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See also:
U+9ED1, 黑
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9ED1

[U+9ED0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9ED2]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 203, +0, 12 strokes, cangjie input 田土火 (WGF), four-corner 60331)

  1. Kangxi radical #203, .

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1518, character 36
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 48038
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2051, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4743, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9ED1

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms
𪐗

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
             
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*mrɯɡs
*ʔmrɯːd
*mlɯːɡ
*mlɯːɡ
*mɯːɡ
*hmlɯːɡ
*hmlɯːɡ

Pictogram (象形) – a person () with a tattooed face, depicting penal tattooing (), one of the five punishments of ancient China. In the bronze inscriptions from the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods, dots were sometimes added around , leading Shuowen to erroneously interpret the character as an ideogrammic compound (會意): 𡆧 (chimney) +  (fire; flame) — fire burning under a chimney, causing it to become black from the smoke.

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-maŋ ~ s-mak. Cognate with (OC *mlɯːɡ, “ink”).

The sense of “hack” is a phono-semantic matching of English hack.

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /xei⁵⁵/
Harbin /xei⁴⁴/
Tianjin /xei²¹/
Jinan /xei²¹³/
Qingdao /xe⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /xɛ²⁴/
Xi'an /xei²¹/
Xining /xɨ⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /xɯ¹³/
Lanzhou /xə/
Ürümqi /xei⁴⁴/
Wuhan /xɤ²¹³/
Chengdu /xe³¹/
Guiyang /xɛ²¹/
Kunming /xə³¹/
Nanjing /xəʔ⁵/
Hefei /xɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /xəʔ²/
Pingyao /xʌʔ¹³/
Hohhot /xəʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /həʔ⁵/
Suzhou /həʔ⁵/
Hangzhou /hɑʔ⁵/
Wenzhou /he²¹³/
Hui Shexian /xeʔ²¹/
Tunxi /xə⁵/
Xiang Changsha /xə²⁴/
Xiangtan /hæ²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /hɛʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /het̚¹/
Taoyuan /het̚²²/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hɐk̚⁵/
/hak̚⁵/
Nanning /hɐk̚⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /hɐk̚⁵/
/hak̚⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hik̚³²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /haiʔ²³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xuɛ/
Shantou (Min Nan) /hek̚²/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ɔu²³/ 訓烏

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (32)
Final () (131)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/hək̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/hək̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/xək̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/hək̚/
Li
Rong
/xək̚/
Wang
Li
/xək̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xək̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
he
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
hēi
Middle
Chinese
‹ xok ›
Old
Chinese
/*m̥ˁək/ (dialect *m̥ˁ- > xˁ-)
English black

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 5109
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hmlɯːɡ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. black
      ―  hēi  ―  black color
    帽子  ―  Tā dài zhe hēi màozǐ.  ―  She's wearing a black hat.
  2. dark; darkness
    這麼 / 这么  ―  Zhème hēi, wǒ kàn bù jiàn.  ―  It's so dark; I can't see.
      ―  Tā hěn pà hēi.  ―  She is very afraid of the dark.
  3. evening; night
  4. illegal; clandestine; secret; shady
      ―  hēishì  ―  black market
    /   ―  hēibāng  ―  criminal gang
    名單 / 名单  ―  hēimíngdān  ―  blacklist
  5. (colloquial) to illegally reside (in a country)
  6. sinister; evil
  7. to make fun of; to mock
  8. (computing) to hack
      ―  hēi  ―  hacker
  9. (colloquial) to libel
    有一說一 [MSC, trad.]
    有一说一 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhè jiàn shì, wǒ kě shì yǒu yī shuō yī, bù chuī bù hēi. [Pinyin]
    As for this thing, I say it as it is and don't boast or libel.
    ××一次 [MSC, trad.]
    ××一次 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhè shì × × bèi hēi de zuì cǎn de yī cì. [Pinyin]
    This is the time when **** is libelled the most badly.
  10. one who libels
  11. (by extention) hater
  12. Short for 黑龍江黑龙江 (Hēilóngjiāng, “Heilongjiang province”).

SynonymsEdit

Dialectal synonyms of (“black”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese , , , , ,
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Tianjin
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan , ,
Chengdu ,
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Hong Kong (Kam Tin Weitou)
Macau
Panyu
Huadu (Huashan)
Conghua
Zengcheng ,
Foshan
Nanhai (Shatou)
Shunde
Sanshui
Gaoming (Mingcheng)
Zhongshan (Shiqi)
Zhuhai (Qianshan)
Doumen (Shangheng Tanka)
Doumen
Jiangmen (Baisha)
Xinhui
Taishan
Kaiping (Chikan)
Enping (Niujiang)
Heshan (Yayao)
Dongguan
Bao'an (Shajing)
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang , ,
Hakka Meixian
Huizhou (Huicheng Bendihua)
Dongguan (Qingxi)
Shenzhen (Shatoujiao)
Zhongshan (Nanlang Heshui)
Conghua (Lütian)
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou ,
Min Dong Fuzhou ,
Min Nan Xiamen
Quanzhou
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Kaohsiung
Penang
Singapore
Philippines (Manila)
Pingnan
Chaozhou
Shantou
Haifeng
Haikou
Leizhou
Wu Shanghai
Suzhou
Wenzhou , ,
Xiang Changsha ,
Shuangfeng ,

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

KanjiEdit

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. black

ReadingsEdit


KhitanEdit

NounEdit

(kara)

  1. west

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(heuk) (hangeul )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(hắc)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.