See also: and
U+696D, 業
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-696D

[U+696C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+696E]

Translingual

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Han character

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(Kangxi radical 75, +9, 13 strokes, cangjie input 廿金廿木 (TCTD), four-corner 32904, composition 𦍎)

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 541, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 15170
  • Dae Jaweon: page 928, character 14
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1247, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+696D

Chinese

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trad.
simp. *
alternative forms 𤑽 ancient
𤎸 ancient
𪴨
 
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     

Various explanations exist:

In the bronze inscriptions, the character sometimes contained two 業 and one (OC *kʰaʔ, *kʰas) (the original form of (OC *ɡaːb)). These forms may have been phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *ŋab) : semantic (wooden bell frame) + abbreviated phonetic (OC *ɡaːb).

Etymology

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work; achievement
Etymology not clear.
large; terrific
Cognate with (OC *ŋraːm) (Schuessler, 2007). See for more.

Pronunciation

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  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /iɛ⁵¹/
Harbin /iɛ⁵³/
Tianjin /ie⁵³/
Jinan /iə²¹/
Qingdao /iə⁴²/
Zhengzhou /iɛ²⁴/
Xi'an /niɛ²¹/
Xining /ȵi⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ie¹³/
Lanzhou /ȵiə¹³/
Ürümqi /iɤ²¹³/
Wuhan /ie²¹³/
Chengdu /ȵie³¹/
Guiyang /nie²¹/
Kunming /niɛ³¹/
Nanjing /ieʔ⁵/
Hefei /iɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /iəʔ²/
Pingyao /ȵiʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /iaʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /ȵiɪʔ¹/
Suzhou /ȵiəʔ³/
Hangzhou /ȵiəʔ²/
Wenzhou /ȵi²¹³/
Hui Shexian /ne²²/
Tunxi /ȵia¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ȵie²⁴/
Xiangtan /ȵie²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /ȵiɛʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /ŋiap̚⁵/
Taoyuan /ŋiɑp̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jip̚²/
Nanning /nip̚²²/
Hong Kong /jip̚²/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /giap̚⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /ŋieʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /ŋiɛ⁴²/
Shantou (Teochew) /ŋiap̚⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /ŋiap̚⁵/
/ŋiap̚³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (31)
Final () (147)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter ngjaep
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋɨɐp̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋiɐp̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋiɐp̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋɨap̚/
Li
Rong
/ŋiap̚/
Wang
Li
/ŋĭɐp̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋi̯ɐp̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jip6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngjæp › ‹ ngjæp › ‹ ngjæp ›
Old
Chinese
/*[m-qʰ](r)[a]p/ /*[m-qʰ](r)[a]p/ /*[ŋ](r)[a]p/
English work (n.) horizontal board of a bell stand or frame strong, sturdy

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 14819
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋab/

Definitions

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  1. profession; business; trade
      ―  nóng  ―  agriculture
      ―  shāng  ―  business; commerce; trade
      ―  háng  ―  industry; profession
  2. merits and achievements; work
      ―  gōng  ―  merits and achievements
  3. course of study
      ―  xué  ―  studies
      ―    ―  to graduate
  4. property; estate
      ―  jiā  ―  family property
  5. lofty; large
  6. (literary) already
  7. (Buddhism) karma
  8. to perform some type of job or work
  9. (historical) ornamental wooden board, carved into a sawtooth shape, on top of the horizontal beam of the frame on which bells, drums, and other instruments hang
    alt. forms: ()
    See also:

Synonyms

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Compounds

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References

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. work, business, task, profession
  2. vocation
  3. arts
  4. performance

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
ぎょう
Grade: 3
on’yomi

/ɡepu//ɡefu//ɡeu//ɡjoː/

From Middle Chinese (MC ngjaep). The kan'on, so likely a later borrowing.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(ぎょう) (gyōげふ (gefu)?

  1. work, task, business: the job at hand
  2. profession, business, trade: what one does to earn a living
  3. studies, scholarship (the act of being a scholar), the arts
    ()()(ぎょう)(ちゃく)(しゅ)する
    ika no gyō ni chakushu suru
    set to studying medicine, start one's medical studies
Proverbs
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Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
ごう
Grade: 3
on’yomi

/ɡopu//ɡofu//ɡou//ɡoː/

From Middle Chinese (MC ngjaep). The goon, so likely an earlier borrowing. Translation from the Sanskrit term कर्मन् (kárman, act, action, performance).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(ごう) (ごふ (gofu)?

  1. (Buddhism) karma
  2. sin, misdeed
  3. abbreviation of 業腹 (gōhara): resentment, resentful
Idioms
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Proverbs
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Proper noun

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(ごう) (

  1. a male given name

Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term
なり
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Appears in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[4]

Derived as the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 業る (naru, to earn a living). Ultimately of same origin as verb なる (naru, to become).[5]

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(なり) (nari

  1. (archaic, possibly obsolete) a living, a job, what one does to earn a living

Etymology 4

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Kanji in this term
わざ
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Found in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[6]

Alternative forms

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Pronunciation

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Noun

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(わざ) (waza

  1. a work of great significance or intent
  2. an intentional act or action
  3. (Buddhism) a Buddhist memorial service
  4. one's job, occupation, profession
  5. a matter or affair: implies a complication or problem
    (よう)()(わざ)ありません
    Yōi na waza de wa arimasen yo.
    It's no easy matter, I tell you.
  6. a technique, a means of doing something
    (わざ)(みが)
    waza o migaku
    polish one's technique
  7. a move or technique in sumo, judo, kendo, or other competitive activity
  8. a disaster, misfortune, calamity
Derived terms
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References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Kindaichi, Kyōsuke et al., editors (1997), 新明解国語辞典 [Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten] (in Japanese), Fifth edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. ^
    c. 759, Man’yōshū, book 5, poem 805:
    , text here
  5. ^ Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  6. ^
    c. 759, Man’yōshū, book 4, poem 721:
    , text here

Korean

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Hanja

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(eumhun (il eop))

  1. Hanja form? of (work).

Compounds

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Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: nghiệp

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.