English edit

Pronunciation edit

  • (UK) IPA(key): /tɒm/
  • (US) IPA(key): /tɑm/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -ɒm

Etymology 1 edit

From generic use of the proper name Tom.

Noun edit

tom (plural toms)

  1. The intact male of the domesticated cat.
  2. The male of the turkey.
  3. The male of the orangutan.
  4. The male of certain other animals.
  5. (UK, slang, dated) A female prostitute.
  6. (US, slang) A lesbian.
  7. (music) Clipping of tom-tom.
  8. (obsolete) The jack of trumps in the card game gleek.
  9. (UK, regional, obsolete) A close-stool.
Synonyms edit
Coordinate terms edit

(intact male cat):

Derived terms edit
Translations edit

Etymology 2 edit

Shortened from tomato

Noun edit

tom (plural toms)

  1. (Britain, greengrocers' slang) A tomato (the fruit).
    Toms 90p a pound
    • 2009, Mark Penny, Jonathan Penny, The Golden Pig, page 160:
      “I'd like sausage, eggs, bacon, toms, mushies, beans – oh, and some fried bread,” said Mike.

Etymology 3 edit

Rhyming slang from tomfoolery.

Noun edit

tom (uncountable)

  1. (Cockney rhyming slang) jewellery

Etymology 4 edit

From Uncle Tom.

Verb edit

tom (third-person singular simple present toms, present participle tomming, simple past and past participle tommed)

  1. (intransitive, derogatory, of a black person) To act in an obsequiously servile manner toward white authority.

Etymology 5 edit

Verb edit

tom (third-person singular simple present toms, present participle tomming, simple past and past participle tommed)

  1. (nautical) To dig out a hole below the hatch cover of a bulker and fill it with cargo or weights to aid stability.

See also edit

terms containing the word "tom". Some should probably be listed in the right place above

Anagrams edit

Czech edit

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

tom

  1. locative masculine/neuter singular of ten

Danish edit

Etymology edit

From Old Norse tómr, from Proto-Germanic *tōmaz (empty).

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

tom (neuter tomt, plural and definite singular attributive tomme)

  1. empty

References edit

Finnish edit

Etymology edit

From English tom.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈtom/, [ˈt̪o̞m]
  • Rhymes: -om
  • Syllabification(key): tom

Noun edit

tom

  1. (music) tom, tom-tom (percussion instrument)

Declension edit

Inflection of tom (Kotus type 5/risti, no gradation)
nominative tom tomit
genitive tomin tomien
partitive tomia tomeja
illative tomiin tomeihin
singular plural
nominative tom tomit
accusative nom. tom tomit
gen. tomin
genitive tomin tomien
partitive tomia tomeja
inessive tomissa tomeissa
elative tomista tomeista
illative tomiin tomeihin
adessive tomilla tomeilla
ablative tomilta tomeilta
allative tomille tomeille
essive tomina tomeina
translative tomiksi tomeiksi
abessive tomitta tomeitta
instructive tomein
comitative See the possessive forms below.
Possessive forms of tom (Kotus type 5/risti, no gradation)
first-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative tomini tomini
accusative nom. tomini tomini
gen. tomini
genitive tomini tomieni
partitive tomiani tomejani
inessive tomissani tomeissani
elative tomistani tomeistani
illative tomiini tomeihini
adessive tomillani tomeillani
ablative tomiltani tomeiltani
allative tomilleni tomeilleni
essive tominani tomeinani
translative tomikseni tomeikseni
abessive tomittani tomeittani
instructive
comitative tomeineni
second-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative tomisi tomisi
accusative nom. tomisi tomisi
gen. tomisi
genitive tomisi tomiesi
partitive tomiasi tomejasi
inessive tomissasi tomeissasi
elative tomistasi tomeistasi
illative tomiisi tomeihisi
adessive tomillasi tomeillasi
ablative tomiltasi tomeiltasi
allative tomillesi tomeillesi
essive tominasi tomeinasi
translative tomiksesi tomeiksesi
abessive tomittasi tomeittasi
instructive
comitative tomeinesi
first-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative tomimme tomimme
accusative nom. tomimme tomimme
gen. tomimme
genitive tomimme tomiemme
partitive tomiamme tomejamme
inessive tomissamme tomeissamme
elative tomistamme tomeistamme
illative tomiimme tomeihimme
adessive tomillamme tomeillamme
ablative tomiltamme tomeiltamme
allative tomillemme tomeillemme
essive tominamme tomeinamme
translative tomiksemme tomeiksemme
abessive tomittamme tomeittamme
instructive
comitative tomeinemme
second-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative tominne tominne
accusative nom. tominne tominne
gen. tominne
genitive tominne tomienne
partitive tomianne tomejanne
inessive tomissanne tomeissanne
elative tomistanne tomeistanne
illative tomiinne tomeihinne
adessive tomillanne tomeillanne
ablative tomiltanne tomeiltanne
allative tomillenne tomeillenne
essive tominanne tomeinanne
translative tomiksenne tomeiksenne
abessive tomittanne tomeittanne
instructive
comitative tomeinenne
third-person possessor
singular plural
nominative tominsa tominsa
accusative nom. tominsa tominsa
gen. tominsa
genitive tominsa tomiensa
partitive tomiaan
tomiansa
tomejaan
tomejansa
inessive tomissaan
tomissansa
tomeissaan
tomeissansa
elative tomistaan
tomistansa
tomeistaan
tomeistansa
illative tomiinsa tomeihinsa
adessive tomillaan
tomillansa
tomeillaan
tomeillansa
ablative tomiltaan
tomiltansa
tomeiltaan
tomeiltansa
allative tomilleen
tomillensa
tomeilleen
tomeillensa
essive tominaan
tominansa
tomeinaan
tomeinansa
translative tomikseen
tomiksensa
tomeikseen
tomeiksensa
abessive tomittaan
tomittansa
tomeittaan
tomeittansa
instructive
comitative tomeineen
tomeinensa

Irish edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Irish tom (bush, tuft; hillock, knoll).

Noun edit

tom m (genitive singular toim, nominative plural toim or tomacha)

  1. bush, shrub
    Synonym: tor
  2. clump, tuft, tussock
    Synonym: tortóg
Declension edit
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Noun edit

tom m (genitive singular toma, nominative plural tomanna)

  1. Alternative form of taom (fit, paroxysm)
Declension edit

Etymology 3 edit

Verb edit

tom (present analytic tomann, future analytic tomfaidh, verbal noun tomadh, past participle tomtha)

  1. Alternative form of tum (dip, immerse)
Conjugation edit

Mutation edit

Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Eclipsis
tom thom dtom
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References edit

  1. ^ Quiggin, E. C. (1906) A Dialect of Donegal, Cambridge University Press, § 291, page 104

Javanese edit

Other scripts
Carakan ꦠꦺꦴꦩ꧀
Roman tom

Etymology edit

From Old Javanese tom, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *taʀum.

Noun edit

tom

  1. indigo (plant)

Descendants edit

  • Ternate: tom

Further reading edit

  • The Linguistic Center of Yogyakarta (2015), “tom”, in Kamus Basa Jawa (Bausastra Jawa) [Javanese Language Dictionary (Javanese Dictionary)] (in Javanese), Yogyakarta: Kanisius, →ISBN


Komo edit

Noun edit

tom

  1. spear

Lower Sorbian edit

Pronunciation edit

Determiner edit

tom

  1. locative masculine/neuter singular of ten

Maranao edit

Noun edit

tom

  1. human body louse

Middle English edit

Etymology 1 edit

Adjective edit

tom

  1. Alternative form of tome (empty)

Etymology 2 edit

Noun edit

tom (uncountable)

  1. Alternative form of tome (freetime)

Etymology 3 edit

Adjective edit

tom

  1. (Southwest, southern West Midlands) Alternative form of tame (tame)

Norwegian Bokmål edit

Etymology edit

From Old Norse tómr.

Adjective edit

tom (neuter singular tomt, definite singular and plural tomme, comparative tommere, indefinite superlative tommest, definite superlative tommeste)

  1. empty

Derived terms edit

Related terms edit

References edit

Norwegian Nynorsk edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Norse tómr.

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

tom (neuter singular tomt, definite singular and plural tomme, comparative tommare, indefinite superlative tommast, definite superlative tommaste)

  1. empty
Derived terms edit
Related terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Old Norse taumr.

Noun edit

tom m (definite singular tommen, indefinite plural tommar, definite plural tommane)

  1. Alternative form of taum; (pre-2012) alternative form of taum
Derived terms edit

References edit

Anagrams edit

Oksapmin edit

Noun edit

tom

  1. water

References edit

Old English edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Germanic *tōmaz (empty). Akin to Old Norse tómr (empty), whence Icelandic tómur (empty).

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

tōm

  1. empty
  2. (figuratively) free from
    Ðæt hīe mōstun mānweorca tōme lifgan and tīres blǣd ēcne āgan.
    That they might live free from wicked works and own the eternal reward of glory.

Declension edit

Descendants edit

Old Javanese edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *taʀum.

