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U+5DF4, 巴
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5DF4

[U+5DF3]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5DF5]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 49, +1, 4 strokes, cangjie input 日山 (AU), four-corner 77717, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

Further readingEdit

Chinese Wikisource has digitized text of the Kangxi Dictionary entry for :

Wikisource

  • KangXi: page 327, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 8745
  • Dae Jaweon: page 631, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 985, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5DF4

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*praː
*praː
*praː, *braːʔ
*praː
*praː, *pʰraː
*praː, *pʰraː
*praː, *pʰraː
*praː
*praːʔ
*praːs, *baʔ
*praːs
*praːs
*pʰraː
*pʰraː
*pʰraː
*pʰraːs
*braː
*braː
*braː, *braːs, *braːs
*braːʔ, *braːs
*braːs

Pictogram (象形) — a huge snake.

Etymology 1Edit

  This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “Are all these senses related? Some have proposed that these are all derived from the snake sense.”
"huge snake"
Unknown. Schuessler (2007) compared (OC prâ) to:
  • Lao [script needed] (ŋuuᴬ⁴ kǎbaaᴬ³, a kind of viper), with ງູ (ngū, snake) and [script needed] (, possible animal prefix); as well as to
  • Proto-North-Bahnaric *qbǎyh (ibid.) "snake" (or *bəs; Sidwell, 2011).
"bar" (unit of pressure)
Borrowed from English bar.

PronunciationEdit


Note: pa - only in 巴士.
Note:
  • 1pa - literary;
  • 1po - vernacular.
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /pa⁵⁵/
    Harbin /pa⁴⁴/
    /pa²⁴/ ~彥
    Tianjin /pɑ²¹/
    Jinan /pa²¹³/
    Qingdao /pa²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /pa²⁴/
    Xi'an /pa²¹/
    Xining /pa⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /pa⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /pa³¹/
    Ürümqi /pa⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /pa⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /pa⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /pa⁵⁵/
    Kunming /pa̠⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /pɑ³¹/
    Hefei /pa²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /pa¹¹/
    Pingyao /pɑ¹³/
    Hohhot /pa³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /po⁵³/
    /pa⁵³/
    Suzhou /po⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /pɑ³³/
    Wenzhou /po³³/
    Hui Shexian /pa³¹/
    Tunxi /puːə¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /pa³³/
    Xiangtan /pɒ³³/
    Gan Nanchang /pɑ⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /pa⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /pɑ²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /pa⁵³/
    Nanning /pa⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /pa⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /pa⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /pa⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /pa⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /pa³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ʔba²³/ ~掌
    /ʔba³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (1)
    Final () (98)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /pˠa/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /pᵚa/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /pa/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /paɨ/
    Li
    Rong
    /pa/
    Wang
    Li
    /pa/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /pa/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹  › ‹  ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*pˁra/ /*pˁra/
    English snake [place name]

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 97
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*praː/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (ancient Chinese mythology) a huge snake that could swallow an elephant
    2. to greatly desire; to anxiously hope; to long for
    3. Used as a suffix for objects that are located below or behind.
        ―  wěiba  ―  tail
    4. Used as a suffix for objects that are clumped together due to dryness or stickiness.
        ―  ba  ―  mud
    5. to cling to; to stick to
    6. (Jilu Mandarin, Sichuan, dialectal Wu) to be close to; to be next to
    7. (Beijing, Jilu Mandarin) to open; to spread
    8. (Sichuan) to suit; to fit
    9. (Sichuan) to follow
    10. (Sichuan) to be intimate
    11. (Sichuan) to involve; to implicate
    12. (Sichuan) to kiss up; to curry favour
    13. (Sichuan) to subsidize
    14. (Sichuan) to infect; to contract
    15. (dialectal Mandarin, including Beijing, Shandong, Xinjiang) to sew; to stitch on
    16. (Southwestern Mandarin; Xiamen, Quanzhou Min Nan) dried object
    17. (dialectal Mandarin, Cantonese) Classifier for the number of slaps.
      [Cantonese]  ―  daa2 keoi5 jat1 baa1 [Jyutping]  ―  to give him a slap
    18. (Jiaoliao Mandarin, Sichuan) along
    19. (historical) Ba (an ancient state in modern-day Sichuan)
    20. eastern Sichuan and Chongqing
    21. Short for 巴士 (bāshì, “bus”).
        ―  xiǎo  ―  minibus
    22. (physics) bar (unit of pressure)
    23. Used in the transliteration of foreign words.
        ―    ―  Paris
      拿馬 / 拿马  ―  námǎ  ―  Panama
        ―  lìn  ―  lymph
    24. A surname​.
    DescendantsEdit
    Sino-Xenic ():

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“short=1; a kind of fragrant grass; etc.”).
    (This character, , is the second-round simplified form of .)
    Notes:

    Etymology 3Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“bamboo fence”).
    (This character, , is the second-round simplified form of .)
    Notes:

    Etymology 4Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“cake-like food; tsamba”).
    (This character, , is the second-round simplified form of .)
    Notes:

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
     
    (tomoe): a hidari-futatsudomoe, one of many tomoe designs
    Kanji in this term
    ともえ
    Jinmeiyō
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling 鞆絵

    First attested around the 12th century.

    Originally a compound of (tomo, archer's left-wrist protector) +‎ (e, picture, drawing).

    The use of the kanji is possibly jukujikun (熟字訓) for resembling a big snake.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ともえ, rōmaji tomoe, historical hiragana ともゑ)

    1. a circular design resembling swirling water, a comma, or an archer's bow
    2. (architecture) a piece of wood, usually a floorboard or an eave, with a tomoe pattern
    3. an oxcart with the wickerwork in a tomoe pattern
    4. a 家紋 (kamon, family crest) with various tomoe designs
    5. Short for 巴瓦 (tomoegawara): a tile with a tomoe design
    6. turning (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
    7. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    Derived termsEdit
    DescendantsEdit
    See alsoEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana ともえ, rōmaji Tomoe, historical hiragana ともゑ)

    1. Short for 巴御前 (Tomoe Gozen): 12th-century female samurai
    2. a 謡曲 (dōkyoku, noh song) based on a story from The Tale of the Heike
    3. a surname

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Jinmeiyō
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC pˠa). The 漢音 (kan'on) reading, so likely a later borrowing.

    PronunciationEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji Ha)

    1. (historical) Ba (ancient state in eastern Sichuan)
    Derived termsEdit
    See alsoEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC pˠa).

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 이름 (ttang ireum pa))

    1. Hanja form? of (used in placenames).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    VietnameseEdit