    4. (transitive or intransitive) To compete in a race.
      The horse will run the Preakness next year.
      I'm not ready to run a marathon.
    5. (intransitive) Of fish, to migrate for spawning.
    6. (intransitive, soccer) To carry a football down the field.
    7. (transitive) To achieve or perform by running or as if by running.
      The horse ran a great race.
    8. (intransitive) To flee from a danger or towards help.
      Whenever things get tough, she cuts and runs.
      When he's broke, he runs to me for money.
    9. (figuratively, transitive) To go through without stopping, usually illegally.
      run a red light or stop sign; run a blockade
    10. (transitive, juggling, colloquial) To juggle a pattern continuously, as opposed to starting and stopping quickly.
  2. (fluids) To flow.
    1. (intransitive, figuratively) To move or spread quickly.
      There's a strange story running around the neighborhood.
      The flu is running through my daughter's kindergarten.
    2. (intransitive) Of a liquid, to flow.
      The river runs through the forest.
      There's blood running down your leg.
    3. (intransitive) Of an object, to have a liquid flowing from it.
      Your nose is running.
      Why is the hose still running?
      My cup runneth over.
    4. (transitive) To make a liquid flow; to make liquid flow from an object.
      You'll have to run the water a while before it gets hot.
    5. (intransitive) To become liquid; to melt.
      • 1717 [a. 18 A.D.], Ovid, Joseph Addison, transl., Ovid's Metamorphoses in fifteen books. Translated by the most eminent hands. Adorn'd with sculptures[1], Book the Third, The Story of Narcissus, page 92:
        As Wax dissolves, as Ice begins to run,
      • 1729, John Woodward, An Attempt Towards a Natural History of the Fossils of England, Tome I, page 223:
        The Sussex ores run pretty freely in the Fire for Iron-Ores; otherwise they would hardly be worth working.
    6. (intransitive) To leak or spread in an undesirable fashion; to bleed (especially used of dye or paint).
      He discovered during washing that the red rug ran on his white sheet, staining it pink.
    7. To fuse; to shape; to mould; to cast.
      to run bullets
      • 1718, Henry Felton, A Dissertation on Reading the Classics, and Forming a Just Style[2], page 6:
        But, my Lord, the fairest Diamonds are rough till they are polished, and the purest Gold must be run and washed, and sifted in the Oar.
  3. (nautical, of a vessel) To sail before the wind, in distinction from reaching or sailing close-hauled.
  4. (social) To carry out an activity.
    1. (transitive) To control or manage, be in charge of.
      My uncle ran a corner store for forty years.
      She runs the fundraising.
      My parents think they run my life.
      He is running an expensive campaign.
      • 1972 December 29, Richard Schickel, “Masterpieces underrated and overlooked”, in Life, volume 73, number 25, page 22:
        A friend of mine who runs an intellectual magazine was grousing about his movie critic, complaining that though the fellow had liked The Godfather (page 58), he had neglected to label it clearly as a masterpiece.
      • 2013 May 11, “What a waste”, in The Economist, volume 407, number 8835, page 12:
        India is run by gerontocrats and epigones: grey hairs and groomed heirs.
      • For more examples of usage of this term, see Citations:run.
    2. (intransitive) To be a candidate in an election.
      I have decided to run for governor of California.
      We're trying to find somebody to run against him next year.
    3. (transitive) To make run in a race or an election.
      He ran his best horse in the Derby.
      The Green Party is running twenty candidates in this election.
    4. To exert continuous activity; to proceed.
      to run through life; to run in a circle
    5. (intransitive) To be presented in the media.
      The story will run on the 6-o'clock news.
      The latest Robin Williams movie is running at the Silver City theatre.
      Her picture ran on the front page of the newspaper.
    6. (transitive) To print or broadcast in the media.
      run a story; run an ad
    7. (transitive) To transport someone or something.
      Could you run me over to the store?
      Please run this report upstairs to director's office.
    8. (transitive) To smuggle illegal goods.
      to run guns; to run rum
      • 1728, Jonathan Swift, “An answer to a paper, called A memorial of the poor inhabitants, tradesmen, and labourers of the kingdom of Ireland”, in The Works of Dr. Jonathan Swift, published 1757, page 175:
        [] whereas in the business of laying heavy impositions two and two never made more than one ; which happens by lessening the import, and the strong temptation of running such goods as paid high duties
    9. (transitive, agriculture) To sort through a large volume of produce in quality control.
      Looks like we're gonna have to run the tomatoes again.
  5. To extend or persist, statically or dynamically, through space or time.
    1. (intransitive) To extend in space or through a range (often with a measure phrase).
      The border runs for 3000 miles.
      The leash runs along a wire.
      The grain of the wood runs to the right on this table.
      It ran in quality from excellent to substandard.
    2. (intransitive) To extend in time, to last, to continue (usually with a measure phrase).
      The sale will run for ten days.
      The contract runs through 2008.
      The meeting ran late.
      The book runs 655 pages.
      The speech runs as follows: …
    3. (transitive) To make something extend in space.
      I need to run this wire along the wall.
    4. (intransitive) Of a machine, including computer programs, to be operating or working normally.
      My car stopped running.
      That computer runs twenty-four hours a day.
      Buses don't run here on Sunday.
    5. (transitive) To make a machine operate.
      It's full. You can run the dishwasher now.
      Don't run the engine so fast.
  6. (transitive) To execute or carry out a plan, procedure, or program.
    They ran twenty blood tests on me and they still don't know what's wrong.
    Our coach had us running plays for the whole practice.
    I will run the sample.
    Don't run that software unless you have permission.
    My computer is too old to run the new OS.
  7. To pass or go quickly in thought or conversation.
    to run from one subject to another
    • 1697, Joseph Addison, “An essay on the Georgics”, in The Works of Virgil: Containing His Pastorals, Georgics, and Aeneis[3], by John Dryden:
      Virgil was so well acquainted with this Secret, that to set off his first Georgic, he has run into a set of Precepts, which are almost foreign to his Subject,
  8. (copulative) To become different in a way mentioned (usually to become worse).
    Our supplies are running low.
    They frequently overspent and soon ran into debt.
    • 1712, Joseph Addison, Cato, a Tragedy, Act IV, scene i:
      Have I not cause to rave, and beat my breast, / To rend my heart with grief and run distracted?
    • 1968, Paul Simon, The Boxer (song)
      I was no more than a boy / In the company of strangers / In the quiet of the railway station / Running scared.
    • For more examples of usage of this term, see Citations:run.
  9. (transitive) To cost a large amount of money.
    Buying a new laptop will run you a thousand dollars.
    Laptops run about a thousand dollars apiece.
  10. (intransitive) Of stitches or stitched clothing, to unravel.
    My stocking is running.
  11. To pursue in thought; to carry in contemplation.
    • 1692, Robert South, “Discourse I. The creation of man in God’s image”, in Discourses on Various Subjects and Occasions[4], published 1827, page 1:
      To run the world back to its first original and infancy, and, as it were, to view nature in its cradle,
    • 1695, Jeremy Collier, “A Thought”, in Miscellanies upon Moral Subjects by Jeremy Collier[5], page 88:
      Methinks, if it might be, I would gladly understand the Formation of a Soul, run it up to its Punctum Saliens, and see it beat the first conscious Pulse.
  12. To cause to enter; to thrust.
    to run a sword into or through the body; to run a nail into one's foot
    • 1814, Sir Walter Scott, Waverly:
      “You run your head into the lion's mouth,” answered Mac-Ivor.
    • 1844, Charles Dickens, The Life and Adventures of Martin Chuzzlewit:
      With that he took off his great-coat, and having run his fingers through his hair, thrust one hand gently in the bosom of his waistcoat
    • 1977, Agatha Christie, chapter 4, in An Autobiography, part II, London: Collins, →ISBN:
      There was also hairdressing: hairdressing, too, really was hairdressing in those times — no running a comb through it and that was that. It was curled, frizzed, waved, put in curlers overnight, waved with hot tongs; [].
    • For more examples of usage of this term, see Citations:run.
  13. To drive or force; to cause, or permit, to be driven.
    • Bible, Acts xxvii. 41
      They ran the ship aground.
    • 1691, John Ray, The Wisdom of God Manifested in the Works of the Creation:
      [] besides all this, a talkative person must needs be impertinent, and speak many idle words, and so render himself burdensome and odious to Company, and may perchance run himself upon great Inconveniences, by blabbing out his own or other’s Secrets;
    • 1706, John Locke, Of the Conduct of the Understanding[6], Section 24. Partiality:
      [] and others, accustomed to retired speculations, run natural philosophy into metaphysical notions and the abstract generalities of logic ;
  14. To cause to be drawn; to mark out; to indicate; to determine.
    to run a line
  15. To encounter or incur (a danger or risk).
    to run the risk of losing one's life
    • (Can we date this quote by Francis Bacon and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
      He runneth two dangers.
  16. To put at hazard; to venture; to risk.
    • (Can we date this quote by Edward_Hyde,_1st_Earl_of_Clarendon and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
      He would himself be in the Highlands to receive them, and run his fortune with them.
  17. To tease with sarcasms and ridicule.
  18. To sew (a seam) by passing the needle through material in a continuous line, generally taking a series of stitches on the needle at the same time.
  19. To control or have precedence in a card game.
    Every three or four hands he would run the table.
  20. To be in form thus, as a combination of words.
    • 1722 [1647], Robert Sanderson, Thomas Lewis, transl., A Preservative Against Schism and Rebellion, in the Most Trying Times[7], volume 1, translation of De juramenti promissorii obligatione, page 355:
      Which Sovereignity, with us, so undoubtedly resideth in the Person of the King, that his ordinary style runnethOur Sovereign Lord the King
    • 1922, Ben Travers, chapter 5, in A Cuckoo in the Nest[8]:
      The departure was not unduly prolonged. In the road Mr. Love and the driver favoured the company with a brief chanty running: “Got it?—No, I ain't, 'old on,—Got it? Got it?—No, 'old on sir.”
    • For more examples of usage of this term, see Citations:run.
  21. (archaic) To be popularly known; to be generally received.
    • c. 1685, William Temple, Upon the Gardens of Epicurus[9], published 1908, page 27:
      [] great captains, and even consular men, who first brought them over, took pride in giving them their own names (by which they run a great while in Rome)
    • (Can we date this quote by Richard Knolles and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
      Neither was he ignorant what report ran of himself.
  22. To have growth or development.
    Boys and girls run up rapidly.
    • (Can we date this quote by John Mortimer and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
      if the richness of the ground cause turnips to run to leaves
  23. To tend, as to an effect or consequence; to incline.
    • (Can we date this quote by Francis Bacon and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
      A man's nature runs either to herbs or weeds.
    • 1708, Jonathan Swift, “The Sentiments of a Church-of-England Man with respect to Religion and Government”, in The Works of Dr. Jonathan Swift, published 1757, page 235:
      It hath been observed, that the temperate climates usually run into moderate governments, and the extremes into despotic power.
  24. To have a legal course; to be attached; to continue in force, effect, or operation; to follow; to go in company.
    Certain covenants run with the land.
    • (Can we date this quote by Sir Josiah Child and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
      Customs run only upon our goods imported or exported, and that but once for all; whereas interest runs as well upon our ships as goods, and must be yearly paid.
  25. To encounter or suffer (a particular, usually bad, fate or misfortune).
    • 1748, Samuel Richardson, Clarissa, I.8:
      Don't let me run the fate of all who show indulgence to your sex […].
  26. (golf) To strike (the ball) in such a way as to cause it to run along the ground, as when approaching a hole.
  27. (video games, rare) To speedrun.

