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U+98A8, 風
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-98A8

[U+98A7]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+98A9]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 182, +0, 9 strokes, cangjie input 竹弓竹中戈 (HNHLI) or 竹弓一中戈 (HNMLI), four-corner 77210, composition𠘨)

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1411, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 43756
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1930, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4480, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+98A8

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
alt. forms 𠙊

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
             
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*b·ruːm
*b·uːm
*pʰomʔ
*pʰoms, *bum
*bom
*bom, *boms
*bom, *boms
*bomʔ
*bloms, *bum
*boːŋ, *bum
*plum, *plums
*plum
*plum
*plum
*plum
*plum
*plum
*plums
*blum
*blum
*bums

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *plum, *plums): phonetic  (OC *bom) + semantic  (insects). Ancient Chinese thought insects appear with wind. (Insects refer to any kind of animal, such as tigers (大蟲)).

EtymologyEdit

Unknown. Pronunciations 1 and 2 are cognate, and pronunciation 3 appears to be cognate as well. The Old Chinese form for "wind" was *prəm, which is thought to be related to Proto-Tai *C̬.lɯmᴬ (wind), Korean 바람 (baram, wind) and Tibetan རླུང (rlung, wind). This word has a wide range of extended meanings, and interestingly many of these have exact parallels in the Korean cognate. Compare Chinese 風流, 風騷 - Korean 바람둥이 (baramdung-i).

Cognate with:

  • 飛廉 (OC *pɯl ɡ·rem, “wind god”)
  • 蜚蠊 (OC *pɯlʔ/bɯls ɡ·rem, “cockroach”) (note the preservation of the -r- infix in Old Chinese through disyllabification, also (OC *b·ruːm), (OC *b·uːm))
  • (OC *plum, “mad, insane”)
  • (OC *plums, “to mock, to advise”)
  • (OC *bom, *boms, “sail”)

The development from Old Chinese to Middle Chinese was irregular, driven by dissimilation of the initial and coda bilabial consonants.

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • Quanzhou:
    • hoang - vernacular;
    • hong - literary.
  • (Teochew)
  • Note:
    • huang1 - vernacular;
    • hong1 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /fəŋ⁵⁵/
    Harbin /fəŋ⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /fəŋ²¹/
    Jinan /fəŋ²¹³/
    Qingdao /fəŋ²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /fəŋ²⁴/
    Xi'an /fəŋ²¹/
    Xining /fə̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /fəŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /fə̃n³¹/
    Ürümqi /fɤŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /foŋ⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /foŋ⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /foŋ⁵⁵/
    Kunming /foŋ/
    Nanjing /fən³¹/
    Hefei /fəŋ²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /fəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /xuŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /fə̃ŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /foŋ⁵³/
    Suzhou /foŋ⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /foŋ³³/
    Wenzhou /hoŋ³³/
    Hui Shexian /fʌ̃³¹/
    Tunxi /fan¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /xoŋ³³/
    Xiangtan /ɸən³³/
    Gan Nanchang /fuŋ⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /fuŋ⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /fuŋ²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /foŋ⁵³/
    Nanning /fuŋ⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /fuŋ⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hɔŋ⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /huŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xɔŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /hoŋ³³/
    /huaŋ³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /foŋ²³/
    /huaŋ²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (1)
    Final () (2)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /pɨuŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /piuŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /piuŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /puwŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /piuŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /pĭuŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /pi̯uŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    fēng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    fēng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ pjuwng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*prəm/
    English wind (n.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 2921
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*plum/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. wind
    2. air; atmosphere
    3. general mood; custom
    4. demeanour
    5. cultivation; moralisation
    6. style; manner
    7. conduct; discipline
    8. power
    9. news; information
    10. love; affection; to become sexually attracted; to copulate
    11. dissolute; promiscuous
    12. ungrounded; baseless
    13. Alternative form of (fēng, “mad; insane”).
    14. (traditional Chinese medicine) One of the causes of diseases in traditional Chinese medicine.
    15. epilepsy
    16. A surname​. Feng; Fung

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese:  (ふう) ()
    • Korean: (, pung)
    • Vietnamese: phong ()

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (1)
    Final () (2)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /pɨuŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /piuŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /piuŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /puwŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /piuŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /pĭuŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /pi̯uŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    fèng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    fèng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ pjuwngH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*prəm-s/
    English blow; criticize

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 2929
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*plums/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to blow; to fan
    2. to influence; to reform a misguided person through persuasion
      • /   ―  fēngmín  ―  to cultivate the masses

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 3Edit

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Alternative form of (fěng, “to mock; to ridicule; to satire”).
    2. Alternative form of (fěng, “to advise in mild tone”).

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    かぜ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana かぜ, rōmaji kaze)

    1. a movement of air; a wind
       (すず)しい (かぜ) ()
      Suzushii kaze ga fuku.
      A cool wind blows.
    2. airs
    3. style

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ふう
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (pjuwng, wind).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ふう, rōmaji )

    1. style
      中国 (ちゅうごく) (ふう)
      Chūgoku-
      China-style
      そんな (ふう) ()ってくれてありがとう
      Sonna ni ittekurete arigatō.
      Thank you for telling me that.
      (literally, “Thank you for telling me that in that way.”)

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ふり
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    The 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 振る (furu, to swing).

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ふり, rōmaji furi)

    1. swing

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (pung)

    1. wind, air, draft

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (phong, phông)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.