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U+671D, 朝
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-671D

[U+671C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+671E]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 74, +8, 12 strokes, cangjie input 十十月 (JJB), four-corner 47420, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 506, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14374
  • Dae Jaweon: page 885, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2084, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+671D

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms 𦩻

𨊸
調 ancient

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ʔr'eːw
*mrews
*ʔr'ew, *r'ew
*r'ew

In the oracle bone script, it was an ideogrammic compound (會意): 2 or 4 (“grass”) + (“sun”) + (“moon”) – the sun rising above the grass while the waning moon is still in the sky – the morning.

In the bronze script, it was a compound of 𠦝 and a pictograph of a river ( or ) – this is the original form of (OC *r'ew, “tide”). The river glyph may be a corruption of due to association with tides. Chi (2010) considers such forms to be phono-semantic (形聲), where 𠦝 is the abbreviated form of the phonetic (OC *ʔr'ew, *r'ew). In the late Western Zhou forms, 𠦝 is corrupted into .

In the stone drum inscriptions (石鼓文), is added (attached to ), and the river glyph is replaced with (OC *tjɯw), which acts as a phonetic component; the small seal script likely inherits from this form. Shuowen interprets the fused component of 𠦝 and as a semantic component (“dawn”). The component is also seen in the bamboo and wooden slips of the Warring States period.

In the clerical script, is reverted to ; it is unclear whether this is a remnant from in the oracle bone script or a corruption of (as in < 𦩎). The current form is essentially inherited from the clerical script.

EtymologyEdit

“Morning” > “perform the morning ceremony” > “to go/come to court; to have an audience”. Derivative: (OC *r'ew, “morning tide”).

Perhaps related to Thai เพรา (prao, morning) (Manomaivibool, 1975).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • ziao1 - Shantou;
  • ziou1 - Chaozhou.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (9)
    Final () (92)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () Chongniu III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʈˠiᴇu/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʈᵚiɛu/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȶiæu/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʈiaw/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȶjɛu/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȶĭɛu/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȶi̯ɛu/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zhāo
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zhāo
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ trjew ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*t<r>aw/
    English morning

