U+96F7, 雷
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-96F7

[U+96F6]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+96F8]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 173, +5, 13 strokes, cangjie input 一月田 (MBW), four-corner 10603, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1372, character 14
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 42245
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1881, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 4060, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+96F7

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms
 

𡈶
𩇓 ancient
𤴐 ancient
𩂩 ancient

𡈶
𩇓 ancient
𤴐 ancient
𩂩 ancient
𤳳 ancient
ancient
𩄣 ancient
ancient
ancient
𤴑 ancient

Glyph originEdit

Ancient simplification of , which was a phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ruːl): semantic (rain) + phonetic (OC *ruːl).

EtymologyEdit

The Min Bei initial s- may be due to the loss of a pre-initial which might have been a velar considering dialect forms in Henan, Hebei and Shanxi, e.g. Taiyuan Jin 忽雷 (hueh4 lui1) (Schuessler, 2007).

Perhaps from Sino-Tibetan. Compare Mizo râwl (voice; cry (of an animal); sound), Tibetan ཁྲོལ (khrol).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • lô - literary;
  • sô - vernacular.
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • lài - vernacular;
    • lòi - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (37)
    Final () (42)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /luʌi/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /luoi/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /luɒi/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /lwəj/
    Li
    Rong
    /luᴀi/
    Wang
    Li
    /luɒi/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /luɑ̆i/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    léi
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    leoi4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    léi
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ lwoj ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.rˁuj/
    English thunder

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 7707
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ruːl/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. lightning
      /   ―  léizhēn  ―  lightning rod
      /   ―  léi  ―  lightning strike
      1. thunder; sound caused by lightning
        電閃 / 电闪  ―  diànshǎnléimíng  ―  thunderstormy
    2. (military, weaponry, in compounds) explosive device
      /   ―  léi  ―  torpedo
        ―  shǒuléi  ―  grenade
      1. mine; land mine or naval mine
        /   ―  léi  ―  minefield
          ―  páiléi  ―  to demine
    3. (colloquial) astonishment; surprise
      內容 / 内容  ―  nèiróng yǒu léi  ―  (slang) shocking content ahead
    4. Short for 雷州 (Léizhōu, “Leizhou”).
      /   ―  léi  ―  Leizhou opera
    5. A surname.

    SynonymsEdit

    Usage notesEdit

    • does not clearly distinguish between "lightning" and "thunder". To clarify, use 閃電闪电 (shǎndiàn, “lightning”) or 雷聲雷声 (léishēng, “thunder”).
    • Not all military explosive device are called . Another commonly used name is (tán), which is more often used with propelled explosive weapons.

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. thunder, lightning bolt

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
     
    (kaminari, kannari, ikazuchi, narukami, rai): thunder and lightning.
    Kanji in this term
    かみなり
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    Originally a compound of (kami, god, spirit) +‎ 鳴り (nari, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 鳴る (naru), “to cry out, to call).[1][2][3]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (かみなり) (kaminari

    1. thunder (loud sound caused by expansion of rapidly heated air)
      Synonym: 雷鳴 (raimei)
    2. lightning, thunderbolt
      • 1999 February 4, “サンダー・キッズ [Thunder Kid]”, in Vol.1, Konami:
        (かみなり)をからだの中に(ちく)(でん)させている。()かせたときは()(けん)
        Kaminari o karada no naka ni chikuden saseteiru. Nakaseta toki wa kiken.
        He stores lightning inside his body. He’s very dangerous when he cries.
      • 1999 March 1, “エレキッズ [Elekid]”, in BOOSTER 1, Konami:
        (かみなり)(こう)(げき)()(がい)(つよ)い。(あま)()ると(かん)(でん)するぞ。
        Kaminarikōgeki wa igai to tsuyoi. Amaku miru to kanden suru zo.
        It has a surprisingly powerful lightning attack. However, its electrocution tends to be underestimated.
      Synonyms: , 稲妻 (inazuma); 稲光 (inabikari); 落雷 (rakurai)
    3. thunder god
    Usage notesEdit

    This kaminari reading is the most common reading when used as a standalone noun.

