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See also:
U+9837, 頷
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9837

[U+9836]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9838]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 181, +7, 16 strokes, cangjie input 人口一月金 (ORMBC) or X人口一月 (XORMB), four-corner 81686, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1405, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 43512
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1922, character 16
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4375, character 13
  • Unihan data for U+9837

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʰl'uːm
*l̥ʰuːmʔ
*l̥ʰuːms, *luːms
*qʰɯːm, *qlamʔ, *qlɯːms
*qʰɯːm
*qʰɯːm
*qʰɯːm, *ɡɯːms
*ɡɯːm
*ɡɯːm, *ɡɯːmʔ
*ɡɯːm, *ɡɯːmʔ
*ɡɯːm
*ɡɯːm
*ɡɯːm
*ɡɯːmʔ, *ɡɯːms
*ɡɯːms
*ɡɯːms
*qɯːm, *qaːb
*qɯːm, *qrɯːms
*krɯːm
*qʰrɯːm, *kʰjam, *qʰlɯːm, *ɡrɯms
*qʰrɯːmʔ, *qʰram, *kʰlam, *kʰlamʔ, *qʰlɯːm
*ɡram, *ɡrɯm
*ɡram
*ɡram
*ɡram, *ɡrɯm
*nɯːms
*sɡɯm, *sɡrɯm
*sɢrɯm
*sɡrɯm
*sɡrɯm, *ɡrɯms
*sɡrɯm
*ɡjɯms
*krɯm
*krɯm
*krɯm
*kʰrɯm
*kʰrɯmʔ
*kʰrɯms
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯm
*ɡrɯms
*ŋɡrɯm, *ŋɡrɯms
*ŋɡrɯm
*qʰrɯm, *qʰrɯmʔ
*qrɯm
*qrɯmʔ, *qrɯms
*qrɯms
*qrɯms
*ɡrɯn, *ɡɯn, *kɯŋ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡɯːm, *ɡɯːmʔ): phonetic  (OC *ɡɯːm) + semantic  (head).

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *gam (jaw; chin; molar) (STEDT).

Bodman (1980) considers it to be the endoactive of (OC *ɡɯːm, “to hold in the mouth”), literally “the thing that holds something in the mouth”.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • ngâm - “chin”;
  • ngám - “to nod”.
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • ām/ǎm - vernacular (“neck”);
    • hām/hǎm - literary (other senses).
    Note:
    • am6 - vernacular (“neck”);
    • ham5 - literary (other senses).
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (33) (33)
    Final () (159) (159)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () I I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦʌm/ /ɦʌmX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦəm/ /ɦəmX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣɒm/ /ɣɒmX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦəm/ /ɦəmX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣᴀm/ /ɣᴀmX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣɒm/ /ɣɒmX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣăm/ /ɣămX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    hán hàn
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    hàn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ homX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɢ]ˁ[ə]mʔ/
    English jaw, chin

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 6562 6568
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1 1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡɯːm/ /*ɡɯːmʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. chin; jowl
    2. to nod
      /   ―  hànshǒu  ―  to nod
    3. (Min Nan) neck
    4. A surname​.

    SynonymsEdit

    Dialectal synonyms of 下巴 (“chin”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese , , ,
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 下巴, 下頦, 下頜, 下頷
    Mandarin Beijing 下巴頦兒, 下巴
    Taiwan 下巴
    Harbin 下巴頦兒, 下巴
    Hailar 下巴頦子
    Ulanhot 下巴頦子
    Tongliao 下巴頦子
    Chifeng 下巴
    Bayanhot 下巴
    Jinan 下巴頦兒, 下巴頦子, 下巴
    Muping 牙幫頦兒, 牙幫
    Luoyang 下巴兒, 下巴頦兒
    Wanrong 下巴子
    Xi'an 下巴兒, 下巴子, 下巴
    Xining 下巴
    Xuzhou 下嘴巴子, 下巴頦兒, 下巴頦子
    Yinchuan 下巴子
    Lanzhou 下巴子
    Ürümqi 下巴頦兒, 下巴
    Wuhan 下巴
    Chengdu 下巴兒, 下巴
    Guiyang 下巴
    Guilin 下巴
    Liuzhou 下巴
    Yangzhou 下巴頦子, 下巴鼓子, 下巴
    Nanjing 下巴頦, 下巴
    Hefei 下頦子, 下巴頦子, 下巴頦
    Nantong 下巴頦兒
    Cantonese Guangzhou 下巴
    Hong Kong 下巴
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) 下巴
    Shunde 下巴
    Zhongshan (Shiqi) 下巴
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 下巴
    Taishan 下巴
    Kaiping (Chikan) 下巴
    Dongguan 下巴
    Shaoguan 下巴
    Yunfu 下巴
    Yangjiang 下巴
    Lianjiang 頷突, 下巴
    Nanning 下巴
    Wuzhou 下巴
    Yulin 下巴
    Hepu 下巴
    Kuala Lumpur 下巴
    Gan Nanchang 下巴
    Lichuan 下腮角, 下腮
    Pingxiang 下頜, 下牙鉸
    Hakka Meixian 嘴頷, 下頷
    Xingning 下頷
    Huidong (Daling) 下頷, 下巴
    Qujiang 下巴
    Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang) 下頷
    Luchuan 合巴
    Changting 下頷, 下巴
    Pingyu 下頷
    Wuping 下嘴頷
    Liancheng 下瘩
    Ninghua 下瘩
    Yudu 下牙巴, 牙交
    Ruijin 下巴
    Shicheng 下瘩, 下缽
    Shangyou 下牙窖
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 下頷, 下胲, 蛤蟆胲
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 下嘴頷, 下頷, 下胲, 蛤蟆胲
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 下頷, 下胲, 蛤蟆胲
    Dongshi (Dabu) 下頷, 蛤蟆胲
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 下頷, 下胲, 蛤蟆胲
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 下頷, 下頜, 下胲
    Hong Kong 胲頷下
    Sabah 下巴, 下頷
    Senai 下巴
    Singkawang 下頷, 嘴頷
    Huizhou Jixi 下巴
    Jin Taiyuan 下巴頦子, 下巴
    Xinzhou 下脖子, 下頦子
    Baochang 下巴
    Jining 下頦
    Hohhot 下頦子
    Baotou 下頦
    Dongsheng 下巴頦兒
    Linhe 下頦子
    Haibowan 下巴
    Min Bei Jian'ou 下巴
    Min Dong Fuzhou 下頦, 下巴
    Fuqing 下巴
    Matsu 下頦
    Min Nan Xiamen 下頦, 下斗, 喙下斗, 下𦜆, 下顎
    Quanzhou 下頦, 下斗, 喙下斗, 下頷, 下顎
    Zhangzhou 下頦, 下斗, 喙下斗, 下𦜆, 下顎
    Taipei 下頦
    Kaohsiung 下頦
    Tainan 喙下斗, 下頦
    Taichung 下頦, 下斗
    Wuqi 下頦
    Hsinchu 下頦
    Taitung 下頦
    Lukang 下頦
    Sanxia 下顎
    Yilan 下頦
    Kinmen 下頦, 下顎
    Magong 下頦, 喙斗, 下顎
    Penang 喙下斗
    Singapore 下斗
    Philippines (Manila) 下頦, 下斗
    Pingnan (Shangdu) 下巴
    Chaozhou 下頦
    Shantou 下頦
    Johor Bahru 下頦
    Haikou , 顎頭, 下巴
    Leizhou
    Pinghua Nanning (Tingzi) 下巴
    Guilin (Dahe) 下巴
    Wu Shanghai 下巴, 地角
    Suzhou 下巴
    Hangzhou 下巴
    Wenzhou 下巴
    Chongming 下巴, 下巴殼子
    Danyang 頦巴
    Jinhua 下巴
    Ningbo 下巴
    Xiang Changsha 下巴, 下頦
    Shuangfeng 下力頦, 下頦
    Loudi 下頜
    Quanzhou 下巴
    Dialectal synonyms of 脖子 (“neck”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese , 頸項,
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 頸項, 頸部
    Mandarin Beijing 脖子
    Taiwan 脖子
    Harbin 脖子
    Shenyang 脖子
    Hailar 脖子
    Ulanhot 脖子
    Tongliao 脖子
    Chifeng 脖子
    Bayanhot 脖子, 脖頸
    Jinan 脖子
    Muping 脖子
    Luoyang 脖子
    Wanrong 脖項, 脖子
    Xi'an 脖項, 脖子
    Qingdao 脖頸子
    Zhengzhou 脖子
    Xining 脖板, 脖脖
    Xuzhou 脖頸子, 脖了頸子
    Yinchuan 脖子
    Lanzhou 脖子
    Ürümqi 脖子
    Wuhan 頸子, 頸框
    Chengdu 頸項, 脖子, 頸子
    Guiyang 脖頸
    Liuzhou 頸脖
    Kunming 脖子
    Yangzhou 頸項, 頸亢
    Nanjing 頸子, 脖子
    Hefei 腦頸把子
    Nantong 頸項, 頸亢
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou)
    Foshan
    Shunde
    Zhongshan (Shiqi)
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka)
    Taishan
    Kaiping (Chikan)
    Dongguan
    Shaoguan
    Yunfu
    Yangjiang , 頸柄
    Xinyi
    Lianjiang
    Danzhou
    Kuala Lumpur
    Gan Nanchang
    Lichuan
    Pingxiang 頸牯
    Hakka Meixian 頸根
    Xingning
    Huidong (Daling)
    Qujiang
    Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang)
    Changting
    Pingyu 頸根
    Wuping 頸根
    Liancheng 頸骨
    Ninghua
    Yudu
    Ruijin
    Shicheng
    Shangyou 頸根
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 頸根
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 頸根
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 頸根
    Dongshi (Dabu) 頸根
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 頸根
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Hong Kong
    Sabah
    Senai
    Singkawang , 頸根
    Huizhou Jixi 扣頸, 脰頸
    Shexian 頭頸, 項頸
    Tunxi 頭頸
    Jin Taiyuan 脖子
    Xinzhou 脖子
    Baochang 脖子
    Jining 脖頸
    Hohhot 脖子
    Baotou 脖頸
    Dongsheng 脖子
    Linhe 脖頸
    Haibowan 脖頸
    Min Bei Jian'ou , 仲仲
    Min Dong Fuzhou 脰骨
    Changle 脰骨
    Fuqing 脰脖筋, 脰脖株
    Yongtai 脰骨
    Gutian 脰穩
    Fu'an 脰穩
    Ningde 脰穩
    Shouning 脰領
    Zhouning 脰引
    Fuding 脰穩
    Matsu 脰脖
    Min Nan Xiamen 頷頸, 脰項
    Quanzhou 頷胿
    Zhangzhou 頷頸, 頷仔, 頷捘
    Taipei 頷頸仔
    Kaohsiung 頷頸
    Tainan 頷胿, 頷頸仔, 頷仔頸
    Taichung 頷仔頸
    Wuqi 頷頸
    Hsinchu 頷頸
    Taitung 頷頸仔
    Lukang 頷頸
    Sanxia 頷頸
    Yilan 頷頸, 頷頸仔
    Kinmen 頷頸
    Magong 頷頸
    Penang 頷仔頸, 頷頸
    Philippines (Manila) 頷胿
    Chaozhou
    Shantou
    Haifeng
    Johor Bahru
    Wenchang , 脰蒂根
    Haikou 脰蒂,
    Leizhou
    Puxian Min Putian 脰顱
    Xianyou 脰顱
    Pinghua Nanning (Tingzi)
    Wu Shanghai 頭頸, 頭頸骨
    Suzhou 頭頸
    Hangzhou 脰頸, 脖子
    Wenzhou 頭頸
    Chongming 頸骨
    Danyang 頸梗
    Jinhua 項頸
    Tangxi 頭頸
    Ningbo 頭頸骨, 頭頸
    Xiang Changsha 頸根, 頸箍
    Shuangfeng 頸殼
    Xiangtan 頸筋
    Loudi 頸殼, 頸筋

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReadingsEdit


    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (am) (hangeul )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (hạm, ham, hàm, hợm)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.