See also: , , and
U+8449, 葉
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8449

[U+8448]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+844A]

U+F96E, 葉
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F96E

[U+F96D]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F96F]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
Japan
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 140, +9, 12 (Japan), 13 (traditional Chinese) strokes, cangjie input 廿心廿木 (TPTD), four-corner 44904, composition )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1044, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 31387
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1504, character 18
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3243, character 15
  • Unihan data for U+8449

Chinese edit

trad.
simp. *

Glyph origin edit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *hljeb, *leb) : semantic (grass) + phonetic (OC *leb, flat).

Possibly also ideogrammic compound (會意会意) with (“leaf”) also acting as a semantic component.

Etymology 1 edit

 
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)
  • (Wu)

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-lap (leaf). Cognate with Tibetan ལོ་མ (lo ma, leaf), Western Tibetan ལོབ་མ (lob ma, leaf), Jingpho lap (leaf). Related to (OC *hljebs, “world”).

This is part of the word family *lVp meaning “flat”, represented by the phonetic component (OC *leb). Compare also (OC *rlaː, “tea < *leaf”).

Pronunciation edit


Note: yiap5 - surname.
Note:
  • iab8 - surname (Chaozhou, Shantou);
  • iag8 - surname (Chenghai).

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /iɛ⁵¹/
Harbin /iɛ⁵³/
Tianjin /ie⁵³/
Jinan /iə²¹/
Qingdao /iə⁴²/
Zhengzhou /iɛ²⁴/
Xi'an /iɛ²¹/
Xining /i⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ie¹³/
Lanzhou /iə¹³/
Ürümqi /iɤ²¹³/
Wuhan /ie²¹³/
Chengdu /ie³¹/
Guiyang /ie²¹/
Kunming /iɛ³¹/
Nanjing /ieʔ⁵/
Hefei /iɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /iəʔ²/
Pingyao /iʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /iaʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /ɦiɪʔ¹/
Suzhou /ɦiəʔ³/
Hangzhou /ɦiəʔ²/
Wenzhou /ji²¹³/
Hui Shexian /ie²²/
Tunxi /ia¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ie²⁴/
Xiangtan /ie²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /iɛʔ²/
Hakka Meixian /iap̚⁵/
Taoyuan /ʒɑp̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jip̚²/
Nanning /jip̚²²/
Hong Kong /jip̚²/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /iap̚⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /ieʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /t͡sia⁴²/
/xiɛ²⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /iap̚⁵/
/hioʔ⁵/ 訓讀
Haikou (Hainanese) /iap̚³/
/hio³³/ 訓箬

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (36)
Final () (155)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter yep
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jiᴇp̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/jiɛp̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/jæp̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/jiap̚/
Li
Rong
/iɛp̚/
Wang
Li
/jĭɛp̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯ɛp̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jip6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ yep ›
Old
Chinese
/*l[a]p/
English leaf

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 11561
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*leb/

Definitions edit

  1. leaf; petal (Classifier: c;  c)
      ―  hóng  ―  red autumn leaves
  2. era; epoch
    十九世紀十九世纪  ―  shíjiǔ shìjì zhōng hòu   ―  middle and late 19th century
  3. leaf-like thing
      ―  fèi  ―  lobe of the lung
      ―  bǎichuāng  ―  Venetian blinds
  4. Classifier for small boats.
    扁舟扁舟  ―  piānzhōu  ―  a tiny boat
  5. Alternative form of (page)
  6. a surname
      ―  Fēi  ―  Ye Fei (Chinese military general and politician of the People's Republic of China)
Synonyms edit
Descendants edit
  • English: Ye, Yeh, Yip, Ip, Yap, Yeap
  • Tagalog: Yap

Compounds edit

Etymology 2 edit

 
Wikipedia has articles on:

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (26)
Final () (155)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter syep
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɕiᴇp̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɕiɛp̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɕjæp̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɕiap̚/
Li
Rong
/ɕiɛp̚/
Wang
Li
/ɕĭɛp̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɕi̯ɛp̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
she
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
sip3
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 11557
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hljeb/

Definitions edit

  1. () Ye County, Henan, China
  2. a surname

Compounds edit

Etymology 3 edit

 
Wikipedia has an article on:

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • hiêh8 - Chaozhou;
  • hioh8 - Shantou, Jieyang, Chaoyang.

