Regular Style CJKV Radical 186 (0).svg
U+9999, 香
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9999

[U+9998]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+999A]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 186, +0, 9 strokes, cangjie input 竹木日 (HDA), four-corner 20609, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #186, .

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1428, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 44518
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1955, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4423, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9999

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

In the oracle bone script, it was ideogrammic compound (會意):  (glutinous millet) +  (mouth).

In the seal script, the was replaced with the related (“sweet”).

Currently, the has simplified into , and the form of the bottom component has become akin to the unrelated or .

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • hiuⁿ/hioⁿ - vernacular;
  • hiong/hiang - literary (hiang - limited in mainstream Taiwanese, e.g. 香油, 五香).
  • (Teochew)
    • Peng'im: hiên1 / hion1 / hiang1 / pang1
    • Pe̍h-ōe-jī-like: hieⁿ / hioⁿ / hiang / phang
    • Sinological IPA (key): /hĩẽ³³/, /hĩõ³³/, /hiaŋ³³/, /pʰaŋ³³/
Note:
  • hiên1/hion1 - vernacular (hiên1 - Chaozhou);
  • hiang1 - literary;
  • pang1 - semantic (original character is ).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ɕiɑŋ⁵⁵/
    Harbin /ɕiaŋ⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /ɕiɑŋ²¹/
    Jinan /ɕiaŋ²¹³/
    Qingdao /ɕiaŋ²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /ɕiaŋ²⁴/
    Xi'an /ɕiaŋ²¹/
    Xining /ɕiɔ̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ɕiɑŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /ɕiɑ̃³¹/
    Ürümqi /ɕiɑŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /ɕiaŋ⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /ɕiaŋ⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /ɕiaŋ⁵⁵/
    Kunming /ɕiã̠/
    Nanjing /ɕiaŋ³¹/
    Hefei /ɕiɑ̃²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /ɕiɒ̃¹¹/
    Pingyao /ɕiɑŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /ɕiɑ̃³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ɕiã⁵³/
    Suzhou /ɕiã⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /ɕiɑŋ³³/
    Wenzhou /ɕi³³/
    Hui Shexian /ɕia³¹/
    Tunxi /ɕiau¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ɕian³³/
    Xiangtan /sian³³/
    Gan Nanchang /ɕiɔŋ⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /hioŋ⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /hioŋ²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /hœŋ⁵³/
    Nanning /hœŋ⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /hœŋ⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hiɔŋ⁵⁵/
    /hiũ⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /hyoŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xiɔŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /hiaŋ³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /hiaŋ²³/
    /hio²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (32)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /hɨɐŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /hiɐŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /xiɑŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /hɨaŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /xiaŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /xĭaŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /xi̯aŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    xiāng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    xiāng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ xjang ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qʰaŋ/
    English fragrance

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 13591
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qʰaŋ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. fragrant; fragrance
      Antonym: (chòu)
    2. (of food) aromatic; delicious-smelling
    3. (of eating) having the appearance that one really enjoys the food; (of sleep) sound
    4. popular
    5. perfume
    6. (religion) joss stick; incense (Classifier: m; )
    7. (figuratively) woman
    8. to kiss
    9. (Cantonese, euphemistic) to die

    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    () (ka

    1. a pleasant smell; a scent, a fragrance, an aroma

    See alsoEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    きょう
    Grade: 4
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (xjang).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (きょう) (kyō (historical kana きやう)

    1. Clipping of 香車.

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    こう
    Grade: 4
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (xjang). Compare Vietnamese hương (fragrance; incense).

      on Japanese Wikipedia

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (こう) ( (historical kana かう)

    1. incense
      Synonym: 御香 (okō)

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eum (hyang))

    1. Hanja form? of (fragrance; perfume; incense).

    CompoundsEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: hương (()(lương)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5]
    : Nôm readings: nhang[2][3][6][4][5][7], hương[1][2][4][7], hang[1], nhàng[1]

    1. Hán tự form of hương (fragrance; incense).
    2. Nôm form of nhang (incense).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit