See also:
U+89AA, 親
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-89AA

[U+89A9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+89AB]

TranslingualEdit

Japanese
Simplified
Traditional

Han characterEdit

(radical 147, +9, 16 strokes, cangjie input 卜木月山山 (YDBUU), four-corner 06910, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

Related charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1136, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 34918
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1602, character 35
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3671, character 12
  • Unihan data for U+89AA

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp. *
alternative forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script
     

Bronze script: phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *sʰin, *sʰins): phonetic (OC *siŋ) + semantic (see).

Seal script: phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *sʰin, *sʰins): phonetic 𣓀 + semantic (see).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • chhiⁿ/chheⁿ - vernacular;
  • chhin - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (14)
    Final () (43)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡sʰiɪn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡sʰin/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡sʰjen/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /t͡sʰin/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡sʰiĕn/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡sʰĭĕn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡sʰi̯ĕn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    qīn
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    can1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    qīn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tshin ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[tsʰ]i[n]/
    English close; parents

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 13804
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sʰin/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. intimate; bosom; closely acquainted; beloved; dear
    2. parent(s); father and/or mother
    3. relatives; blood or marriage relation
    4. related by blood; blood (brothers, sisters)
    5. marriage; matrimony
    6. to be close to; to become intimate with
    7. to fraternise with; to support or endorse; pro-
      [Classical Chinese, trad.]
      [Classical Chinese, simp.]
      From: Chen Shou, Records of the Three Kingdoms, circa 3rd century CE
      Jīn yǐ rǔ wéi qīn wèi wō wáng. [Pinyin]
      You [Himiko] shall be the Ruler of Wa, Friendly to Wei.
    8. to approach; to go near; to get in touch with
    9. to kiss; to brush one's lips against
    10. personally; in person; with one's own (body part)
    11. close person; reliable person; intimate friend
    12. accurate; true
    13. 34th tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "kinship" (𝌧)
    14. (Internet, customer service) dear sir or madam
    15. Alternative form of (xīn, “to renew; to replace”).
    16. A surname​.
    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    Note: Irregular, due to assimilation by the following velar k- initial of .

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (14)
    Final () (43)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡sʰiɪnH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡sʰinH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡sʰjenH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /t͡sʰinH/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡sʰiĕnH/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡sʰĭĕnH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡sʰi̯ĕnH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    qìn
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    can3
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 13806
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sʰins/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Only used in 親家亲家 (qìngjia, “one's child's parents-in-law”) and related terms.

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. parent, elder

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Kanji in this term
    おや
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling

    From Old Japanese.[1] Cognate with or derived from Old Japanese verb 老ゆ (oyu, to become old, modern 老いる oiru), from the idea of one's elders.[2]

    First cited in the Kojiki of 712.[1]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (おや) (oya

    1. [from 720] a parent
    2. [from 1001] the originator or founder of a school, company, or other organization
    3. [from 1001] the boss or leader
    4. [from 1809] the larger one of several objects of the same kind
    5. [from 1686] (hanafuda, card games, by extension, board games) the dealer, (gambling) the banker
      Coordinate term: (ko)
    6. [from 712] one's ancestors, one's forebears

    IdiomsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 親・祖”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[1] (in Japanese), 2nd edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    3. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    4. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    5. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡sʰiɪn, t͡sʰiɪnH). Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: chin) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 친할 (chinhal chin))

    1. Hanja form? of (intimate).
    2. Hanja form? of (relative; parent).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: thân

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.