See also:
U+8272, 色
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8272

[U+8271]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8273]
U+2F8A, ⾊
KANGXI RADICAL COLOR

[U+2F89]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F8B]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 139, +0, 6 strokes, cangjie input 弓日山 (NAU), four-corner 27717, composition )

  1. Kangxi radical #139, .
  2. Shuowen Jiezi radical №340

Derived characters

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See also

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Further reading

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1014, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 30602
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1473, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3071, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+8272

Chinese

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simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𢒸
𣤻
“die”
erroneous
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • Sek (Southern Min)

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
           

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意) : (claw; hand) + (kneeling person) – complexion.

Shuowen interprets this character as an ideogrammic compound (會意会意) : (person; human) + (etiquette) – complexion.

Compare , .

Etymology

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Possibly from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-r(j)ak ~ *g-jak (ashamed; shy), whence Burmese ရှက် (hrak, ashamed; shy), Japhug tɤ-zraʁ (shame) (Schuessler, 2007; Jacques, 2015b).

Alternatively, Schuessler (2007) connects this word to Mizo sâr (prismatic colours seen in the sky in fine weather; to be healthy-looking, ruddy), which would point to a form *sər-k from which the Old Chinese was derived.

(OC *s.r̥ˤəʔ, “colour”) may be a dialectal variant (Baxter, 1992; Baxter and Sagart, 2014).

Pronunciation

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Note:
  • sè - all senses except “die”;
  • shǎi - “die; colour”;
  • shǎir - “colour”;
  • shè - “lust”.
Note:
  • sah4 - vernacular;
  • seh4 - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /sɤ⁵¹/
/ʂai²¹⁴/
Harbin /ʂai²¹³/
/sai²¹³/
/sɤ⁵³/
Tianjin /sai¹³/
/sɤ⁵³/
Jinan /sə²¹³/
/ʂei²¹³/
Qingdao /ʂe⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /ʂɛ²⁴/
Xi'an /sei²¹/
Xining /sɨ⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /sə¹³/
Lanzhou /ʂə¹³/
Ürümqi /sɤ⁵¹/
/sei⁴⁴/
Wuhan /sɤ²¹³/
Chengdu /se³¹/
Guiyang /sɛ²¹/
Kunming /sə³¹/
Nanjing /səʔ⁵/
Hefei /sɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /saʔ²/
Pingyao /sʌʔ¹³/
Hohhot /saʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /səʔ⁵/
Suzhou /səʔ⁵/
Hangzhou /səʔ⁵/
Wenzhou /se²¹³/
Hui Shexian /sɛʔ²¹/
Tunxi /sa⁵/
Xiang Changsha /sə²⁴/
Xiangtan /sæ²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /sɛʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /set̚¹/
Taoyuan /set̚²²/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sek̚⁵/
Nanning /sek̚⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /sɐk̚⁵/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /sik̚³²/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /saiʔ²³/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /sɛ²⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /sek̚²/
Haikou (Hainanese) /tek̚⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (21)
Final () (134)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter srik
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʃɨk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʃɨk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʃiek̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʂik̚/
Li
Rong
/ʃiək̚/
Wang
Li
/ʃĭək̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʂi̯ək̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
she
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
sik1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ srik ›
Old
Chinese
/*s.rək/
English color; countenance

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 10989
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*srɯɡ/

Definitions

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  1. color; tint; hue; shade (Classifier: c)
      ―  yán  ―  color
      ―  yánshǎir  ―  color
      ―  hóng  ―  red
    定理  ―  dìnglǐ  ―  four color theorem
  2. look; expression
      ―  liǎn  ―  facial expression
  3. scenery; circumstance
      ―  jǐng  ―  scenery
      ―    ―  night scenery
  4. kind; sort
      ―  huò  ―  goods; stuff; trash; rubbish; quality of goods; specification
  5. feminine charm; beauty
    姿  ―    ―  good looks (of women)
  6. lust; sexual desire
      ―  hào  ―  to lust for women
      ―  qíng  ―  pornography; sexual desire
  7. (colloquial) perverted; being a pervert; lecherous
  8. theatrical role
      ―  jué  ―  role; part
  9. metallic content
      ―  chéng  ―  purity (of a precious metal in an alloy)
  10. die (a cube with numbers or symbols on each side, used in games of chance) (Classifier: c)
      ―  shǎizi  ―  die
  11. (Buddhism) rūpa (form; material element; form of existence; etc.)
    [MSC, trad. and simp.]
    jí shì kōng, kōng jí shì . [Pinyin]
    Form is emptiness, emptiness is form.
  12. (transgender slang) Short for 色普龍色普龙; cypro (cyproterone acetate)
  13. a surname

Synonyms

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  • (color): (yán)
  • (perverted):
  • (die):

See also

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Colors in Chinese · 顏色颜色 (layout · text)
     白色      灰色      黑色
             紅色红色, 赤色; 緋紅色绯红色, 豔紅色艳红色, 大紅大红              橙色; 棕色, 褐色              黃色黄色; 奶油色
             青檸色青柠色              綠色绿色             
             青色; 深青色              湛藍色湛蓝色, 蔚藍色蔚蓝色, 天藍色天蓝色              藍色蓝色
             紫羅蘭色紫罗兰色; 靛色              洋紅色洋红色; 紫色              粉紅色粉红色
  • (cypro): (, “E”), (luó, “spiro”)

Compounds

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Descendants

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Sino-Xenic ():

References

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Further reading

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Japanese

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Stroke order
 

Kanji

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(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
いろ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi
 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja

⟨iro2 → */irə//iro/

From Old Japanese.

First attested in the Nihon Shoki with the meaning of color.[1] Senses referring to a person's emotions also appear quite early on. The romance or sex senses appear from the 900s, apparently an influence from Chinese usage,[1] and roughly comparable to the euphemistic usage of English colorful.

Pronunciation

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  • (Tokyo) [ìróꜜ] (Odaka – [2])[2][3]
  • IPA(key): [iɾo̞]
  • Audio:(file)

Noun

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(いろ) (iro

  1. [from 720] color
    ()(いろ)(ちが)(ねこ)
    me no iro ga chigau neko
    a cat that has eyes of different color
  2. [from 797] (figurative) the metaphorical color or mood
    1. one's facial coloring or expression
    2. the shape of one's face or appearance; more specifically, beautiful looks or a beautiful figure
    3. lively elegance, enjoyable or interesting charm
    4. apparent thoughtfulness, warmheartedness
    5. the feeling or mood of a thing
    6. the tenor or timber of a voice or sound
    7. in Noh, a section that is chanted at a medium pace; alternately, a decorative poetic section
    8. in 浄瑠璃 (jōruri, puppet show narrative), a lively section that is neither strictly dialog nor narration, but has many elements of dialog
    9. when playing the koto, pushing on a string with the fingers of the left hand to change the pitch of a note, or for vibrato
  3. [from early 900s] something related to romantic or sexual love, particularly between genders
    1. the emotions or circumstances of attraction between genders
    2. extramarital relations, an affair
    3. an extramarital lover
    4. a prostitute
    5. a red-light district
  4. [from late 900s] the type or kind of something
  5. (informal, slang) various specific kinds of color:
    1. (informal, slang, woman's speech) lipstick or rouge
    2. (informal, slang) soy sauce
    3. (informal, slang) paint
Derived terms
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Adjective

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(いろ) (iro-na (adnominal (いろ) (iro na), adverbial (いろ) (iro ni))

  1. [from late 900s] (archaic) of exceptional beauty of form or appearance
    • Utsubo Monogatari, late 10th c.:
      いろなる(むすめ)どもゐなみて
      ironaru musume domo inamite
      beautiful girls all in a row
  2. [from late 900s] (archaic) knowledgeable about lovemaking, sensual; lascivious, lecherous
    • Ochikubo Monogatari, late 10th c.:
      越前守(えちぜんもり)(いろ)なる(ひと)にて
      echizenmori ironaru hito ni te
      Echizenmori was a man who liked the girls / had quite the libido
  3. [from early 1000s] (archaic) elegant, tasteful, refined
    • The Tale of Genji, early 11th c.:
      目馴(めな)れずもある()まひの(さま)かな(いろ)なる御心(おこころ)にはをかしくおぼしなさる
      menarezu mo aru sumahi no sama ka na ironaru okokoro ni wa okashiku oboshinasaru
      "I haven't seen it before, but it looks like a house," he thought bemusedly in his refined mind...

Affix

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(いろ) (iro

  1. relating to a love affair or the red light district
  2. of that tone or timber or mood
  3. relating to type or kind
Usage notes
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Only found in compounds.

Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
いろえ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

⟨iro2pe2 → */irəpəj//irofe//iroe/

Nominalization of the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of classical shimo nidan katsuyō verb 色う (irou, to color something).

Not used in modern Japanese.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(いろえ) (iroeいろへ (irofe)?

  1. (obsolete) coloring, design

Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term
しき
Grade: 2
goon

From Middle Chinese (MC srik). The goon reading, so likely the initial borrowing.[4]

The Buddhist sense is translation of Sanskrit रूप (rūpa, outward appearance, color, form, shape).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(しき) (shiki

  1. (Buddhism) material form, specifically the organized body as one of the five constituent elements or skandhas
    • 7th century, Heart Sutra (translation by Xuanzang)
      (しゃ)()()(しき)()()(くう)(くう)()()(しき)(しき)(そく)()(くう)(くう)(そく)()(しき)(じゅ)(そう)(ぎょう)(しき)(やく)()如是(にょぜ)
      Sharishi, shiki fu i kū, kū fu i shiki. Shiki soku ze kū, kū soku ze shiki. Ju-sō-gyō-shiki, yaku bu nyoze.
      Sariputra, form is not different from emptiness; emptiness is not different from form. That which is form is empty; that which is emptiness is form. This is also true for sensation, perception, intention, and awareness.[5]
  2. that which is visible of a thing, specifically form and color
  3. color
Usage notes
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Used extensively in compounds.

Derived terms
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See also
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Etymology 4

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Kanji in this term
しょく
Grade: 2
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (MC srik). The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing.[4]

Pronunciation

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Affix

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(しょく) (shoku

  1. color (US), colour (everywhere else)
Usage notes
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Used in compounds.

Derived terms
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Counter

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(しょく) (-shoku

  1. used to count the number of colors
    (さん)(しょく)()
    sanshoku suri
    three-color printing
Derived terms
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See also

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Colors in Japanese · (いろ) (iro) (layout · text)
     (しろ) (shiro)      (はい)(いろ) (haiiro),
(ねずみ)(いろ) (nezumiiro) (dated)
     (くろ) (kuro)
             (あか) (aka); (しん)() (shinku),
クリムゾン (kurimuzon),
(べに)(いろ) (beniiro),
(くれない)(いろ) (kurenaiiro),
(あかね)(いろ) (akaneiro)
             オレンジ (orenji),
(だいだい)(いろ) (daidaiiro); (ちゃ)(いろ) (chairo),
(かっ)(しょく) (kasshoku)
             ()(いろ) (kiiro); クリーム(いろ) (kurīmuiro)
             ()(みどり) (kimidori)              (みどり) (midori),
(あお) (ao) (dated)
             若緑(わかみどり) (wakamidori)
             シアン (shian); (かも)羽色(はねいろ) (kamo no hane iro)              (みず)(いろ) (mizuiro)              (あお) (ao)
             (すみれ)(いろ) (sumireiro); (あい)(いろ) (aiiro),
インジゴ (injigo)
             マゼンタ (mazenta),
赤紫(あかむらさき) (akamurasaki); (むらさき) (murasaki)
             ピンク (pinku),
(もも)(いろ) (momoiro)

References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 ”, in 日本国語大辞典 [Nihon Kokugo Daijiten]‎[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, 2000
  2. 2.0 2.1 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN
  4. 4.0 4.1 Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  5. ^ Kido Inoue, Doiku Takeda (2012) Reggie Pawle, Ph.D, editor, Record of Traces and Dreams: the Heart Sutra, iUniverse, →ISBN, page vi

Korean

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Etymology

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From Middle Chinese (MC srik).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᄉᆡᆨ〮 (Yale: sóyk)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Sinjeung Yuhap, 1576 (Yale: pis) ᄉᆡᆨ (Yale: soyk)

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (bit saek))

  1. Hanja form? of (colour). [noun]

Compounds

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References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: sắc, sặc

  1. chữ Hán form of sắc (color).

Compounds

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