    Derived termsEdit
    IdiomsEdit
    See alsoEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    かんなり
    Grade: S
    Irregular

    /kaminari//kamʉnari//kanːari/

    Shift in pronunciation from kaminari above.[1][3]

    PronunciationEdit

    • (Irregular reading)

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (かんなり) (kannari

    1. (rare, archaic) Same as かみなり (kaminari) above

    Derived termsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (かんなり) (Kannari

    1. (rare, archaic) Short for 雷鳴の壺 (Kannari no Tsubo): one of the five buildings in the imperial palace in 平安京 (Heian-kyō), modern-day Kyoto

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    いかずち
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    ⟨ika tu ti⟩⟨ikaduti⟩/ikad͡ʑut͡ɕi//ikaʑut͡ɕi/

    From Old Japanese.

    Originally a compound of (ika, sternness, terribleness, imposingness) +‎ (tsu, Old Japanese possessive particle) +‎ (chi, spirit, force, essence).[1][2][3]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (いかずち) (ikazuchiいかづち (ikaduti)?

    1. (archaic) thunder
    2. (obsolete) something ferocious and imposing, a demon or devil

    Proper nounEdit

    (いかずち) (Ikazuchiいかづち (ikaduti)?

    1. a surname

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    なるかみ
    Grade: S
    Irregular

    Compound of 鳴る (naru, to cry out, to call) +‎ (kami, god, spirit).[1][3]

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (なるかみ) (narukami

    1. (rare) thunder (the sound)
    2. (rare) lightning, a thunderbolt

    Proper nounEdit

    (なるかみ) (Narukami

    1. one of the eighteen styles of kabuki
      This sense is more commonly spelled as 鳴神.

    Etymology 5Edit

    Kanji in this term
    らい
    Grade: S
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC luʌi).

    Compare modern Mandarin (léi) and Cantonese (lûi).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (らい) (rai

    1. a thunder
    2. lightning
    Usage notesEdit

    Used more in compounds than on its own. As a standalone noun, the kaminari reading is the most common.

    Derived termsEdit

    AffixEdit

    (らい) (rai

    1. thunder
    2. thunderous, noisy
    3. famous
    4. large, explosive weapon

    Proper nounEdit

    (らい) (Rai

    1. a female given name
    2. a surname

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    4. 4.0 4.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KikaiEdit

    KanjiEdit

    ReadingsEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana はんまい, rōmaji hanmai)

    1. thunder

    ReferencesEdit


    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC luʌi). Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: lwoy) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 우레 (ure roe), South Korea 우레 (ure noe))

    1. Hanja form? of / (thunder; lightning bolt).
      Synonym: ( (jin))

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with Japanese (kaminari).

    NounEdit

    (hiragana かんない, rōmaji kannai)

    1. thunder

    ReferencesEdit


    Old JapaneseEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Originally a compound of (ika, sternness, terribleness, imposingness) +‎ (tu, possessive particle) +‎ (ti, spirit, force, essence).[1][2][3]

    NounEdit

    (ikaduti) (kana いかづち)

    1. thunder
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 3, poem 235, first variant), text here
        皇者神二四座者天雲之之上尓廬為流鴨
        opoki1mi1 pa kami2 ni si maseba amakumo no2 ikaduti no2 upe2 ni iporaseru ka mo
        Since our sovereign is a god, she builds a temporary palace above the thunder in the heavenly clouds.[4]
    2. demon or devil

    DescendantsEdit

    • Japanese: (ikazuchi)

    See alsoEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
    3. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    4. ^ Motoori Norinaga (2007) , Michael F. Marra, editor, The Poetics of Motoori Norinaga: A Hermeneutical Journey, University of Hawaii Press, →ISBN, page 230

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: lôi

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.