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U+65E9, 早
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-65E9

[U+65E8]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+65EA]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 72, +2, 6 strokes, cangjie input 日十 (AJ), four-corner 60400, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 489, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13742
  • Dae Jaweon: page 850, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1483, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+65E9

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ʔsuːʔ
*sʰuːʔ
*sʰuːʔ
*sʰuːʔ
*zuːʔ
*zuːʔ

Early bronze inscriptions: Pictogram (象形) – acorn. Original form of (OC *zuːʔ) (once also written as ). Borrowed for "morning" sense.

Late bronze inscriptions: Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ʔsuːʔ): semantic  (sun) + phonetic  (OC *ʔsuːʔ), with sometimes simplified as .

Small seal script: Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (sun) +  (first) – when the sun first rises.

In some In ancient texts, (OC *ʔsuːʔ) was often used instead.

EtymologyEdit

Possible cognate found in Proto-Hmong-Mien *ntsi̯ouˣ (early), whence White Hmong ntxov and Iu Mien nziou (Baxter and Sagart, 2014; Schuessler, 2007), and Proto-Tai *ɟa:wᶜ (early morning), whence Thai เช้า (cháao) and ᦋᧁᧉ (tsaw2).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • cā - vernacular;
  • cō̤ - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • chá - vernacular;
    • chái - vernacular (for certain words);
    • chó͘/chó - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (13)
    Final () (89)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡sɑuX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡sɑuX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡sɑuX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /t͡sawX/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡sɑuX/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡sɑuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡sɑuX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zǎo
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zǎo
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsawX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*Nə.tsˁuʔ/
    English early

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 16546
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ʔsuːʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. early; in advance; soon
        ―  Wǒ xǐng dé hěn zǎo.  ―  I woke up early.
    2. long ago; for a long time
        ―  zǎo zǒu le.  ―  He left long ago.
    3. (early) morning
    4. good morning
      老師 / 老师  ―  Lǎoshī zǎo!  ―  Good morning, teacher!
    5. before; in the past time

    SynonymsEdit

    Dialectal synonyms of 早安 (“good morning”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 早安
    Mandarin Beijing 早安, , 早上好
    Taiwan 早安,
    Liuzhou 早晨
    Cantonese Guangzhou 早晨
    Hong Kong 早晨
    Foshan 早晨
    Shunde 早晨
    Zhongshan (Shiqi) 早晨
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 早晨
    Taishan 早晨
    Kaiping (Chikan) 早晨
    Dongguan 早晨
    Hakka Meixian 恁早
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 恁早, 恁會早, 恁早萋
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 恁早
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 恁早, 恁會早, 恁早萋
    Dongshi (Dabu) 恁早, 恁早萋
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 恁早, 恁早萋
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 𠢕早, 堅早
    Sabah (Bao'an) 早晨
    Min Nan Xiamen 𠢕早
    Quanzhou 𠢕早
    Zhangzhou 𠢕早
    Taipei 𠢕早
    Philippines (Manila) 好早起
    Chaozhou 眠起好
    Wu Shanghai 儂早

    CompoundsEdit

    Further readingEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit


    Kanji in this term
    はや
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana はや, rōmaji haya)

    1. already, now

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (jo)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (tảo, linh)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.