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U+591C, 夜
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-591C

[U+591B]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+591D]
See also:

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 36, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 卜人弓大 (YONK), four-corner 00247, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 246, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5763
  • Dae Jaweon: page 490, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 285, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+591C

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms
𠙑

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*laːɡs
*laːɡs
*ʔsleːɡ
*ʔsleːɡ
*laːɡ
*laːɡ
*laːɡ
*laːɡ
*laːɡ
*laːɡ
*laːɡ
*laːɡ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *laːɡs): phonetic  (OC *laːɡ) + semantic  (moon).

The lower-right portion is a corruption/graphical variant of ; the remainder ( + ) is a reduced and distorted form of , used phonetically.

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-r(j)ak.

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (36)
Final () (100)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jiaH/
Pan
Wuyun
/jiaH/
Shao
Rongfen
/iaH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/jiaH/
Li
Rong
/iaH/
Wang
Li
/jĭaH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯aH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ H ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢ]Ak-s/
English night

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 14992
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*laːɡs/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. night
  2. occurring during the night
  3. (Cantonese) late (in the night)
    呢排晚晚返屋企 [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
    Ngo5 ni1 paai4 maan5 maan5 dou1 hou2 je6 sin1 faan1 uk1 kei5-2. [Jyutping]
    Recently, I've been going home quite late in the night.
  4. Classifier for the number of nights.
    /   ―  sān tiān liǎng   ―  three days and two nights

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. night, nighttime

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
よる
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

⟨yo1ru⟩ → */jʷoru//joru/

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *yoru.

Derived from yo below, suffixed with an element ru of unclear meaning.[1] Compare (hi, day) (hiru, daytime), which seems to use this same ru element.[1]

Now the most common term for night in modern Japanese.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana よる, rōmaji yoru)

  1. night, evening
    東京 (とうきょう) (よる)
    Tōkyō no yoru
    Tokyo nights
    不安 (ふあん) (よる) ()ごす
    fuan na yoru o sugosu
    to endure a night of anxiety
    (literally, “to pass an uneasy night”)
     (よる)星空 (ほしぞら)見上 (みあ)げる
    yoru no hoshizora o miageru
    to look up at the night's starry sky
     (よる)のヒットスタジオ
    Yoru no Hitto Sutajio”
    "Hit Studio of the Night" (prominent Japanese music show)
    Synonym: 夜間 (yakan)
    Antonym: (hiru)
Derived termsEdit
IdiomsEdit

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana よる, rōmaji Yoru)

  1. a female given name

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun’yomi

⟨yo1/jʷo//jo/

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *yo.

In modern development, this term has taken on a more literary sense.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji yo)

  1. (literary) night, evening
    真夏 (まなつ) () (ゆめ)
    “Manatsu no Yo no Yume”
    A Midsummer Night's Dream
Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(eumhun (bam ya))

  1. night

CompoundsEdit


Oki-No-ErabuEdit

KanjiEdit

(kun'yomi いぃーる, romaji yīru)

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Ryukyuan *yoru, from Proto-Japonic *yoru. Cognate with Japanese (よる, yoru, night).

NounEdit

(hiragana いぃーる, romaji yīru)

  1. night

OkinawanEdit

KanjiEdit

(kun'yomi ゆる, romaji yuru, kun'yomi ゆー, romaji )

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Ryukyuan *yoru, from Proto-Japonic *yoru. Cognate with Japanese (よる, yoru, night).

CounterEdit

(hiragana ゆる, romaji yuru)

  1. nights
     (ちゅ) (ゆる)chuyuruone night
     () (ゆる)tayurutwo nights

NounEdit

(hiragana ゆる, romaji yuru)

  1. night

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Ryukyuan *yo, from Proto-Japonic *yo. Cognate with Japanese (よ, yo, night).

NounEdit

(hiragana ゆー, romaji )

  1. night

ReferencesEdit

  • 沖縄語辞典 (Okinawago Jiten, “Okinawan Dictionary”)[1], 1963

Old JapaneseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Japonic *yoru. Derived from yo1 below, suffixed with an element ru of unclear meaning.[1] Compare (pi1, day) (pi1ru, daytime), which seems to use this same ru element.

Used as a standalone noun but not in compounds.

NounEdit

(yo1ru) (kana よる)

  1. night, evening
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 5, poem 807), text here
      宇豆都仁波安布余志勿奈子奴婆多麻能用流能伊昧仁越都伎提美延許曽
      ututu ni pa apu yo2si mo nasi nubatama no2 yo1ru no2 ime2 ni wo tugi1te miye ko2so2
      There is no way to see you in reality. Please continue to appear in dreams of the night![2]
    Antonym: (pi1ru)
Derived termsEdit
DescendantsEdit
  • Japanese: (yoru)

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Japonic *yo. First attested in the Kojiki (712 CE).[1]

Used as both a standalone noun and in compounds.

NounEdit

(yo1) (kana )

  1. night, evening
    • 711712, Kojiki (poem 3)
      ...阿遠夜麻迩比賀迦久良婆奴婆多麻能波伊傅那牟...
      ...awoyama ni pi1 ga kakuraba nubatama no2 yo1 pa idenamu...
      As soon as the sun hides behind the verdant mountains, then jet-black night will come.[3]
Derived termsEdit
DescendantsEdit
  • Japanese: (yo)

Etymology 3Edit

Attested in the Hizen-no-kuni Fudoki (c. 739 CE) and in the Man'yōshū (759 CE) as the Eastern Old Japanese variation of yo above.

NounEdit

(yu) (kana )

  1. (regional, Eastern Old Japanese) night, evening
    • c. 732-739, Hizen-no-kuni Fudoki (poem 1)
      志努波羅能意登比賣能古袁佐比登母為禰弖牟志太夜伊幣爾久太佐牟
      sino1para no2 oto2pi1me1 no2 ko1 wo sa-pi1to2yu mo inetemu sida ya ipe1 ni kudasamu
      Once I've taken her, slept with her a single night―that little lady, the girl from the bamboo brakes―I'll send her down to her home.[4]
      [Note: Some later manuscripts erroneously replace the man'yōgana (wo) with (⟨so1 → so).]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ Haruo Shirane (2005) Classical Japanese: A Grammar, illustrated edition, Columbia University Press, →ISBN, page 320
  3. ^ Donald L. Philippi (2015) Kojiki (Volume 2255 of Princeton Legacy Library), Princeton University Press, →ISBN, pages 106-7
  4. ^ Helen Craig McCullough (1997), “Combinations of Poetry and Prose in Classical Japanese Narrative”, in Joseph Harris, Ph.D., Joseph Harris, Karl Reichl, editors, Prosimetrum: Crosscultural Perspectives on Narrative in Prose and Verse, illustrated edition, Boydell & Brewer, →ISBN, page 416

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(dạ, )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

YonaguniEdit

KanjiEdit

(kun'yomi どぅる, romaji duru)

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Ryukyuan *yoru, from Proto-Japonic *yoru. Cognate with Japanese (よる, yoru, night).

NounEdit

(hiragana どぅる, romaji duru)

  1. night