SynonymsEdit

The terms below need to be checked and allocated to the definitions (senses) of the headword above. Each term should appear in the sense for which it is appropriate. Use the templates {{syn|en|...}} or {{ant|en|...}} to add them to the appropriate sense(s).

HyponymsEdit

The terms below need to be checked and allocated to the definitions (senses) of the headword above. Each term should appear in the sense for which it is appropriate. Use the templates {{syn|en|...}} or {{ant|en|...}} to add them to the appropriate sense(s).

Idioms:

Derived termsEdit

single words and compounds

Related termsEdit

TranslationsEdit

NounEdit

 
diagram of stairs, showing the run
 
Stockings with a run (line of stitches that has come undone) in them

run (plural runs)

  1. Act or instance of running, of moving rapidly using the feet.
    I just got back from my morning run.
    • 2012 June 9, Owen Phillips, “Euro 2012: Netherlands 0-1 Denmark”, in BBC Sport[10]:
      Krohn-Dehli took advantage of a lucky bounce of the ball after a battling run on the left flank by Simon Poulsen, dummied two defenders and shot low through goalkeeper Maarten Stekelenburg's legs after 24 minutes.
  2. Act or instance of hurrying (to or from a place) (not necessarily by foot); dash or errand, trip.
    • 1759, N. Tindal, The Continuation of Mr Rapin's History of England, volume 21 (continuation volume 9), page 92:
      [] and on the 18th of January this squadron put to sea. The first place of rendezvous was the boy of port St. Julian, upon the coast of Patagonia, and all accidents were provided against with admirable foresight. Their run to port St. Julian was dangerous []
    I need to make a run to the store.
  3. A pleasure trip.
    Let's go for a run in the car.
    • (Can we date this quote by Charles Dickens and provide title, author's full name, and other details?), Martin Chuzzlewit
      And I think of giving her a run in London for a change.
  4. Flight, instance or period of fleeing.
    • 2006, Tsirk Susej, The Demonic Bible, →ISBN, page 41:
      During his run from the police, he claimed to have a metaphysical experience which can only be described as “having passed through an abyss.”
  5. Migration (of fish).
  6. A group of fish that migrate, or ascend a river for the purpose of spawning.
  7. (skiing, bobsledding) A single trip down a hill, as in skiing and bobsledding.
  8. A (regular) trip or route.
    The bus on the Cherry Street run is always crowded.
  9. The route taken while running or skiing.
    Which run did you do today?
  10. The distance sailed by a ship.
    a good run; a run of fifty miles
    • 1977, Star Wars (film)
      You've never heard of the Millennium Falcon? It's the ship that made the Kessel Run in less than twelve parsecs.
  11. A voyage.
    a run to China
  12. An enclosure for an animal; a track or path along which something can travel.
    He set up a rabbit run.
  13. (Australia, New Zealand) Rural landholding for farming, usually for running sheep, and operated by a runholder.
  14. State of being current; currency; popularity.
    • (Can we date this quote by Addison and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
      It is impossible for detached papers to have a general run, or long continuance, if not diversified with humour.
  15. A continuous period (of time) marked by a trend; a period marked by a continuing trend.
    I’m having a run of bad luck.
    He went to Las Vegas and spent all his money over a three-day run.
    • (Can we date this quote by Burke and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
      They who made their arrangements in the first run of misadventure [] put a seal on their calamities.
    • 2011 June 28, Piers Newbery, “Wimbledon 2011: Sabine Lisicki beats Marion Bartoli”, in BBC Sport[11]:
      German wildcard Sabine Lisicki conquered her nerves to defeat France's Marion Bartoli and take her amazing Wimbledon run into the semi-finals.
    1. A series of tries in a game that were successful.
  16. (card games) A sequence of cards in a suit in a card game.
  17. (music) A rapid passage in music, especially along a scale.
  18. A trial.
    The data got lost, so I'll have to perform another run of the experiment.
  19. A flow of liquid; a leak.
    The constant run of water from the faucet annoys me.
