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U+98A8, 風
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-98A8

[U+98A7]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+98A9]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 182 +0, 9 strokes, cangjie input 竹弓竹中戈 (HNHLI) or 竹弓一中戈 (HNMLI), four-corner 77210, composition𠘨)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1411, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 43756
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1930, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4480, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+98A8

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
alt. forms 𠙊

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
         
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*b·ruːm
*b·uːm
*pʰomʔ
*pʰoms, *bum
*bom
*bom, *boms
*bom, *boms
*bomʔ
*bloms, *bum
*boːŋ, *bum
*plum, *plums
*plum
*plum
*plum
*plum
*plum
*plum
*plums
*blum
*blum
*bums

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *plum, *plums): phonetic  (OC *bom) + semantic  (insects). Ancient Chinese thought insects appear with wind. (Insects refer to any kind of animal, such as tigers (大蟲)).

EtymologyEdit

Unknown. Pronunciations 1 and 2 are cognate, and pronunciation 3 appears to be cognate as well. The Old Chinese form for "wind" was *prəm, which is thought to be related to Proto-Tai *C̬.lɯmᴬ (wind), Korean 바람 (baram, wind) and Tibetan རླུང (rlung, wind). This word has a wide range of extended meanings, and interestingly many of these have exact parallels in the Korean cognate. Compare Chinese 風流, 風騷 - Korean 바람둥이 (baramdung-i).

Cognate with:

  • 飛廉 (OC *pɯl ɡ·rem, “wind god”)
  • 蜚蠊 (OC *pɯlʔ/bɯls ɡ·rem, “cockroach”) (note the preservation of the -r- infix in Old Chinese through disyllabification, also (OC *b·ruːm), (OC *b·uːm))
  • (OC *plum, “mad, insane”)
  • (OC *plums, “to mock, to advise”)
  • (OC *bom, *boms, “sail”)

The development from Old Chinese to Middle Chinese was irregular, driven by dissimilation of the initial and coda bilabial consonants.

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • Quanzhou:
    • hoang - vernacular;
    • hong - literary.
Note:
  • huang1 - vernacular;
  • hong1 - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /fəŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /fəŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /fəŋ²¹/
Jinan /fəŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /fəŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /fəŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /fəŋ²¹/
Xining /fə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /fəŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /fə̃n³¹/
Ürümqi /fɤŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /foŋ⁵⁵/
Chengdu /foŋ⁵⁵/
Guiyang /foŋ⁵⁵/
Kunming /foŋ/
Nanjing /fən³¹/
Hefei /fəŋ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /fəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /xuŋ¹³/
Hohhot /fə̃ŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /foŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /foŋ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /foŋ³³/
Wenzhou /hoŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /fʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /fan¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /xoŋ³³/
Xiangtan /ɸən³³/
Gan Nanchang /fuŋ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /fuŋ⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /fuŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /foŋ⁵³/
Nanning /fuŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /fuŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hɔŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /huŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xɔŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /hoŋ³³/
/huaŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /foŋ²³/
/huaŋ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (1)
Final () (2)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/pɨuŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/piuŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/piuŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/puwŋ/
Li
Rong
/piuŋ/
Wang
Li
/pĭuŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/pi̯uŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
fēng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
fēng
Middle
Chinese
‹ pjuwng ›
Old
Chinese
/*prəm/
English wind (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 2921
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*plum/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. wind
  2. air; atmosphere
  3. general mood; custom
  4. demeanour
  5. cultivation; moralisation
  6. style; manner
  7. conduct; discipline
  8. power
  9. news; information
  10. love; affection; to become sexually attracted; to copulate
  11. dissolute; promiscuous
  12. ungrounded; baseless
  13. Alternative form of (fēng, “mad; insane”).
  14. (traditional Chinese medicine) One of the causes of diseases in traditional Chinese medicine.
  15. epilepsy
  16. A surname​. Feng; Fung

CompoundsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese:  (ふう) ()
  • Korean: (, pung)
  • Vietnamese: phong ()

Pronunciation 2Edit


Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (1)
Final () (2)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/pɨuŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/piuŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/piuŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/puwŋH/
Li
Rong
/piuŋH/
Wang
Li
/pĭuŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/pi̯uŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
fèng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
fèng
Middle
Chinese
‹ pjuwngH ›
Old
Chinese
/*prəm-s/
English blow; criticize

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 2929
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*plums/
Notes

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to blow; to fan
  2. to influence; to reform a misguided person through persuasion
    • /   ―  fēngmín  ―  to cultivate the masses

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 3Edit

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Alternative form of (fěng, “to mock; to ridicule; to satire”).
  2. Alternative form of (fěng, “to advise in mild tone”).

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
かぜ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana かぜ, rōmaji kaze)

  1. a movement of air; a wind
     (すず)しい (かぜ) ()
    Suzushii kaze ga fuku.
    A cool wind blows.
  2. airs
  3. style

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
ふう
Grade: 2
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (pjuwng, wind).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana ふう, rōmaji )

  1. style
    中国 (ちゅうごく) (ふう)
    Chūgoku-
    China-style
    そんな (ふう) ()ってくれてありがとう
    Sonna ni ittekurete arigatō.
    Thank you for telling me that.
    (literally, “Thank you for telling me that in that way.”)

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
ふり
Grade: 2
Irregular

The 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 振る (furu, to swing).

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana ふり, rōmaji furi)

  1. swing

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(pung)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): (revised: pung, McCune-Reischauer: p'ung, Yale: phung)
    • Name (hangeul): 바람
  1. wind, air, draft

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(phong)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.