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 1307
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ʔr'ew/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. morning
        ―  zhāo  ―  morning and evening; all the time
    2. (Cantonese, Hakka, Min Bei) breakfast
    3. moment; short period
    4. daytime; day; full day
    5. active; energetic; lively
    6. A surname​.
    SynonymsEdit
    Dialectal synonyms of 早晨 (“early morning”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 早晨
    Mandarin Beijing 早晨, 早起
    Tianjin 早上, 早晨
    Jinan 早晨, 早晨起來
    Xi'an 趕起, 早起
    Wuhan 早晨
    Chengdu 早晨, 清早
    Yangzhou 早上, 早晨
    Hefei 早上
    Cantonese Guangzhou 朝頭早, 朝早
    Hong Kong 朝頭早, 朝早
    Gan Nanchang 清早, 早上
    Hakka Meixian 朝晨, 朝晨頭
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 朝晨, 朝晨頭
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 朝晨, 朝晨頭
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 朝晨, 朝晨頭
    Dongshi (Dabu) 朝晨, 朝晨頭
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 晨早, 晨早頭
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 晨早, 晨早時務
    Sabah (Bao'an) 早晨
    Jin Taiyuan 早晨, 打早, 打早起, 早起, 清早
    Min Bei Jian'ou 早頭
    Min Dong Fuzhou 早頭, 早起頭
    Min Nan Xiamen 早起
    Quanzhou 早起
    Zhangzhou 早起
    Taipei 早起
    Chaozhou 眠起早, 眠起
    Wu Shanghai 早浪
    Suzhou 早浪
    Wenzhou 天光早, 天光
    Xiang Changsha 早上, 早晨頭
    Shuangfeng 早晨家
    Dialectal synonyms of 早餐 (“breakfast”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 早飯, 早餐
    Mandarin Beijing 早飯, 早點
    Taiwan 早飯, 早餐, 早點
    Harbin 早上飯, 早飯
    Shenyang 早飯
    Hailar 早上飯
    Ulanhot 早上飯
    Tongliao 早上飯
    Chifeng 早飯
    Bayanhot 早飯
    Jinan 早飯, 早晨飯, 早點
    Muping 朝飯兒, 早飯
    Luoyang 清早飯
    Wanrong 早起飯
    Xi'an 乾早飯, 早飯
    Zhengzhou 清早起來飯
    Xining 早起
    Xuzhou 早點, 早上飯, 早飯
    Yinchuan 早飯
    Lanzhou 早飯
    Ürümqi 乾早飯, 早飯
    Wuhan 早飯
    Huanggang 早飯
    Chengdu 早飯, 早餐
    Guiyang 早飯
    Guilin 早飯, 早點
    Liuzhou 早餐, 早飯, 早點
    Kunming 早飯
    Yangzhou 早飯
    Nanjing 早飯, 點心
    Hefei 早飯
    Nantong 早飯
    Sokuluk (Gansu Dungan) 趕早飯
    Cantonese Guangzhou 早餐, 朝早飯,
    Hong Kong 早餐
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) 早飯
    Hong Kong (Kam Tin Weitou) 早飯
    Hong Kong (Ting Kok) 早飯
    Hong Kong (Tung Ping Chau) 早飯, 朝頭
    Macau 早餐
    Panyu 早餐
    Huadu (Huashan) 早飯
    Conghua 早餐
    Zengcheng 早飯, 早餐
    Foshan 早餐
    Nanhai (Shatou)
    Shunde 早餐
    Sanshui 朝早飯
    Gaoming (Mingcheng) 早飯
    Zhongshan (Shiqi) 早餐
    Zhuhai (Qianshan) 早餐
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 早餐
    Doumen 朝早飯
    Jiangmen (Baisha) 朝早飯
    Xinhui 早餐
    Taishan 早餐
    Kaiping (Chikan) 早餐
    Enping (Niujiang) 早餐
    Heshan (Yayao) 早飯