    a run of must in wine-making
    the first run of sap in a maple orchard
  20. (chiefly eastern Midland US, especially Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia) A small creek or part thereof. (Compare Southern US branch and New York and New England brook.)
    The military campaign near that creek was known as "The battle of Bull Run".
  21. A production quantity (such as in a factory).
    Yesterday we did a run of 12,000 units.
    The book’s initial press run will be 5,000 copies.
  22. The period of showing of a play, film, TV series, etc.
    The run of the show lasted two weeks, and we sold out every night.
    It is the last week of our French cinema run.
    • (Can we date this quote by Macaulay and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
      A canting, mawkish play [] had an immense run.
  23. A quick pace, faster than a walk.
    He broke into a run.
    1. (of horses) A fast gallop.
  24. A sudden series of demands on a bank or other financial institution, especially characterised by great withdrawals.
    Financial insecurity led to a run on the banks, as customers feared for the security of their savings.
  25. Any sudden large demand for something.
    There was a run on Christmas presents.
  26. The top of a step on a staircase, also called a tread, as opposed to the rise.
  27. The horizontal length of a set of stairs
  28. A standard or unexceptional group or category.
    He stood out from the usual run of applicants.
  29. (baseball) The act of a runner making it around all the bases and over home plate; the point scored for this.
  30. (cricket) The act of passing from one wicket to another; the point scored for this.
  31. (American football) A gain of a (specified) distance; a running play.
    [] one of the greatest runs of all time.
    • 2003, Jack Seibold, Spartan Sports Encyclopedia, page 592:
      Aaron Roberts added an insurance touchdown on a one-yard run.
  32. A line of knit stitches that have unravelled, particularly in a nylon stocking.
    I have a run in my stocking.
  33. (nautical) The stern of the underwater body of a ship from where it begins to curve upward and inward.
  34. (construction) Horizontal dimension of a slope.
  35. (mining) The horizontal distance to which a drift may be carried, either by licence of the proprietor of a mine or by the nature of the formation; also, the direction which a vein of ore or other substance takes.
  36. A pair or set of millstones.
  37. (mathematics, computing) The execution of a program or model
    This morning's run of the SHIPS statistical model gave Hurricane Priscilla a 74% chance of gaining at least 30 knots of intensity in 24 hours, reconfirmed by the HMON and GFS dynamical models.
  38. (video games) A playthrough.
    This was my first successful run without losing any health.
  39. (slang) A period of extended (usually daily) drug use.
    • 1964 : Heroin by The Velvet Underground
      And I'll tell ya, things aren't quite the same / When I'm rushing on my run.
    • 1975, Lloyd Y. Young, Mary Anne Koda-Kimble, Brian S. Katcher, Applied Therapeutics for Clinical Pharmacists
      Frank Fixwell, a 25 year-old male, has been on a heroin "run" (daily use) for the past two years.
    • 1977, Richard P. Rettig, Manual J. Torres, Gerald R. Garrett, Manny: a criminal-addict's story, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) →ISBN
      I was hooked on dope, and hooked bad, during this whole period, but I was also hooked behind robbery. When you're on a heroin run, you stay loaded so long as you can score.
    • 2001, Robin J. Harman, Handbook of Pharmacy Health Education, Pharmaceutical Press →ISBN, page 172
      This can develop quite quickly (over a matter of hours) during a cocaine run or when cocaine use becomes a daily habit.
    • 2010, Robert DuPont, The Selfish Brain: Learning from Addiction, Hazelden Publishing →ISBN, page 158
      DA depletion leads to the crash that characteristically ends a cocaine run.
  40. (golf) The movement communicated to a golf ball by running it.
  41. (golf) The distance a ball travels after touching the ground from a stroke.
  42. (video games, rare) An attempt at a game, especially a speedrun.
  43. Unrestricted use. Only used in have the run of.
    He can have the run of the house.