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /iɛ⁵¹/
    Harbin /iɛ⁵³/
    Tianjin /ie⁵³/
    Jinan /iə²¹/
    Qingdao /iə⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /iɛ²⁴/
    Xi'an /iɛ²¹/
    Xining /i⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ie¹³/
    Lanzhou /iə¹³/
    Ürümqi /iɤ²¹³/
    Wuhan /ie²¹³/
    Chengdu /ie³¹/
    Guiyang /ie²¹/
    Kunming /iɛ³¹/
    Nanjing /ieʔ⁵/
    Hefei /iɐʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /iəʔ²/
    Pingyao /iʌʔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /iaʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /ɦiɪʔ¹/
    Suzhou /ɦiəʔ³/
    Hangzhou /ɦiəʔ²/
    Wenzhou /ji²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /ie²²/
    Tunxi /ia¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ie²⁴/
    Xiangtan /ie²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /iɛʔ²/
    Hakka Meixian /iap̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /ʒɑp̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jip̚²/
    Nanning /jip̚²²/
    Hong Kong /jip̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /iap̚⁵/
    Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /ieʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Northern Min) /t͡sia⁴²/
    /xiɛ²⁴/
    Shantou (Teochew) /iap̚⁵/
    /hioʔ⁵/ 訓讀
    Haikou (Hainanese) /iap̚³/
    /hio³³/ 訓箬

    Definitions edit

    1. (Min) Alternative form of (leaf)

    References edit

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 1 edit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
     
    (ha, ): sunlight through leaves.
    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    /pa//ɸa//ha/

    From Old Japanese,[1] from Proto-Japonic *pa.

    Probably cognate with Old Japanese verb 生ゆ (hayu, to sprout, to grow) → modern 生える (haeru), and with (ha, feather; wing).

    Suggested in some sources as possibly cognate with (ha, tooth) from the way that both sprout and then later fall,[2] and with (ha, blade) from similarities in shape (cf. English blade). However, the pitch accent patterns are different; and are both unaccented, while and are both accented. This may reflect two disparate *pa roots in the ancient language.

    First attested in the Kojiki of 712 CE.[1]

    Cognate with Okinawan ().

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    () (ha (counter )

    1. leaf, needle, blade (of a plant)
    Synonyms edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term
    よう
    Grade: 3
    on’yomi

    /epu//efu//eu//yoː/

    From Middle Chinese (MC yep, “leaf”).

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (よう) (えふ (efu)?

    1. leaf, needle, blade (of a plant)
    2. a season, an age: a shorter period of time within a longer one
    3. an administration: the period of time during which a certain person holds a certain office

    Counter edit

    (よう) (-yōえふ (efu)?

    1. (rare) counter for flat, thin things such as leaves or paper
    2. (by extension) counter for small boats

    References edit

    1. 1.0 1.1 Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
    2. ^ 葉/は”, in 語源由来辞典 (Gogen Yurai Jiten, Etymology Derivation Dictionary) (in Japanese), 2003–2024.
    3. 3.0 3.1 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC yep).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 엽〮 (Yale: yép)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[1] 닙〮 (Yale: níp) (Yale: yep)

    Pronunciation edit

    Hanja edit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (ip yeop))

    1. Hanja form? of (leaf). [affix]
    Compounds edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC syep).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 셥〮 (Yale: syép)

    Pronunciation edit

    Hanja edit

    (eumhun 이름 (ttang ireum seop))

    1. Hanja form? of (A surname.).

    References edit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Kunigami edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Etymology edit

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *pa, from Proto-Japonic *pa.

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (ぱー) (phā

    1. leaf

    Miyako edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Etymology edit

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *pa, from Proto-Japonic *pa.

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (ぱー) (

    1. leaf

    Okinawan edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Etymology edit

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *pa, from Proto-Japonic *pa. Cognate with mainland Japanese (ha).

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (ふぁー) (

    1. leaf
      クロトンぬ(ふぁー)(いる)(じゅ)らさぬ、いくちん(あち)みてぃ(っゐー)らっとーん。
      Kuroton-nu -ya iru jurasanu, ikuchin achimiti 'wīrattōn.
      (please add an English translation of this example)

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    • ふぁー【葉】” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Nôm readings: diệp, diếp, dợp, dớp, đẹp, giấp, giẹp, nhịp, riếp, dào

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Yaeyama edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Etymology edit

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *pa, from Proto-Japonic *pa.

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (ぱー) (

    1. leaf

    Yonaguni edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Etymology edit

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *pa, from Proto-Japonic *pa.

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (はー) (

    1. leaf