    Dongguan 早餐
    Bao'an (Shajing) 早餐
    Shaoguan 早餐
    Yunfu 早餐
    Yangjiang
    Xinyi
    Lianjiang
    Nanning 過早
    Wuzhou 過早
    Yulin 早朝
    Hepu 早朝
    Danzhou 早朝
    Kuala Lumpur 早餐
    Ho Chi Minh City 早餐
    Gan Nanchang 早飯
    Lichuan 早飯
    Pingxiang 早飯
    Hakka Meixian
    Xingning
    Huizhou (Huicheng Bendihua) , 早餐
    Huizhou (Shuikou Bendihua)
    Huizhou (Hengli Bendihua)
    Huidong (Pingshan Bendihua)
    Huidong (Daling)
    Dongguan (Qingxi)
    Longmen (Pingling Bendihua) 早餐,
    Longmen (Luxi Bendihua)
    Boluo (Bendihua) 早餐
    Shenzhen (Shatoujiao)
    Zengcheng (Zhengguo)
    Zhongshan (Wuguishan) , 早餐
    Zhongshan (Nanlang Heshui) 早餐
    Wuhua (Shuizhai)
    Wuhua (Huacheng)
    Wuhua (Changbu)
    Wuhua (Mianyang)
    Heyuan (Bendihua)
    Zijin (Guzhu Bendihua)
    Longchuan (Tuocheng Bendihua)
    Longchuan (Sidu Bendihua)
    Heping (Linzhai Bendihua)
    Lianping (Zhongxin Bendihua)
    Lianping (Longjie Bendihua)
    Qujiang
    Xinfeng (Matou Bendihua)
    Xinfeng (Daxi Bendihua)
    Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang)
    Liannan
    Conghua (Lütian)
    Jiexi
    Luchuan
    Luchuan (Daqiao) , 早點
    Changting
    Pingyu
    Wuping
    Liancheng 天光
    Ninghua 朝飯
    Yudu 晨朝
    Ruijin
    Shicheng 朝飯
    Shangyou 早晨
    Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Hsinchu (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 早頓, , 晨早
    Hong Kong , 朝飯
    Sabah (Longchuan) 早餐
    Senai , 早餐
    Singkawang
    Huizhou Jixi 早飯
    Shexian 早飯
    Tunxi 天光
    Xiuning 天光
    Yixian 天光
    Qimen 點心
    Wuyuan 朝飯, 朝粥
    Jin Taiyuan 早清飯, 清早飯, 打早飯
    Pingyao 早起飯, 早晨飯
    Xinzhou 打早飯, 早起飯, 早升飯
    Baochang 早飯
    Jining 早飯
    Hohhot 早飯
    Baotou 早飯
    Dongsheng 早飯
    Linhe 早飯
    Haibowan 早點
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Dikou
    Songxi
    Zhenqian
    Wuyishan
    Shibei
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Fuqing ,
    Zhouning
    Min Nan Xiamen 早頓, 早起頓, 早起
    Quanzhou 早頓, 早起頓, 早起
    Yongchun 早起
    Zhangzhou 早頓, 早起頓, 早起
    Singapore 早起頓, 早起
    Philippines (Manila) 早餐, 早起
    Zhangping
    Zhangping (Yongfu)
    Chaozhou 眠起
    Shantou 猛早頓, 猛早, 早飯, 早糜
    Haifeng 眠早
    Thailand (Bangkok) 早餐, 早頓
    Johor Bahru 早餐
    Wenchang 糜旦, 天光糜,
    Haikou 天光糜, 天光, 天光早糜, 天光早, 天光白糜, 天光白
    Leizhou 早糜,
    Zhongshan Min Longdu (Shaxi) 早餐
    Sanxiang 早餐
    Pinghua Nanning (Tingzi) 過早, 朝飯, 點心
    Guilin (Dahe) 早飯
    Wu Shanghai 早飯
    Suzhou 早飯
    Wuxi 早飯, 早點
    Hangzhou 早飯
    Wenzhou 天光
    Chongming
    Danyang 早飯
    Jinhua 五更兒飯, 五更飯, 五更兒
    Tangxi 五更
    Ningbo 天亮飯
    Xiang Changsha 早飯
    Shuangfeng 早飯, 晨飯
    Loudi 早飯
    Quanzhou 早飯