SynonymsEdit

AntonymsEdit

  • (horizontal part of a step): rise, riser
  • (horizontal distance of a set of stairs): rise

Derived termsEdit

TranslationsEdit

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.

See alsoEdit

AdjectiveEdit

run (not comparable)

  1. In a liquid state; melted or molten.
    Put some run butter on the vegetables.
    • 1921, L. W. Ferris, H. W. Redfield and W. R. North, The Volatile Acids and the Volatile Oxidizable Substances of Cream and Experimental Butter, in the Journal of Dairy Science, volume 4 (1921), page 522:
      Samples of the regular run butter were sealed in 1 pound tins and sent to Washington, where the butter was scored and examined.
  2. Cast in a mould.
    • 1735, Thomas Frankz, A tour through France, Flanders, and Germany: in a letter to Robert Savil, page 18:
      [] the Sides are generally made of Holland's Tiles, or Plates of run Iron, ornamented variously as Fancy dictates, []
    • 1833, The Cabinet Cyclopaedia: A treatise on the progressive improvement and present state of the Manufactures in Metal, volume 2, Iron and Steel (printed in London), page 314:
      Vast quantities are cast in sand moulds, with that kind of run steel which is so largely used in the production of common table-knives and forks.
    • c. 1839, (Richard of Raindale, The Plan of my House vindicated, quoted by) T. T. B. in the Dwelling of Richard of Raindale, King of the Moors, published in The Mirror, number 966, 7 September 1839, page 153:
      For making tea I have a kettle,
      Besides a pan made of run metal;
      An old arm-chair, in which I sit well —
      The back is round.
  3. Exhausted; depleted (especially with "down" or "out").
  4. (of a zoology) Travelled, migrated; having made a migration or a spawning run.
    • 1889, Henry Cholmondeley-Pennell, Fishing: Salmon and Trout, fifth edition, page 185:
      The temperature of the water is consequently much higher than in either England or Scotland, and many newly run salmon will be found in early spring in the upper waters of Irish rivers where obstructions exist.
    • 1986, Arthur Oglesby, Fly fishing for salmon and sea trout, page 15:
      It may be very much a metallic appearance as opposed to the silver freshness of a recently run salmon.
    • 2005, Rod Sutterby, Malcolm Greenhalgh, Atlantic Salmon: An Illustrated Natural History, page 86:
      Thus, on almost any day of the year, a fresh-run salmon may be caught legally somewhere in the British Isles.
  5. Smuggled.
    run brandy

VerbEdit

run

  1. past participle of rin

AnagramsEdit


DutchEdit

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

run

  1. first-person singular present indicative of runnen
  2. imperative of runnen

GothicEdit

RomanizationEdit

run

  1. Romanization of 𐍂𐌿𐌽

MandarinEdit

RomanizationEdit

run

  1. Nonstandard spelling of rún.
  2. Nonstandard spelling of rùn.

Usage notesEdit

  • English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

NormanEdit

EtymologyEdit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

NounEdit

run m (plural runs)

  1. (nautical) beam (of a ship)

Old EnglishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Germanic *rūnō. Cognate with the Old Saxon rūna, Old High German rūna (German Raun), Old Norse rún, and Gothic 𐍂𐌿𐌽𐌰 (runa).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

rūn f

  1. mystery, secret
    rūne healdan
    to keep a secret
  2. advice
  3. rune, letter
  4. writing

DeclensionEdit

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

  • Middle English: roun

See alsoEdit


PolishEdit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

run n

  1. genitive plural of runo

NounEdit

run f

  1. genitive plural of runa

Further readingEdit

  • run in Polish dictionaries at PWN

VietnameseEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Vietic *-ruːn.

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

run (, , , 𢹈)

  1. to tremble, to shiver (due to cold)

Derived termsEdit

Derived terms

Related termsEdit

  • rung (to shake)