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U+98A8, 風
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-98A8

[U+98A7]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+98A9]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 182, +0, 9 strokes, cangjie input 竹弓竹中戈 (HNHLI) or 竹弓一中戈 (HNMLI), four-corner 77210, composition𠘨)

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1411, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 43756
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1930, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4480, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+98A8

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
variant forms 𠙊

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
             
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*b·ruːm
*b·uːm
*pʰomʔ
*pʰoms, *bum
*bom
*bom, *boms
*bom, *boms
*bomʔ
*bloms, *bum
*boːŋ, *bum
*plum, *plums
*plum
*plum
*plum
*plum
*plum
*plum
*plums
*blum
*blum
*bums

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *plum, *plums): phonetic  (OC *bom) + semantic  (insects). Ancient Chinese thought insects appear with wind. (Insects refer to any kind of animal, such as tigers (大蟲)).

In the oracle bone script, the character (OC *bums, “male fenghuang”) was phonetically borrowed to represent (OC *plum, *plums). The right part of the bronze inscription of the character consists of phonetic (OC *bom) at the top, and three parts depicting the fur on the tail of the male fenghuang at the bottom. Subsequent forms of are based on the right part of its bronze inscription, with two of the three threads of "fur" removed for simplification. The in the Chu script and Qin script of was likely a result of further simplification of the "fur". Shuowen misinterpreted the character by associating it with insects. (Li (2012))

EtymologyEdit

Possibly from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *buŋ (wind) (STEDT). Velar nasal final , restored later in Middle Chinese (Schuessler, 2007), is preserved in cognates like Proto-Central Naga *m-puŋ, Jingpho mabung, nbung, Drung nvmbeung.

Pronunciations 1, 2, and 3 are all cognates; with both 2 and 3 evolving from *prəm-s, exoactive (with causative suffix -s) of *prəm (Schuessler, 2007). It is unclear how Old Chinese *prəm is related to Tibetan རླུང (rlung) and Proto-Tai *C̬.lɯmᴬ.

Korean 바람 (baram) was borrowed from Chinese (Zhao, 2007). This word has a wide range of extended meanings, and interestingly many of these have exact parallels in the Korean borrowed item. Compare Chinese 風流 and 風騷 with Korean 바람둥이 (baramdung-i).

Cognate with:

  • 飛廉 (OC *pɯl ɡ·rem, “wind god”)
  • 蜚蠊 (OC *pɯlʔ/bɯls ɡ·rem, “cockroach”) (note the preservation of the -r- infix in Old Chinese through disyllabification, also (OC *b·ruːm), (OC *b·uːm))
  • (OC *plum, “mad, insane”)
  • (OC *plums, “to mock, to advise”)
  • (OC *bom, *boms, “sail”)

The development from Old Chinese to Middle Chinese was irregular, driven by dissimilation of the initial and coda bilabial consonants.

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • Quanzhou:
    • hoang - vernacular;
    • hong - literary.
  • (Teochew)
  • Note:
    • huang1 - vernacular;
    • hong1 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /fəŋ⁵⁵/
    Harbin /fəŋ⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /fəŋ²¹/
    Jinan /fəŋ²¹³/
    Qingdao /fəŋ²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /fəŋ²⁴/
    Xi'an /fəŋ²¹/
    Xining /fə̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /fəŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /fə̃n³¹/
    Ürümqi /fɤŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /foŋ⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /foŋ⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /foŋ⁵⁵/
    Kunming /foŋ/
    Nanjing /fən³¹/
    Hefei /fəŋ²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /fəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /xuŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /fə̃ŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /foŋ⁵³/
    Suzhou /foŋ⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /foŋ³³/
    Wenzhou /hoŋ³³/
    Hui Shexian /fʌ̃³¹/
    Tunxi /fan¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /xoŋ³³/
    Xiangtan /ɸən³³/
    Gan Nanchang /fuŋ⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /fuŋ⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /fuŋ²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /foŋ⁵³/
    Nanning /fuŋ⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /fuŋ⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hɔŋ⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /huŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xɔŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /hoŋ³³/
    /huaŋ³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /foŋ²³/
    /huaŋ²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (1)
    Final () (2)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /pɨuŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /piuŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /piuŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /puwŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /piuŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /pĭuŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /pi̯uŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    fēng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    fēng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ pjuwng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*prəm/
    English wind (n.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 2921
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*plum/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. wind
    2. air; atmosphere
    3. general mood; custom
    4. demeanour
    5. cultivation; moralisation
    6. style; manner
    7. conduct; discipline
    8. power
    9. news; information
    10. love; affection; to become sexually attracted; to copulate
    11. dissolute; promiscuous
    12. ungrounded; baseless
    13. Alternative form of (fēng, “mad; insane”).
    14. (traditional Chinese medicine) One of the causes of diseases in traditional Chinese medicine.
    15. epilepsy
    16. A surname​. Feng; Fung

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():

    Pronunciation 2Edit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (1)
    Final () (2)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /pɨuŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /piuŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /piuŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /puwŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /piuŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /pĭuŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /pi̯uŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    fèng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    fèng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ pjuwngH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*prəm-s/
    English blow; criticize

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 2929
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*plums/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to blow; to fan
    2. to influence; to reform a misguided person through persuasion
      • /   ―  fēngmín  ―  to cultivate the masses

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 3Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Alternative form of (fěng, “to mock; to ridicule; to satire”).
    2. Alternative form of (fěng, “to advise in mild tone”).

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. wind
    2. custom, influence
    3. transmission
    4. satire
    5. gossip
    6. Alternative spelling of (): recite
    7. appearance, form, style
    8. taste, charm
    9. poetry, folk song
    10. illness, sickness
    11. drooping

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    かぜ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *kansay.

    Derived from combining form kaza + (i, ancient nominal particle).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana かぜ, rōmaji kaze)

    1. wind (movement of air)
       (すず)しい (かぜ) ()
      Suzushii kaze ga fuku.
      A cool wind blows.
    2. airs
    3. a style
    4. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Shift from Old Japanese (​ti), modern chi, found in some compounds.[1]

    AffixEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji te)

    1. element in compounds related to wind
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ふう
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    /puː//fuː/

    From Middle Chinese (MC pɨuŋ).

    In Old Japanese, this kanji was used to transcribe the 借音 (shakuon) kana of ⟨pu⟩ and ⟨bu⟩ in the Nihon Shoki (720 CE).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ふう, rōmaji )

    1. a style
      中国 (ちゅうごく) (ふう)
      Chūgoku-
      China-style
      そんな (ふう) ()ってくれてありがとう
      Sonna ni ittekurete arigatō.
      Thank you for telling me that.
      (literally, “Thank you for telling me that in that way.”)

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ふり
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    /puri//furi/

    From Old Japanese.

    The 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 振る (furu, to swing).

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ふり, rōmaji furi)

    1. a swing
    2. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    Derived termsEdit

    SuffixEdit

    (hiragana ふり, rōmaji -furi)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 바람 (baram pung))

    1. Hanja form? of (wind).

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (phong)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.