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    Note:
    • ciao5 - Shantou;
    • ciou5 - Chaozhou.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (11)
    Final () (92)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () Chongniu III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɖˠiᴇu/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɖᵚiɛu/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȡiæu/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɖiaw/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȡjɛu/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȡĭɛu/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȡʱi̯ɛu/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    cháo
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    cháo
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ drjew ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m-t<r>aw/
    English (morning) audience at court

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 1309
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    𪓙
    Old
    Chinese
    /*r'ew/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (historical) to wish elders or seniors good health; to visit (a senior person)
    2. (historical) to have an audience with the king or emperor; to perform the morning ceremony; to go to court
    3. to make a pilgrimage to; to pay homage to
    4. to assemble; to call; to gather
    5. imperial court
    6. dynasty (line of rulers)
    7. emperor's reign; period ruled by a particular emperor or king
    8. government; imperial government
    9. affairs of the state
    10. (historical) courtier class
    11. (Huizhou) paternal grandfather
    12. to face
      南邊 / 南边  ―  cháozhe nánbiān  ―  facing the south
    13. towards; to; on
        ―  cháo qián kàn  ―  look ahead [lit. look to the front]
    14. Short for 朝鮮朝鲜 (Cháoxiǎn, “North Korea; Korea”).
    SynonymsEdit
    Dialectal synonyms of 祖父 (“paternal grandfather”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese 祖父
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 祖父
    Mandarin Beijing 爺爺
    Taiwan 爺爺
    Harbin , 爺爺
    Shenyang , 爺爺
    Hailar 爺爺
    Ulanhot 爺爺
    Tongliao 爺爺
    Chifeng 爺爺
    Bayanhot 爺爺
    Jinan 爺爺
    Muping , 爺爺
    Luoyang
    Wanrong
    Xi'an , 把把 Hui
    Qingdao 爺爺
    Zhengzhou 爺爺, non-face-to-face
    Xining 爺爺, , 爺兒
    Xuzhou 爺爺
    Yinchuan 爺爺
    Lanzhou 爺爺
    Ürümqi 爺爺, 阿爺 Hui, face-to-face
    Wuhan 爹爹, 爺爺
    Huanggang 爹爹
    Chengdu 爺爺,
    Guiyang 太爺, 老太爺, 爺爺
    Liuzhou 阿公, , 爺爺
    Kunming 老爹
    Yangzhou 爹爹
    Nanjing 爺爺, 把把 Hui
    Hefei 爹爹
    Nantong 爹爹
    Sokuluk (Gansu Dungan) 爺爺
    Masanchin (Shaanxi Dungan) 把把
    Cantonese Guangzhou 阿爺, 爺爺 face-to-face
    Hong Kong 阿爺, 爺爺
    Hong Kong (Kam Tin Weitou) 爺公 face-to-face, 阿公 non-face-to-face, 阿爺 non-face-to-face
    Macau 阿爺
    Panyu 阿爺
    Huadu (Huashan) 阿爺
    Conghua 阿公
    Zengcheng 阿公, 阿爺
    Foshan 阿爺
    Nanhai (Shatou) 阿爺
    Shunde 阿爺
    Sanshui 阿爺
    Gaoming (Mingcheng) 阿公
    Zhongshan (Shiqi) 阿公
    Zhuhai (Qianshan) 阿公
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 阿公
    Doumen 阿公
    Jiangmen (Baisha) 阿公
    Xinhui 阿公
    Taishan 阿爺
    Kaiping (Chikan) 阿爺
    Enping (Niujiang) 阿爺
    Heshan (Yayao) 阿爺
    Dongguan 阿公, 阿爺
    Bao'an (Shajing) 阿公, 阿爺
    Shaoguan 阿公, 阿爺
    Yunfu 阿爺
    Yangjiang 阿公, 阿爺
    Xinyi 阿公
    Lianjiang 阿公, 公爹
    Nanning 阿公, 爺爺
    Danzhou
    Kuala Lumpur 阿爺
    Ho Chi Minh City 阿爺
    Gan Nanchang 公公, 爺爺
    Lichuan , 公兒
    Pingxiang 公公
    Hakka Meixian 阿公
    Xingning 阿公
    Huidong (Daling) 阿公
    Qujiang 公爹
    Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang) 阿公
    Changting 公爹
    Pingyu 阿公
    Wuping 公爹
    Liancheng
    Ninghua 公公
    Yudu 公爹 non-face-to-face, 公公 face-to-face
    Ruijin 公公,
    Shicheng , 公公
    Shangyou 爹爹, 阿爹
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 阿公
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 阿公
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 阿公
    Dongshi (Dabu) 阿爹, 阿公
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 阿公
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 阿公
    Hong Kong 阿公
    Sabah 阿公
    Senai 阿公
    Singkawang 阿公
    Huizhou Jixi , 阿朝 face-to-face
    Shexian , 朝朝, 朝奉, 老奉
    Tunxi 朝朝, 老朝兒
    Xiuning 阿朝, 阿爹
    Yixian 老官
    Qimen 老兒
    Wuyuan 朝朝
    Fuliang 公公, 大大
    Dexing 老爹
    Jingde 公公
    Xianyu (formerly Zhanda) 大大
    Jin Taiyuan 爺爺
    Pingyao 爺爺
    Xinzhou 爺爺 non-face-to-face, 爺爺啊 face-to-face, 呀爺 face-to-face
    Baochang 爺爺
    Jining 爺爺
    Hohhot 爺爺
    Baotou 爺爺
    Dongsheng 爺爺
    Linhe 爺爺
    Haibowan 爺爺
    Min Bei Jian'ou 公公, 爹爹, 老爹 face-to-face, 爺爺 new-style
    Dikou 阿公
    Songxi 家公
    Zhenghe 公仔
    Zhenqian
    Jianyang 爹爹
    Wuyishan 爹爹
    Shibei 公爹
    Min Dong Fuzhou 依公,
    Changle 依公
    Fuqing 阿公
    Yongtai 依公
    Gutian
    Fu'an
    Ningde
    Zhouning 阿翁
    Fuding 阿公
    Matsu 依公
    Min Nan Xiamen 阿公, 俺公, 內公 non-face-to-face
    Quanzhou 阿公, 內公 non-face-to-face
    Zhangzhou 阿公, 咉公, 內公 non-face-to-face
    Taipei 阿公, 俺公, 內公 non-face-to-face; mT
    Kaohsiung 阿公
    Tainan 阿公
    Taichung 阿公
    Wuqi 阿公
    Hsinchu 阿公
    Taitung 阿公
    Lukang 阿公, 俺公
    Sanxia 阿公
    Yilan 阿公
    Kinmen 俺公
    Magong 阿公
    Penang 阿公, , 內公
    Singapore 俺公, 阿公
    Philippines (Manila) 俺公, 內公 non-face-to-face
    Chaozhou 阿公
    Shantou 阿公
    Haifeng 阿公,
    Johor Bahru 阿公
    Wenchang
    Haikou non-face-to-face, non-face-to-face, face-to-face
    Leizhou 尼公, 祖公, face-to-face
    Puxian Min Putian 阿公
    Xianyou 阿公
    Pinghua Nanning (Tingzi) , 太公
    Shehua Fu'an
    Fuding 阿公
    Luoyuan 阿公
    Sanming 阿公
    Shunchang 阿翁
    Hua'an
    Cangnan
    Wu Shanghai 老爹, 爺爺
    Suzhou 阿爹
    Wuxi 爺爺
    Hangzhou 爹爹, 爺爺, 阿爹
    Wenzhou 阿爺, 祖公 non-face-to-face, 祖公爺 non-face-to-face
    Chongming 裡公
    Danyang 爺爺
    Jinhua 爺爺
    Ningbo 阿爺
    Xiang Changsha 爹爹, 爺爺, 公公
    Shuangfeng 公公
    Xiangtan 公公, 公毑
    Loudi 阿公, 公公, 佳佳
    Note mT - mainstream Taiwanese (no particular region identified)

