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U+8449, 葉
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8449

[U+8448]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+844A]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 140, +9, 12 strokes, cangjie input 廿心廿木 (TPTD), four-corner 44904, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1044, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 31387
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1504, character 18
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3243, character 15
  • Unihan data for U+8449

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp. *

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɦljebs, *hljebs
*l̥ʰebs, *lebs
*ʔljebs
*hljebs
*lebs, *sled
*lebs
*lebs
*lebs
*lebs
*lebs, *led
*lebs
*lebs, *libs
*l̥ʰeːbs
*l̥ʰaːb, *l'eːb
*zreːb, *sled
*zreːb, *l̥ʰeb, *leb
*rlaːb, *ʔl'eːb, *l'eːb
*rlaːb, *sleːb
*l'eb, *leb, *lab
*hljeb, *leb
*hljeb, *hleːb
*hljeb, *sleːb
*leb
*leb
*leb, *l'eːb, *ɦljed
*leb
*leb, *hleːb
*l̥ʰeːb, *l'eːb
*l'eːb
*l'eːb
*l'eːb
*l'eːb
*l'eːb
*l'eːb
*l'eːb
*l'eːb
*sleːb
*sleːb
*sled
*sled
*sled
*sled
*sled

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *hljeb, *leb): semantic  (grass) + phonetic  (OC *leb, flat).

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-lap (leaf). Cognate with Tibetan ལོ་མ (lo ma, leaf), Western Tibetan ལོབ་མ (lob ma, leaf). Related to (OC *hljebs, “world”).

This is part of the word family *lVp meaning “flat”, represented by the phonetic component (OC *leb). Compare also (OC *rlaː, “tea < *leaf”).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • hio̍h - vernacular (substitute for );
  • ia̍p - literary (including the surname).
  • (Teochew)
    • Peng'im: hiêh8 / hioh8 / iab8 / iag8
    • Pe̍h-ōe-jī-like: hie̍h / hio̍h / ia̍p / ia̍k
    • Sinological IPA (key): /hieʔ⁴/, /hioʔ⁴/, /iap̚⁴/, /iak̚⁴/
Note:
  • hiêh8/hioh8 - vernacular (substitute for );
  • iab8/iag8 - literary (including the surname).
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /iɛ⁵¹/
    Harbin /iɛ⁵³/
    Tianjin /ie⁵³/
    Jinan /iə²¹/
    Qingdao /iə⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /iɛ²⁴/
    Xi'an /iɛ²¹/
    Xining /i⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ie¹³/
    Lanzhou /iə¹³/
    Ürümqi /iɤ²¹³/
    Wuhan /ie²¹³/
    Chengdu /ie³¹/
    Guiyang /ie²¹/
    Kunming /iɛ³¹/
    Nanjing /ieʔ⁵/
    Hefei /iɐʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /iəʔ²/
    Pingyao /iʌʔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /iaʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /ɦiɪʔ¹/
    Suzhou /ɦiəʔ³/
    Hangzhou /ɦiəʔ²/
    Wenzhou /ji²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /ie²²/
    Tunxi /ia¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ie²⁴/
    Xiangtan /ie²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /iɛʔ²/
    Hakka Meixian /iap̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /ʒɑp̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jip̚²/
    Nanning /jip̚²²/
    Hong Kong /jip̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /iap̚⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ieʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sia⁴²/
    /xiɛ²⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /iap̚⁵/
    /hioʔ⁵/ 訓讀
    Haikou (Min Nan) /iap̚³/
    /hio³³/ 訓箬

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (36)
    Final () (155)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /jiᴇp̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /jiɛp̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /jæp̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /jiap̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /iɛp̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /jĭɛp̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /i̯ɛp̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ yep ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*l[a]p/
    English leaf

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 11561
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*leb/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. leaf; petal
    2. page of book
    3. era; epoch
    4. (southern Wu, Min) wing
    5. A surname​.
    SynonymsEdit
    • (leaf): (Min)
    Dialectal synonyms of 葉子 (“leaf”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) , 葉子
    Mandarin Beijing 葉子, 葉兒
    Taiwan 葉子
    Jinan 葉兒, 葉子
    Wanrong 葉子
    Xi'an 葉子, 葉葉兒
    Wuhan 葉子
    Chengdu 葉子
    Guiyang 葉子
    Yangzhou 葉子
    Hefei 葉子
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Taishan
    Yangjiang
    Gan Nanchang 葉子
    Hakka Meixian 葉仔
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 葉仔
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 葉仔
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 葉仔
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 葉仔,
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Jin Taiyuan 葉子
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou , 箬箬
    Matsu 箬箬
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou
    Taipei 箬仔
    Kaohsiung 箬仔
    Tainan 箬仔
    Wuqi 箬仔
    Penang
    Chaozhou
    Haikou
    Leizhou
    Wu Shanghai 葉子
    Suzhou 葉子
    Wenzhou
    Chongming 葉子
    Danyang 葉子
    Xiang Changsha 葉子
    Shuangfeng 葉子

    Pronunciation 2Edit

     
    Wikipedia has an article on:


    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (26)
    Final () (155)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɕiᴇp̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɕiɛp̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɕjæp̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɕiap̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɕiɛp̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɕĭɛp̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɕi̯ɛp̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    she
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 11557
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*hljeb/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. () Ye County, Henan, China
    2. () (historical) Ye (a village in Likou, Qimen, Huangshan, Anhui, China)
    3. A surname​.

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
     
    (ha, ): sunlight through leaves.
    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    /pa//fa//ha/

    From Old Japanese.[1], from Proto-Japonic *pa. Probably distinct from the Old Japanese verb 生ゆ (hayu, to sprout, to grow) → modern 生える (haeru) and (hana, flower) and instead related to (ha, feather; wing). Probably also cognate with (ha, tooth) from the way that both sprout and then later fall, and with (ha, blade) from similarities in shape. Compare English blade.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (counter , hiragana , rōmaji ha)

    1. leaf, needle, blade (of a plant)
    SynonymsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    よう
    Grade: 3
    on’yomi

    /epu//efu//eu//yoː/

    From Middle Chinese (yep, leaf).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana よう, rōmaji , historical hiragana えふ)

    1. leaf, needle, blade (of a plant)
    2. a season, an age: a shorter period of time within a longer one
    3. an administration: the period of time during which a certain person holds a certain office

    CounterEdit

    (hiragana よう, rōmaji -yō, historical hiragana えふ)

    1. (rare) counter for flat, thin things such as leaves or paper
    2. (by extension) counter for small boats

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (yeop, seop) (hangeul , , McCune–Reischauer yŏp, sŏp, Yale yep, sep)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    KunigamiEdit

    KanjiEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *pa, from Proto-Japonic *pa.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ぱー, romaji phā)

    1. leaf

    MiyakoEdit

    KanjiEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *pa, from Proto-Japonic *pa.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ぱー, romaji )

    1. leaf

    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *pa, from Proto-Japonic *pa.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ふぁー, romaji )

    1. leaf

    CompoundsEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (diệp, diếp, dợp, dớp, đẹp, giấp, giẹp, nhịp, riếp, dào)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    YaeyamaEdit

    KanjiEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *pa, from Proto-Japonic *pa.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ぱー, romaji )

    1. leaf

    YonaguniEdit

    KanjiEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *pa, from Proto-Japonic *pa.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana はー, romaji )

    1. leaf