See also:
U+591C, 夜
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-591C

[U+591B]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+591D]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 36, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 卜人弓大 (YONK), four-corner 00247, composition )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 246, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5763
  • Dae Jaweon: page 490, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 285, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+591C

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms
𠙇
𠙑
𡖍

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *laːɡs) : phonetic (OC *laːɡ) + semantic (moon). (OC *ljaːɡ) may also serve as another phonetic component.

The lower-right portion is a corruption/graphical variant of (); the remainder ( + ) is a reduced and distorted form of (), used phonetically.

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ja-n (night) (STEDT); cognate with Mizo zân (night), Burmese (nya., night).

Schuessler (2007) believes (OC *laːɡs) and (OC *ljaːɡ) are distinct as Tibeto-Burman keeps the etyma *ja-n (night) and *s-r(j)ak (day; day (24 hours); night) strictly separate. However, Baxter and Sagart (2014) suggest that () and () have clear etymological connections and thus reconstructs similar finals in both words.

Pronunciation edit


Note: je6-2 - night shift.
Note:
  • ia5/ie5 - vernacular;
  • ie4 - literary.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (36)
    Final () (100)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter yaeH
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /jiaH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /jiaH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /iaH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /jiaH/
    Li
    Rong
    /iaH/
    Wang
    Li
    /jĭaH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /i̯aH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    je6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ H ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɢ]Ak-s/
    English night

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 14992
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*laːɡs/

    Definitions edit

    1. night
      See also:
        ―  zhòu duǎn cháng  ―  short days and long nights
    2. (Cantonese) late (in the night)
      呢排晚晚返屋企 [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
      ngo5 ni1 paai4 maan5 maan5 dou1 hou2 je6 sin1 faan1 uk1 kei2. [Jyutping]
      Recently, I've been going home quite late in the night.
      [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
      ngo5 je6 di1 sin1 zau2 dou1 dak1. [Jyutping]
      I can leave later in the evening.
    3. Classifier for the number of nights.
        ―  sān tiān liǎng   ―  three days and two nights
    4. (Cantonese) night shift; night work
    Synonyms edit

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    Pronunciation edit

    Definitions edit

    1. (Southern Min) Alternative form of

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    Kanji in this term
    よる
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    ⟨yo1ru⟩ → */jʷoru//joru/

    From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *yoru.

    Derived from yo below, suffixed with an element ru of unclear meaning.[1] Compare (hi, day) (hiru, daytime), which seems to use this same ru element.[1]

    Now the most common term for night in modern Japanese.

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (よる) (yoru

    1. the night, evening
      Synonym: 夜間 (yakan)
      Antonym: (hiru)
      (とう)(きょう)(よる)
      Tōkyō no yoru
      Tokyo nights
      (よる)(まち)(ある)
      yoru no machi o aruku
      to walk the streets at night
      (literally, “to walk the night streets”)
      ()(あん)(よる)()ごす
      fuan na yoru o sugosu
      to endure a night of anxiety
      (literally, “to pass an uneasy night”)
      (よる)(ほし)(ぞら)()()げる
      yoru no hoshizora o miageru
      to look up at the night's starry sky
    Derived terms edit

    Proper noun edit

    (よる) (Yoru

    1. a female given name

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    ⟨yo1/jʷo//jo/

    From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *yo.

    First attested in the Kojiki of 712 CE.[1]

    In modern development, this term has taken on a more literary sense.

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    () (yo

    1. (literary) night, evening
      ()(なつ)()(ゆめ)“Manatsu no Yo no Yume”A Midsummer Night’s Dream
    Derived terms edit

    See also edit

    References edit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN

    Korean edit

    Etymology edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC yaeH).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 양〮 (Yale: )
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 밤〮 (Yale: pám) 야〯 (Yale: )

    Pronunciation edit

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ja̠(ː)]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
      • Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

    Hanja edit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (bam ya))

    1. Hanja form? of (night).

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

    Oki-No-Erabu edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Etymology edit

    Kanji in this term
    いぃーる
    Grade: 2

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *yoru, from Proto-Japonic *yoru.

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (yoru).

    Noun edit

    (いぃーる) (yīru

    1. the night

    Okinawan edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    Kanji in this term
    ゆる
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *yoru, from Proto-Japonic *yoru.

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (yoru, night).

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (ゆる) (yuru

    1. the night
    Derived terms edit

    Counter edit

    (ゆる) (-yuru

    1. nights
      (ちゅ)(ゆる)chuyuruone night
      ()(ゆる)tayurutwo nights

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term
    ゆー
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *yo, from Proto-Japonic *yo.

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (yo).

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (ゆー) (

    1. the night
    Derived terms edit

    See also edit

    References edit

    • ユル” in Haisai Okinawan Dialect.
    • ユル(ゆる)” in Okinawan Dialect Dictionary - Ajima.
    • ゆる” in Okinawan Dictionary - KozaWeb.
    • 沖縄語辞典 (Okinawago Jiten, “Okinawan Dictionary”)[4], 1963

    Old Japanese edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    From Proto-Japonic *yoru.

    Derived from yo1 below, suffixed with an element ru of unclear meaning.[1] Compare (pi1, day) (pi1ru, daytime), which seems to use this same ru element.

    Used as a standalone noun but not in compounds.

    Noun edit

    (yo1ru) (kana よる)

    1. the night, evening
      Antonym: (pi1ru)
      • c. 759, Man’yōshū, book 5, poem 807:
        , text here
        宇豆都仁波安布余志勿奈子奴婆多麻能用流能伊昧仁越都伎提美延許曾
        ututu ni pa apu yo2si mo nasi nubatama no2 yo1ru no2 ime2 ni wo tugi1te miye ko2so2
        There is no way to see you in reality. Please continue to appear in dreams of the night![2]
    Derived terms edit
    Descendants edit
    • Japanese: (yoru)

    Etymology 2 edit

    From Proto-Japonic *yo, first attested in the Kojiki (712 CE).[1]

    Used as both a standalone noun and in compounds.

    Noun edit

    (yo1) (kana )

    1. the night, evening
      • 711–712, Kojiki, (poem 3):
        ...阿遠夜麻邇比賀迦久良婆奴婆多麻能波伊傅那牟...
        ...awoyama ni pi1 ga kakuraba nubatama no2 yo1 pa idenamu...
        As soon as the sun hides behind the verdant mountains, then jet-black night will come.[3]
    Derived terms edit
    Descendants edit
    • Japanese: (yo)

    Etymology 3 edit

    Attested in the Hizen-no-kuni Fudoki (c. 739 CE) and in the Man'yōshū (759 CE) as the Eastern Old Japanese variation of yo above.

    Noun edit

    (yu) (kana )

    1. (regional, Eastern Old Japanese) the night, evening
      • c. 732-739, Hizen-no-kuni Fudoki (poem 1)
        志努波羅能意登比賣能古袁佐比登母爲禰弖牟志太夜伊幣爾久太佐牟
        sino1para no2 oto2pi1me1 no2 ko1 wo sa-pi1to2yu mo inetemu sida ya ipe1 ni kudasamu
        Once I've taken her, slept with her a single night―that little lady, the girl from the bamboo brakes―I'll send her down to her home.[4]
        [Note: Some later manuscripts erroneously replace the man'yōgana (wo) with (⟨so1 → so).]

    See also edit

    References edit

    1. 1.0 1.1 Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
    2. ^ Haruo Shirane (2005) Classical Japanese: A Grammar, illustrated edition, Columbia University Press, →ISBN, page 320
    3. ^ Donald L. Philippi (2015) Kojiki (Volume 2255 of Princeton Legacy Library), Princeton University Press, →ISBN, pages 106-7
    4. ^ Helen Craig McCullough (1997) “Combinations of Poetry and Prose in Classical Japanese Narrative”, in Joseph Harris, Ph.D., Joseph Harris, Karl Reichl, editors, Prosimetrum: Crosscultural Perspectives on Narrative in Prose and Verse, illustrated edition, Boydell & Brewer, →ISBN, page 416

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Nôm readings: dạ,

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Yonaguni edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Etymology edit

    Kanji in this term
    どぅる
    Grade: 2

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *yoru, from Proto-Japonic *yoru.

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (yoru).

    Noun edit

    (どぅる) (duru

    1. the night