See also:
U+671D, 朝
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-671D

[U+671C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+671E]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 74, +8, 12 strokes, cangjie input 十十月 (JJB), four-corner 47420, composition )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 506, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14374
  • Dae Jaweon: page 885, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2084, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+671D

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.
2nd round simp.
alternative forms 𦩻

𨊸
調 ancient

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Qin slip script
     

In the oracle bone script, it was an ideogrammic compound (會意会意) : 2 or 4 (“grass”) or even (“tree”) + (“sun”) + (“moon”) – the sun rising above the ground while the waning moon is still in the sky – the morning.

In the bronze script, it was a compound of 𠦝 and a pictograph of a river ( or ) – this was possibly an original form for (OC *r'ew, “tide”). The river glyph may be a corruption of due to association with tides or diurnal events. Chi (2010) considers such forms to be phono-semantic (形聲形声) , where 𠦝 is the abbreviated form of the phonetic (OC *ʔr'ew, *r'ew). In the some late Western Zhou forms, 𠦝 was corrupted into a form resembling .

According to Guo Moruo, in the stone drum inscriptions (石鼓文 (shígǔwén), likely from the Spring and Autumn period) was added (attached to ), and the river glyph was replaced with (OC *tjɯw), which was interpreted as the phonetic component; the small seal script might have inherited from this form. Shuowen interpreted the fused components of 𠦝 and as a semantic component (“dawn”). However, the accuracy of identification has been questioned; the character was a heavily weathered one in which the identification was probably spurious and likely influenced by the Shuowen. Meanwhile, the component on the right remained somewhat legible.[1]

The component remained in the bamboo and wooden slips of the Warring States period (see the table). In the clerical script since the Han dynasty, had been reverted to ; it is unclear whether this was a remnant from in the oracle bone script or a corruption of (as in < 𦩎 and many other characters). The current form is essentially inherited from the clerical script.

Etymology edit

“Morning” > “perform the morning ceremony” > “to go/come to court; to have an audience”. Derivative: (OC *r'ew, “morning tide”).

Perhaps related to Thai เพรา (prao, morning) (Manomaivibool, 1975).

Pronunciation 1 edit


Note:
  • ziao1 - Shantou;
  • ziou1 - Chaozhou.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (9)
Final () (92)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter trjew
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʈˠiᴇu/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʈᵚiɛu/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȶiæu/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʈiaw/
Li
Rong
/ȶjɛu/
Wang
Li
/ȶĭɛu/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȶi̯ɛu/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhāo
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
ziu1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhāo
Middle
Chinese
‹ trjew ›
Old
Chinese
/*t<r>aw/
English morning

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 1307
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ʔr'ew/
Notes

Definitions edit

  1. morning
      ―  zhāo  ―  morning and evening; all the time
  2. daytime; day; full day
  3. (obsolete) beginning; start
  4. (Cantonese, Hakka, Northern Min) breakfast
  5. a surname
Synonyms edit
Descendants edit
Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (ちょう) (chō)
  • Korean: 조(朝) (jo)
  • Vietnamese: triêu ()

Compounds edit

Pronunciation 2 edit


Note:
  • ciao5 - Shantou;
  • ciou5 - Chaozhou.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (11)
Final () (92)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter drjew
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɖˠiᴇu/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɖᵚiɛu/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȡiæu/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɖiaw/
Li
Rong
/ȡjɛu/
Wang
Li
/ȡĭɛu/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȡʱi̯ɛu/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
cháo
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
ciu4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
cháo
Middle
Chinese
‹ drjew ›
Old
Chinese
/*m-t<r>aw/
English (morning) audience at court

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 1309
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
𪓙
Old
Chinese
/*r'ew/

Definitions edit

  1. (historical) to wish elders or seniors good health; to visit (a senior person)
  2. (historical) to have an audience with the king or emperor; to perform the morning ceremony; to go to court
  3. to make a pilgrimage to; to pay homage to
  4. to assemble; to call; to gather
  5. imperial court
  6. dynasty (line of rulers)
  7. emperor's reign; period ruled by a particular emperor or king
  8. government; imperial government
  9. affairs of the state
  10. (historical) courtier class
  11. (Huizhou) paternal grandfather
  12. to face
    南邊南边  ―  cháozhe nánbiān  ―  facing the south
  13. towards; to; on
      ―  cháo qián kàn  ―  look ahead [lit. look to the front]
  14. Short for 朝鮮朝鲜 (Cháoxiǎn, “North Korea; Korea”).
    關係关系  ―  Měi Cháo guānxì  ―  US-North Korea relations
Synonyms edit
Descendants edit
Sino-Xenic ():

Compounds edit

References edit

  1. ^ 徐宝贵 (2007-07-15), “郭沫若《石鼓文研究》摹本及释文辨正”, in 考古学报 (in Chinese), issue 2007-03, pages 313–338

Japanese edit

Shinjitai
Kyūjitai
[1]

朝󠄁
+&#xE0101;?
(Adobe-Japan1)
 
朝󠄃
+&#xE0103;?
(Hanyo-Denshi)
(Moji_Joho)
The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
See here for details.

Kanji edit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings edit

From Middle Chinese (MC trjew, “morning”):

From Middle Chinese (MC drjew, “dynasty; imperial court; epoch”):

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
あさ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi
 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *asa. Attested in the Man'yōshū of 759.[2]

Historically, a day was split into two halves:

  • Afternoon cycle: (asa) (hiru) ()
  • Evening cycle: 夕べ (yūbe) (yoi)夜中 (yonaka) (akatsuki) (ashita)

While asa and ashita represent the same time period, asa was associated with beginning of the afternoon and ashita was associated with the end of the night. Both terms share an initial as- and are likely etymologically related.

