U+96F7, 雷
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-96F7

[U+96F6]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+96F8]
U+F949, 雷
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F949

[U+F948]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F94A]

Translingual edit

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 173, +5, 13 strokes, cangjie input 一月田 (MBW), four-corner 10603, composition )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1372, character 14
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 42245
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1881, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 4060, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+96F7

Chinese edit

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms
 

𡈶
𩇓 ancient
𤴐 ancient
𩂩 ancient

𡈶
𩇓 ancient
𤴐 ancient
𩂩 ancient
𤳳 ancient
ancient
𩄣 ancient
ancient
ancient
𤴑 ancient

Glyph origin edit

Ancient simplification of , which was a phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *ruːl): semantic (rain) + phonetic (OC *ruːl).

Etymology edit

The Min Bei initial s- may be due to the loss of a pre-initial which might have been a velar considering dialect forms in Henan, Hebei and Shanxi, e.g. Taiyuan Jin 忽雷 (hueh4 lui1) (Schuessler, 2007).

Perhaps from Sino-Tibetan. Compare Mizo râwl (voice; cry (of an animal); sound), Tibetan ཁྲོལ (khrol).

"spoiler"
Clipping of 捏他八雷 (niētābāléi), from Japanese ネタバレ (netabare).
"loyalty"
By homophony of (ji6, two) and (ji6, spirit of loyalty).

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • lô - literary;
  • sô - vernacular.
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • lài - vernacular;
    • lòi - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (37)
    Final () (42)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Baxter lwoj
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /luʌi/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /luoi/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /luɒi/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /lwəj/
    Li
    Rong
    /luᴀi/
    Wang
    Li
    /luɒi/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /luɑ̆i/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    léi
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    leoi4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    léi
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ lwoj ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.rˁuj/
    English thunder

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 7707
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ruːl/

    Definitions edit

    1. lightning
        ―  léizhēn  ―  lightning rod
        ―  léi  ―  lightning strike
      1. thunder; sound caused by lightning
        電閃电闪  ―  diànshǎnléimíng  ―  thunderstormy
    2. (military, weaponry, in compounds) explosive device
        ―  léi  ―  torpedo
        ―  shǒuléi  ―  grenade
      1. mine; land mine or naval mine
          ―  léi  ―  minefield
          ―  páiléi  ―  to demine
    3. (colloquial) to astonish; to shock
    4. (colloquial) astonishment; surprise
      內容内容  ―  nèiróng yǒu léi  ―  (slang) shocking content ahead
    5. Short for 雷州 (Léizhōu, “Leizhou”).
        ―  léi  ―  Leizhou opera
    6. (neologism) burdensome
    7. (neologism) to be burden to others
    8. (Taiwan, neologism) plot spoiler
      Synonyms: 捏他 (niētā), 劇透剧透 (jùtòu)
    9. (Hong Kong Cantonese, triad slang) two
    10. (Hong Kong Cantonese, slang) loyalty
    11. a surname

    Synonyms edit

    Usage notes edit

    • (léi) does not clearly distinguish between "lightning" and "thunder". To clarify, use 閃電闪电 (shǎndiàn, “lightning”) or 雷聲雷声 (léishēng, “thunder”).
    • Not all military explosive devices are called (léi). Another commonly used name is (dàn), which is more often used with propelled explosive weapons.

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. thunder, lightning bolt

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 1 edit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    English Wikipedia has articles on:
    Wikipedia Wikipedia
     
    (kaminari, kannari, ikazuchi, narukami, rai): thunder and lightning.
    Kanji in this term
    かみなり
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    Originally a compound of (かみ) (kami, god, spirit) + () (nari, (れん)(よう)(けい) (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of the verb () (naru)).[1][2][3]

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (かみなり) (kaminari

    1. thunder (loud sound caused by expansion of rapidly heated air)
      Synonym: 雷鳴 (raimei)
    2. lightning, thunderbolt
      Synonyms: , 稲妻 (inazuma); 稲光 (inabikari); 落雷 (rakurai)
      • 1999 February 4, “サンダー・キッズ [Thunder Kid]”, in Vol.1, Konami:
        (かみなり)をからだの(なか)(ちく)(でん)させている。()かせたときは()(けん)
        Kaminari o karada no naka ni chikuden saseteiru. Nakaseta toki wa kiken.
        He stores lightning inside his body. He’s very dangerous when he cries.
      • 1999 March 1, “エレキッズ [Elekid]”, in BOOSTER 1, Konami:
        (かみなり)(こう)(げき)()(がい)(つよ)い。(あま)()ると(かん)(でん)するぞ。
        Kaminarikōgeki wa igai to tsuyoi. Amaku miru to kanden suru zo.
        It has a surprisingly powerful lightning attack. However, its electrocution tends to be underestimated.
    3. thunder god
    Usage notes edit

    This kaminari reading is the most common reading when used as a standalone noun.

    Derived terms edit
    Idioms edit
    See also edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term
    かんなり
    Grade: S
    irregular
    Alternative spellings
    雷鳴り
    雷鳴

    /kaminari//kamʉnari//kanːari/

    Shift in pronunciation from kaminari above.[1][3]

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (かんなり) (kannari

    1. (rare, archaic) Same as かみなり (kaminari) above
    Derived terms edit

    Proper noun edit

    (かんなり) (Kannari

    1. (rare, archaic) Short for 雷鳴の壺 (Kannari no Tsubo): one of the five buildings in the imperial palace in 平安京 (Heian-kyō), modern-day Kyoto

    Etymology 3 edit

    Kanji in this term
    いかずち
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    ⟨ika tu ti⟩⟨ikaduti⟩/ikad͡ʑut͡ɕi//ikaʑut͡ɕi/

    From Old Japanese.

    Originally a compound of (いか) (ika, sternness, terribleness, imposingness) + (tsu, Old Japanese possessive particle) + () (chi, spirit, force, essence).[1][2][3]

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (いかずち) (ikazuchiいかづち (ikaduti)?

    1. (archaic) thunder
    2. (obsolete) something ferocious and imposing, a demon or devil

    Proper noun edit

    (いかずち) (Ikazuchiいかづち (ikaduti)?

    1. a surname

    Etymology 4 edit

    Kanji in this term
    なるかみ
    Grade: S
    irregular
    Alternative spellings
    鳴る神
    鳴神

    Compound of () (naru, to cry out, to call) + (かみ) (kami, god, spirit).[1][3]

    Pronunciation edit

    • IPA(key): [na̠ɾɯ̟ᵝka̠mʲi]

    Noun edit

    (なるかみ) (narukami

    1. (rare) thunder (the sound)
    2. (rare) lightning, a thunderbolt

    Proper noun edit

    (なるかみ) (Narukami

    1. one of the eighteen styles of kabuki
      This sense is more commonly spelled as 鳴神.

    Etymology 5 edit

    Kanji in this term
    らい
    Grade: S
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC lwoj).

    Compare modern Mandarin (léi) and Cantonese (leoi4).

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (らい) (rai

    1. a thunder
    2. lightning
    Usage notes edit

    Used more in compounds than on its own. As a standalone noun, the kaminari reading is the most common.

    Derived terms edit

    Affix edit

    (らい) (rai

    1. thunder
    2. thunderous, noisy
    3. famous
    4. large, explosive weapon

    Proper noun edit

    (らい) (Rai

    1. a female given name
    2. a surname

    References edit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    4. 4.0 4.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Kikai edit

    Kanji edit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Noun edit

    (はんまい) (hanmai

    1. thunder

    References edit

    Korean edit

    Etymology edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC lwoj). Recorded as Middle Korean (lwoy) (Yale: lwoy) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Hanja edit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 우레 (ure roe), South Korea 우레 (ure noe))

    1. Hanja form? of / (thunder; lightning bolt).
      Synonym: ( (jin))

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Okinawan edit

    Kanji edit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Etymology edit

    Cognate with Japanese (kaminari).

    Noun edit

    (かんない) (kannai

    1. thunder

    References edit

    Old Japanese edit

    Etymology edit

    Originally a compound of (ika, sternness, terribleness, imposingness) +‎ (tu, possessive particle) +‎ (ti, spirit, force, essence).[1][2][3]

    Noun edit

    (ikaduti) (kana いかづち)

    1. thunder
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū, (book 3, poem 235, first variant):
        , text here
        皇者神二四座者天雲之之上尓廬為流鴨
        opoki1mi1 pa kami2 ni si maseba amakumo no2 ikaduti no2 upe2 ni iporaseru ka mo
        Since our sovereign is a god, she builds a temporary palace above the thunder in the heavenly clouds.[4]
    2. demon or devil

    Descendants edit

    • Japanese: (ikazuchi)

    See also edit

    References edit

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
    3. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    4. ^ Motoori Norinaga (2007), Michael F. Marra, editor, The Poetics of Motoori Norinaga: A Hermeneutical Journey, University of Hawaii Press, →ISBN, page 230

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Nôm readings: lôi

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.