Noun edit

tom

  1. indigo (plant)

Descendants edit

References edit

  • "tom" in P.J. Zoetmulder with the collaboration of S.O. Robson, Old Javanese-English Dictionary. 's-Gravenhage: M. Nijhoff, 1982.

Polish edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Latin tomus, from Ancient Greek τόμος (tómos).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

tom m inan (diminutive tomik, augmentative tomisko or tomiszcze)

  1. volume (single book of a publication issued in multi-book format)
    Synonyms: wolumen, wolumin

Declension edit

Further reading edit

  • tom in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • tom in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Portuguese edit

Etymology edit

Probably a semi-learned borrowing from Latin tonus (and influenced by som; compare the Spanish ton, variant of the standard tono, which underwent a similar change, influenced by son, respectively), from Ancient Greek τόνος (tónos, tone), from τείνω (teínō, to stretch). Cf. also trom, a possible doublet.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

tom m (plural tons)

  1. tone or pitch (property of sound determined by the frequency)
  2. (music) tone (interval of a major second)
  3. (music) key

See also edit

Romanian edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from French tome, from Latin tomus.

Noun edit

tom n (plural tomuri)

  1. volume

Declension edit

Scottish Gaelic edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

tom m (genitive singular tuim, plural toman or tomannan)

  1. round hillock or knoll, rising ground, swell, green eminence
  2. any round heap
  3. tuft of anything
  4. bush, thicket
  5. anthill
  6. (Islay) stool
  7. volume of a book
  8. bank
  9. grave
  10. (medicine, rare) the plague
  11. conical knoll

Slovene edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

tọ̑m m inan

  1. tome

Inflection edit

 
The diacritics used in this section of the entry are non-tonal. If you are a native tonal speaker, please help by adding the tonal marks.
Masculine inan., hard o-stem
nom. sing. tóm
gen. sing. tóma
singular dual plural
nominative
(imenovȃlnik)
tóm tóma tómi
genitive
(rodȋlnik)
tóma tómov tómov
dative
(dajȃlnik)
tómu tómoma tómom
accusative
(tožȋlnik)
tóm tóma tóme
locative
(mẹ̑stnik)
tómu tómih tómih
instrumental
(orọ̑dnik)
tómom tómoma tómi

See also edit

Further reading edit

  • tom”, in Slovarji Inštituta za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša ZRC SAZU, portal Fran

Swedish edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Norse tómr.

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

tom (comparative tommare, superlative tommast)

  1. empty
    tomma tunnor skramlar mest
    empty barrels make the most noise (those who complain most vigorously, are the least important)
Declension edit
Inflection of tom
Indefinite Positive Comparative Superlative2
Common singular tom tommare tommast
Neuter singular tomt tommare tommast
Plural tomma tommare tommast
Masculine plural3 tomme tommare tommast
Definite Positive Comparative Superlative
Masculine singular1 tomme tommare tommaste
All tomma tommare tommaste
1) Only used, optionally, to refer to things whose natural gender is masculine.
2) The indefinite superlative forms are only used in the predicative.
3) Dated or archaic
Antonyms edit
Related terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Used in Swedish since 1697. From French tome, Latin tomus (section of larger work), from Ancient Greek τόμος (tómos, section, roll of papyrus, volume), from τέμνω (témnō, I cut, separate). Cognate with English tome.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

tom c

  1. A tome, a volume (in a series of books), a (thick) book.
Declension edit
Declension of tom 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative tom tomen tomer tomerna
Genitive toms tomens tomers tomernas
Derived terms edit

References edit

Anagrams edit

Ternate edit

 
tom

Etymology edit

From Javanese ꦠꦺꦴꦩ꧀ (tom), from Old Javanese tom.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

tom (Jawiتوم⁩)

  1. indigo (Indigofera tinctoria)

References edit

  • Frederik Sigismund Alexander de Clercq (1890) Bijdragen tot de kennis der Residentie Ternate, E.J. Brill
  • Rika Hayami-Allen (2001) A descriptive study of the language of Ternate, the northern Moluccas, Indonesia, University of Pittsburgh

Welsh edit

Etymology edit

Cf. Middle Irish tomm (clump, hill) and chwyddo (to swell, to inflate).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

tom m or f (plural tomau)

  1. dung, excrement, faeces
    Synonym: cach
  2. manure, compost
  3. filth, muck, mire

Derived terms edit

Mutation edit

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
tom dom nhom thom
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading edit

  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “tom”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies

Zuni edit

Pronoun edit

tom

  1. Second person singular possessive (medial position)
    your
  2. Second person singular object
    you

Related terms edit