Beyond Japonic, possibly related to Middle Korean 아ᄎᆞᆷ〮 (àchóm, morning) > Korean 아침 (achim). Alexander Vovin believes this is a Koreanic borrowing into Japanese, identifying Japanese つとめて (tsutomete) as the native Japonic root for "morning" (Vovin 2010, p. 224).

  • However, つとめて (tsutomete) is not attested until the late 800s or early 900s,[3] and root (tsuto) as in 夙に (tsuto ni, early in the morning, adverb) not until roughly 850.[4]

Alternatively, may be cognate with adjective 浅い (asai, shallow; early), verbs 浅せる (aseru, to become shallow) and 褪せる (aseru, to fade, to become pale).

  • The concepts of "shallow" and "deep" are used in other respects relative to time, such as 夜更かし (yofukashi, staying up late into the night) and 夜更け (yofuke, very late at night), where the fuk- root in both terms is from 深い (fukai, deep; late, long-lasting).[5]

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(あさ) (asa

  1. the morning
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
あした
Grade: 2
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling
(morning)

From Old Japanese. Attested in the Nihon Shoki of 720.[9]

Historically, a day was split into two halves:

  • Afternoon cycle: (asa) (hiru) ()
  • Evening cycle: 夕べ (yūbe) (yoi)夜中 (yonaka) (akatsuki) (ashita)

While asa and ashita represent the same time period, asa was associated with beginning of the afternoon and ashita was associated with the end of the night. Both terms share an initial as- and are likely etymologically related.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(あした) (ashita

  1. (archaic) the morning, morn
  2. (archaic) the morrow, next morning
Derived terms edit
Idioms edit
Proverbs edit

Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term
ちょう
Grade: 2
on’yomi

/teu//t͡ɕeu//t͡ɕoː/

The “morning” and “Korea” senses are from Middle Chinese (MC trjew).

The “imperial court”, “dynasty”, and “epoch” senses are from Middle Chinese (MC drjew), using the 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) borrowing.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(ちょう) (chōてう (teu)?

  1. the morning
  2. an imperial court
  3. an imperial reign or dynasty
  4. a country governed by a monarch
  5. a bustling place, such as downtown
Derived terms edit

Suffix edit

(ちょう) (-chōてう (teu)?

  1. dynasty
    ブルボン(ちょう)Burubon-chōthe Bourbon Dynasty
Derived terms edit

Affix edit

(ちょう) (chōてう (teu)?

  1. morning
  2. imperial court
  3. (by extension) Japan
  4. having an audience with the emperor
  5. dynasty, regime
  6. (by extension) epoch, period
  7. Short for 朝鮮 (Chōsen): Korea, specifically short for 朝鮮民主主義人民共和国 (Chōsen Minshu Shugi Jinmin Kyōwakoku): Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea)
Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. ^ Haga, Gōtarō (1914) 漢和大辞書 [The Great Kanji-Japanese Dictionary] (in Japanese), Fourth edition, Tōkyō: Kōbunsha, →DOI, page 1093 (paper), page 597 (digital)
  2. ^ ”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000
  3. ^ つとめて”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[2] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000
  4. ^ 夙に”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[3] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000
  5. ^ ”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[4] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  7. ^ Kindaichi, Kyōsuke et al., editors (1974) 新明解国語辞典 [Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten] (in Japanese), Second edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō
  8. 8.0 8.1 Nakai, Yukihiko, editor (2002) 京阪系アクセント辞典 [A Dictionary of Tone on Words of the Keihan-type Dialects] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Bensei, →ISBN
  9. ^ 朝・明日”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[5] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000

Korean edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle Chinese (MC trjew).

Historical readings

Pronunciation edit

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 아침 (achim jo))

  1. Hanja form? of (morning; day).
  2. Hanja form? of (Joseon).

Compounds edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Middle Chinese (MC drjew).

Historical readings

Pronunciation edit

Hanja edit

(eumhun 조정(朝廷) (jojeong( 朝廷 ) jo))

  1. Hanja form? of (dynasty; imperial court).

Compounds edit

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [7]

Okinawan edit

Kanji edit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings edit

Old Japanese edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Japonic *asa.

The as- stem refers to “the morning” or “after the dawn”, possibly cognate with or an apophonic form of 明日 (asu, tomorrow).

Noun edit

(asa) (kana あさ)

  1. the morning, morn
    Antonym: (yupu)
Quotations edit

For quotations using this term, see Citations:朝.

Derived terms edit
Descendants edit
  • Japanese: (asa)

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Japonic *asita.

Possibly from (asa, morning, see above) +‎ (ta, direction, side). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Noun edit

(asita) (kana あした)

  1. the morrow, next morning
    Antonym: 夕へ (yupupe1)
Quotations edit

For quotations using this term, see Citations:朝.

Derived terms edit
Descendants edit

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Nôm readings: triều, chầu, chào, tràu, trều, triêu, chiều, giàu, giầu, trào

  1. Related to chầu (to attend an audience; to attend upon (in design)). (Nguyễn Văn Khang. Từ ngoại lai trong tiếng Việt, 2007)

Readings edit

  • Nôm: chào, chầu, chiều, chìu, dèo, giàu, trào, trèo, triêu, triều

References edit

  • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
  • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
  • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville