Wiktionary:About Chinese/Sichuanese

Wiktionary uses the Sichuanese Pinyin to transcribe the Chengdu-Chongqing dialect of Sichuanese, which is part of the Southwest Mandarin branch. Entries also contain Scuanxua Ladinxua Xin Wenz, a modified form of Latinxua Sin Wenz.

InitialsEdit

Sichuanese
Pinyin
Scuanxua
Ladinxua
Xin Wenz
IPA Example Notes
b b /p/
d d /t/
g g /k/
p p /pʰ/
t t /tʰ/
k k /kʰ/
z z /t͡s/
j g /t͡ɕ/
c c /t͡sʰ/
q k /t͡ɕʰ/
m m /m/
n l /n/ Free variation between [n], [l], [l̃]
ny n /nʲ/ May be omitted in certain words
ng ng /ŋ/ May be omitted in certain words
f f /f/
s s /s/
x x /ɕ/
h x /x/
w (nothing) /v/ Only before /u/ as a full final
r rh /z/
(nothing) (nothing)

FinalsEdit

Sichuanese
Pinyin
Scuanxua
Ladinxua
Xin Wenz
IPA Example Notes
i (nothing) /z̩/ Only with /t͡s/, /t͡sʰ/, /s/, /z/
er r /ɚ/
a a /a/
o (u)o /o/
e e /ɛ/ May be pronounced [e]
ai ai /ai/
ei ei /ei/
ao ao /au/
ou ou /əu/
an an /an/ May be pronounced as [æ̃], [æ] by younger speakers
en en /ən/
ang ang/ong /aŋ/
ong ung /oŋ/
i i /i/ Not with /t͡s/, /t͡sʰ/, /s/, /z/
ia ia /ia/
ie ie /iɛ/
iai iai /iai/ May be pronounced [iɛi]
iao iao /iau/
iu iu /iəu/
ian ian /iɛn/ May be pronounced as [iɛ̃], [iɛ] by younger speakers
in in /in/
iang iang/iong /iaŋ/
u u /u/
ua ua /ua/
ue ue /uɛ/
uai uai /uai/
ui uei /uei/
uan uan /uan/ May be pronounced as [uæ̃], [uæ] by younger speakers
un un /uən/
uang uong /uaŋ/
ü y /y/
üo iuo /yo/
üe ye /ye/
üan uan /yan/ May be pronounced as [yɛ̃], [yɛ] by younger speakers
ün un /yn/
iong yng /yoŋ/

ErhuaEdit

There is erhua in the Chengdu and Chongqing dialects. When erhua is applied to a syllable, "-r" is appended to the original final, e.g. (tou2 (/tʰəu²¹/)) becomes 頭兒 (tour2 (/tʰɚ²¹/)). Erhua changes the entire final into either [ɚ], [iɚ], [uɚ], or [yɚ] based on the original final.

Table of syllablesEdit

Pinyin table Initials Pinyin table
b p m f d t n ny ng g k h j q x r z c s
Group a Finals -i m ri zi ci si -i Group a Finals
a a ba pa ma fa da ta na nga ga ka ha za ca sa a
o o bo po mo fo do to no ngo go ko ho ro zo co so o
e e be pe me de te ne nge ge ke he re ze ce se e
ai ai bai pai mai dai tai nai ngai gai kai hai zai cai sai ai
ei - bei pei mei fei ei
ao - bao pao mao dao tao nao ngao gao kao hao rao zao cao sao ao
ou - dou tou nou ngou gou kou hou rou zou cou sou ou
an an ban pan man fan dan tan nan ngan gan kan han ran zan can san an
en - ben pen men fen den ten nen ngen gen ken hen ren zen cen sen en
ang ang bang pang mang fang dang tang nang ngang gang kang hang rang zang cang sang ang
er er er
Group i Finals i yi bi pi mi di ti ni nyi ji qi xi i Group i Finals
ia ya bia pia dia nia nyia jia qia xia ia
ie ye bie pie mie die tie nie jie qie xie ie
iai yai jiai xiai iai
iao yao biao piao miao diao tiao niao nyiao jiao qiao xiao iao
iu you miu diu niu nyiu jiu qiu xiu iu
ian yan bian pian mian dian tian nian nyian jian qian xian ian
in yin bin pin min nin nyin jin qin xin in
iang yang niang nyiang jiang qiang xiang iang
Group u Finals u wu bu pu mu fu du tu nu gu ku hu ru zu cu su u Group u Finals
ua wa gua kua hua rua ua
ue ue gue kue hue uo
uo wo duo tuo nuo nguo guo kuo huo ruo zuo cuo suo uo
uai wai guai kuai huai zuai cuai suai uai
ui wei dui tui nui gui kui hui rui zui cui sui ui
uan wan duan tuan nuan guan kuan huan ruan zuan cuan suan uan
un wen dun tun nun gun kun hun run zun cun sun un
uang wang guang kuang huang zuang cuang suang uang
ong wong bong pong mong fong dong tong nong gong kong hong rong zong cong song ong
Group ü Finals ü yu nyü ju qu xu ü Group ü Finals
üo yuo nuo juo quo xuo üe
üe yue jue que xue üe
üan yuan juan quan xuan üan
ün yun jun qun xun ün
iong yong jiong qiong xiong iong
Pinyin table b p m f d t n ny ng g k h j q x r z c s Pinyin table
Initials

Colour LegendEdit

"regular" initial or final

Final is in Group a or is a direct combination of:

  • i + Group a final
  • u + Group a final
  • ü + Group a final
Final of i, u, ü groups is a modified combination of:
  • i + Group a final
  • u + Group a final
  • ü + Group a final
syllable is direct combination of initial and final (or follows rules for no-initial syllables outlined at the top of the page) syllable is modified combination of initial and final

TonesEdit

Dialects 1st tone 2nd tone 3rd tone 4th tone
Chengdu ˥ 55 ˨˩ 21 ˥˧ 53 ˨˩˧ 213
Chongqing ˥ 55 ˨˩ 21 ˦˨ 42 ˨˩˦ 214

In flowing speech, the fourth tone (213) becomes a low rising tone ˩˧ (13). The actual pronunciation of the first tone is closer to ˦˥ (45) in Chengdu.

Some varieties of Sichuanese have a fifth tone; in Chengdu and Chongqing it has merged with the second tone (Middle Chinese light level tone).

Tone sandhiEdit

Because tone sandhi in Sichuanese has many irregularities, it is indicated by the actual tone appended after the original tone number along with a hyphen -. For example, in bao2-1 the original tone is 2 and the actual tone is 1.

These are some tone sandhi patterns:

  •  
    examples: 皮皮 (pi2pi2-1), 瓣瓣 (ban4ban4-1) (characters formerly having a with the checked tone will still change 缺缺 (que2que2-1))
    reduplicated adjectives and classifiers do not go through sandhi, e.g. 年年 (nyian2nyian2), 回回 (hui2hui2)
  •  
    examples: 頭髮 (tou2fa2-1), 四季豆兒 (si4ji4-1dour4)
    exceptions: 聯合 (nian2ho2), 白糖 (be2tang2) (related to former presence of the checked tone in and , which causes them to act differently from the normal second tone; however in the aforementioned reduplication pattern nouns with the checked tone will still change 缺缺 (que2que2-1))
  •  
    e.g. 餃子 (jiao3zi3-2), 姐姐 (jie3jie3-2)
    reduplicated adjectives do not go through sandhi, e.g. 洋歪歪 (yang2wai3wai3)

ExamplesEdit

Chinese characters Sichuanese Pinyin Scuanxua Ladinxua Xin Wenz IPA Literal Meaning Figurative Meaning
矮子 Ngai3zi3-2 go4 ho2, ngan1 no3 xin1. Ngaaiz go ho, ngan lo xin. /ŋai⁵³ t͡sz̩⁵³⁻²¹ ko²¹³ xo²¹ ŋan⁵⁵ no⁵³ ɕin⁵⁵/ A short person crosses a river—his heart drowns. ("drowns" sounds like "peace") To settle one's mind.
Juo2 zen4 bu2pa4 hai2 wai1. Giuo zen bupa xai uai. /t͡ɕyo²¹ t͡sən²¹³ pu²¹ pʰa²¹³ xai²¹ uai⁵⁵/ A straight foot is not afraid of a crooked shoe. An upright man is not afraid of gossip.
包穀打喝嗐開黃腔 Ci2 bao1gu2ba1 da3 ho1hai4, kai1 huang2qiang1. C baoguba daa xoxai, kai xuongqiang. /t͡sʰz̩²¹ pau⁵⁵ ku²¹ pa⁵⁵ ta⁵³ xo⁵⁵ xai²¹³ kʰai⁵⁵ xuaŋ²¹ t͡ɕʰiaŋ⁵⁵/ To yawn while eating corn cake and open up one's yellow mouth. To talk dirty
糍粑不到爪爪 Maor1 zua1 ci2ba1, to2 bu2 dao3 zao3zao3-2. Mer zua cba, to budao zaozao. /mɚ⁵⁵ t͡sua⁵⁵ t͡sʰz̩²¹ pa⁵⁵ tʰo²¹ pu²¹ tau⁵³ t͡sau⁵³ t͡sau⁵³⁻²¹/ The cat grabs the glutinous rice cake—can't get it off his paws To be unable to escape responsibility

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • 《成都方言詞典》 (1998)
  • 《成都话方言词典》 (1987)
  • 《四川方言词典》 (1986)