See also: and
U+696D, 業
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-696D

[U+696C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+696E]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 75, +9, 13 strokes, cangjie input 廿金廿木 (TCTD), four-corner 32904, composition𦍎)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 541, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 15170
  • Dae Jaweon: page 928, character 14
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1247, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+696D

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp. *
 
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Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     

Ideogrammic compound (會意): + .

EtymologyEdit

work; achievement
Etymology not clear.
large; terrific
Cognate with (OC *ŋraːm) (Schuessler, 2007). See for more.

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /iɛ⁵¹/
Harbin /iɛ⁵³/
Tianjin /ie⁵³/
Jinan /iə²¹/
Qingdao /iə⁴²/
Zhengzhou /iɛ²⁴/
Xi'an /niɛ²¹/
Xining /ȵi⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ie¹³/
Lanzhou /ȵiə¹³/
Ürümqi /iɤ²¹³/
Wuhan /ie²¹³/
Chengdu /ȵie³¹/
Guiyang /nie²¹/
Kunming /niɛ³¹/
Nanjing /ieʔ⁵/
Hefei /iɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /iəʔ²/
Pingyao /ȵiʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /iaʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /ȵiɪʔ¹/
Suzhou /ȵiəʔ³/
Hangzhou /ȵiəʔ²/
Wenzhou /ȵi²¹³/
Hui Shexian /ne²²/
Tunxi /ȵia¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ȵie²⁴/
Xiangtan /ȵie²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /ȵiɛʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /ŋiap̚⁵/
Taoyuan /ŋiɑp̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jip̚²/
Nanning /nip̚²²/
Hong Kong /jip̚²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /giap̚⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋieʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋiɛ⁴²/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ŋiap̚⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ŋiap̚⁵/
/ŋiap̚³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (31)
Final () (147)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋɨɐp̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋiɐp̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋiɐp̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋɨap̚/
Li
Rong
/ŋiap̚/
Wang
Li
/ŋĭɐp̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋi̯ɐp̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngjæp › ‹ ngjæp › ‹ ngjæp ›
Old
Chinese
/*[m-qʰ](r)[a]p/ /*[m-qʰ](r)[a]p/ /*[ŋ](r)[a]p/
English work (n.) horizontal board of a bell stand or frame strong, sturdy

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 14819
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋab/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. profession; business; trade
    /   ―  nóng  ―  agriculture
    /   ―  shāng  ―  business; commerce; trade
    /   ―  háng  ―  industry; profession
  2. merits and achievements; work
    /   ―  gōng  ―  merits and achievements
  3. course of study
    /   ―  xué  ―  studies
    /   ―    ―  to graduate
  4. property; estate
    /   ―  jiā  ―  family property
  5. lofty; large
    業業 [Classical Chinese, trad.]
    业业 [Classical Chinese, simp.]
    From: The Classic of Poetry, circa 11th – 7th centuries BCE, translated based on James Legge's version
    Róng chē jì jià, sì mǔ yèyè. [Pinyin]
    His war carriage is yoked; The four steeds are lofty.
  6. (literary) already
  7. (Buddhism) karma
  8. to perform some type of job or work

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. work, business, task, profession
  2. vocation
  3. arts
  4. performance

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
ぎょう
Grade: 3
on’yomi

/ɡepu//ɡefu//ɡeu//ɡjoː/

From Middle Chinese (MC ŋɨɐp̚). The kan'on, so likely a later borrowing.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(ぎょう) (gyōげふ (gefu)?

  1. work, task, business: the job at hand
  2. profession, business, trade: what one does to earn a living
  3. studies, scholarship (the act of being a scholar), the arts
    ()()(ぎょう)(ちゃく)(しゅ)する
    ika no gyō ni chakushu suru
    set to studying medicine, start one's medical studies
ProverbsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
ごう
Grade: 3
on’yomi

/ɡopu//ɡofu//ɡou//ɡoː/

From Middle Chinese (MC ŋɨɐp̚). The goon, so likely an earlier borrowing. Translation from the Sanskrit term कर्मन् (kárman, act, action, performance).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(ごう) (ごふ (gofu)?

  1. (Buddhism) karma
  2. sin, misdeed
  3. abbreviation of 業腹 (gōhara): resentment, resentful
IdiomsEdit
ProverbsEdit

Proper nounEdit

(ごう) (

  1. A male given name

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
なり
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Appears in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[4]

Derived as the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 業る (naru, to earn a living). Ultimately of same origin as verb なる (naru, to become).[5]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(なり) (nari

  1. (archaic, possibly obsolete) a living, a job, what one does to earn a living

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
わざ
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Found in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[6]

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(わざ) (waza

  1. a work of great significance or intent
  2. an intentional act or action
  3. (Buddhism) a Buddhist memorial service
  4. one's job, occupation, profession
  5. a matter or affair: implies a complication or problem
    (よう)()(わざ)ではありませんよ。
    Yōi na waza de wa arimasen yo.
    It's no easy matter, I tell you.
  6. a technique, a means of doing something
    (わざ)(みが)
    waza o migaku
    polish one's technique
  7. a move or technique in sumo, judo, kendo, or other competitive activity
  8. a disaster, misfortune, calamity
Derived termsEdit
Related termsEdit
  • (intentional act): (わざ) (waza to): intentionally, deliberately

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 5, poem 805), text here
  5. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  6. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 4, poem 721), text here

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(eumhun (il eop))

  1. Hanja form? of (work).

CompoundsEdit


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Nôm readings: nghiệp

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.