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. morning
    2. dynasty; regime
    3. epoch; period
    4. Korea; (more specifically) North Korea

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    あさ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Historically a day was split into two halves:

    While asa and ashita represent the same time period, asa was associated with beginning of the afternoon and ashita was associated with the end of the night. Both terms share an initial as- and are likely etymologically related.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana あさ, rōmaji asa)

    1. morning

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    あした
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Historically a day was split into two halves:

    While asa and ashita represent the same time period, asa was associated with beginning of the afternoon and ashita was associated with the end of the night. Both terms share an initial as- and are likely etymologically related.

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana あした, rōmaji ashita)

    1. morning
    Usage notesEdit

    The spelling 明日 is much more common in modern Japanese.

    Etymology 3Edit

    SuffixEdit

    Kanji in this term
    ちょう
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi
    1. dynasty
      ブルボン (ちょう)
      Burubon-chō
      the Bourbon Dynasty

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō
    3. ^ 2002, 京阪系アクセント辞典 (A Dictionary of Tone on Words of the Keihan-type Dialects) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Bensei, →ISBN
    4. ^ 2002, 京阪系アクセント辞典 (A Dictionary of Tone on Words of the Keihan-type Dialects) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Bensei, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (jo)

    • Eumhun:
      • Sound (hangeul): (revised: jo, McCune–Reischauer: cho, Yale: co)
      • Name (hangeul): 아침
    1. morning, day
      조식 (朝食, josig) — breakfast
    2. dynasty, imperial court
      조선 (朝鮮, joseon) — Joseon
      왕조 (王朝, wangjo) — dynasty

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: triều, chầu, chào, tràu, trều, triêu, chiều, giàu, giầu, trào

    1. Related to chầu (to attend an audience; to attend upon (in design)). (Nguyễn Văn Khang. Từ ngoại lai trong tiếng Việt, 2007)

    ReadingsEdit

    • Nôm: chào, chầu, chiều, chìu, dèo, giàu, trào, trèo, triêu, triều

    ReferencesEdit

    • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
    • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
    • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville