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U+8449, 葉
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8449

[U+8448]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+844A]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 140, +9, 12 strokes, cangjie input 廿心廿木 (TPTD), four-corner 44904, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1044, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 31387
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1504, character 18
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3243, character 15
  • Unihan data for U+8449

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp. *

Glyph originEdit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *hljeb, *leb): semantic (grass) + phonetic (OC *leb, flat).

Etymology 1Edit

 
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)
  • (Wu)

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-lap (leaf). Cognate with Tibetan ལོ་མ (lo ma, leaf), Western Tibetan ལོབ་མ (lob ma, leaf), Jingpho lap (leaf). Related to (OC *hljebs, “world”).

This is part of the word family *lVp meaning “flat”, represented by the phonetic component (OC *leb). Compare also (OC *rlaː, “tea < *leaf”).

PronunciationEdit


Note: yiap5 - surname.
Note:
  • iab8 - surname (Shantou);
  • iêb8 - surname (Chaozhou);
  • iag8 - surname (Chenghai).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /iɛ⁵¹/
    Harbin /iɛ⁵³/
    Tianjin /ie⁵³/
    Jinan /iə²¹/
    Qingdao /iə⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /iɛ²⁴/
    Xi'an /iɛ²¹/
    Xining /i⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ie¹³/
    Lanzhou /iə¹³/
    Ürümqi /iɤ²¹³/
    Wuhan /ie²¹³/
    Chengdu /ie³¹/
    Guiyang /ie²¹/
    Kunming /iɛ³¹/
    Nanjing /ieʔ⁵/
    Hefei /iɐʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /iəʔ²/
    Pingyao /iʌʔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /iaʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /ɦiɪʔ¹/
    Suzhou /ɦiəʔ³/
    Hangzhou /ɦiəʔ²/
    Wenzhou /ji²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /ie²²/
    Tunxi /ia¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ie²⁴/
    Xiangtan /ie²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /iɛʔ²/
    Hakka Meixian /iap̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /ʒɑp̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jip̚²/
    Nanning /jip̚²²/
    Hong Kong /jip̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /iap̚⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ieʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sia⁴²/
    /xiɛ²⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /iap̚⁵/
    /hioʔ⁵/ 訓讀
    Haikou (Min Nan) /iap̚³/
    /hio³³/ 訓箬

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (36)
    Final () (155)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /jiᴇp̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /jiɛp̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /jæp̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /jiap̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /iɛp̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /jĭɛp̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /i̯ɛp̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ yep ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*l[a]p/
    English leaf

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 11561
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*leb/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. leaf; petal
    2. page of book
    3. era; epoch
    4. (southern Wu, Min) wing
    5. () Ye (a village in Likou, Qimen, Huangshan, Anhui, China)
    6. A surname​.
      /   ―  Jiànyīng  ―  Ye Jianying
    SynonymsEdit
    DescendantsEdit
    • Tagalog: Yap

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

     
    Wikipedia has articles on:

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

    PronunciationEdit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (26)
    Final () (155)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɕiᴇp̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɕiɛp̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɕjæp̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɕiap̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɕiɛp̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɕĭɛp̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɕi̯ɛp̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    she
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 11557
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*hljeb/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. () Ye County, Henan, China
    2. A surname​.

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

     
    Wikipedia has an article on:

    PronunciationEdit


    Note:
    • hiêh8 - Chaozhou;
    • hioh8 - Shantou, Jieyang, Chaoyang.

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /iɛ⁵¹/
    Harbin /iɛ⁵³/
    Tianjin /ie⁵³/
    Jinan /iə²¹/
    Qingdao /iə⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /iɛ²⁴/
    Xi'an /iɛ²¹/
    Xining /i⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ie¹³/
    Lanzhou /iə¹³/
    Ürümqi /iɤ²¹³/
    Wuhan /ie²¹³/
    Chengdu /ie³¹/
    Guiyang /ie²¹/
    Kunming /iɛ³¹/
    Nanjing /ieʔ⁵/
    Hefei /iɐʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /iəʔ²/
    Pingyao /iʌʔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /iaʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /ɦiɪʔ¹/
    Suzhou /ɦiəʔ³/
    Hangzhou /ɦiəʔ²/
    Wenzhou /ji²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /ie²²/
    Tunxi /ia¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ie²⁴/
    Xiangtan /ie²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /iɛʔ²/
    Hakka Meixian /iap̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /ʒɑp̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jip̚²/
    Nanning /jip̚²²/
    Hong Kong /jip̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /iap̚⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ieʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sia⁴²/
    /xiɛ²⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /iap̚⁵/
    /hioʔ⁵/ 訓讀
    Haikou (Min Nan) /iap̚³/
    /hio³³/ 訓箬

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (Min) Alternative form of (“leaf”).

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
     
    (ha, ): sunlight through leaves.
    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    /pa//ɸa//ha/

    From Old Japanese[1], from Proto-Japonic *pa.

    Probably cognate with Old Japanese verb 生ゆ (hayu, to sprout, to grow) → modern 生える (haeru), and with (ha, feather; wing). Probably also cognate with (ha, tooth) from the way that both sprout and then later fall, and with (ha, blade) from similarities in shape. Compare English blade.

    Cognate with Okinawan ().

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    () (ha (counter )

    1. leaf, needle, blade (of a plant)
    SynonymsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    よう
    Grade: 3
    on’yomi

    /epu//efu//eu//yoː/

    From Middle Chinese (MC jiᴇp̚, “leaf”).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (よう) (えふ (efu)?

    1. leaf, needle, blade (of a plant)
    2. a season, an age: a shorter period of time within a longer one
    3. an administration: the period of time during which a certain person holds a certain office

    CounterEdit

    (よう) (-yōえふ (efu)?

    1. (rare) counter for flat, thin things such as leaves or paper
    2. (by extension) counter for small boats

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Further readingEdit


    KoreanEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC jiᴇp̚). Recorded as Middle Korean 엽〯 (Yale: yěp) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    PronunciationEdit

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (ip yeop))

    1. Hanja form? of (leaf).

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɕiᴇp̚). Recorded as Middle Korean 셥〮 (Yale: syép) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.

    PronunciationEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 이름 (ttang ireum seop))

    1. Hanja form? of (A surname​.).
    2. Hanja form? of (A placename.).

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    KunigamiEdit

    KanjiEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *pa, from Proto-Japonic *pa.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ぱー, romaji phā)

    1. leaf

    MiyakoEdit

    KanjiEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *pa, from Proto-Japonic *pa.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ぱー, romaji )

    1. leaf

    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *pa, from Proto-Japonic *pa. Cognate with mainland Japanese (ha).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ふぁー, rōmaji )

    1. leaf
      クロトンぬ(ふぁー)(いる)(じゅ)らさぬ、いくちん(あち)みてぃ(っゐー)らっとーん。
      Kuroton-nu -ya iru jurasanu, ikuchin achimiti 'wīrattōn.
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • ふぁー【葉】” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.
    • ファー” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: diệp, diếp, dợp, dớp, đẹp, giấp, giẹp, nhịp, riếp, dào

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    YaeyamaEdit

    KanjiEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *pa, from Proto-Japonic *pa.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ぱー, romaji )

    1. leaf

    YonaguniEdit

    KanjiEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *pa, from Proto-Japonic *pa.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana はー, romaji )

    1. leaf