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See also: [U+4EBA CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4EBA], 𠆢 [U+201A2 CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-201A2], [U+516B CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-516B], [U+3145 HANGUL LETTER SIOS], ג [U+05D2 HEBREW LETTER GIMEL], and λ [U+03BB GREEK SMALL LETTER LAMDA]
U+5165, 入
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5165

[U+5164]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5166]
U+2F0A, ⼊
KANGXI RADICAL ENTER

[U+2F09]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F0B]
Commons:Category
Commons:Category
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Translingual edit

Traditional
Simplified
Japanese
Korean
Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 11, +0, 2 strokes, cangjie input 人竹 (OH), four-corner 80000, composition 丿)

  1. Kangxi radical #11, .

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 125, character 32
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1415
  • Dae Jaweon: page 266, character 18
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 102, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5165

Further reading edit

Chinese edit

trad.
simp. #

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogram (指事) - an arrowhead indicating "to enter".

Compare (rén).

Etymology edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *nup ~ nip. Cognate with Tibetan ནུབ (nub, to fall (gradually), sink, to set; to decay, to decline) and Burmese နိပ် (nip, to decline (e.g. price); to be suppressed, to settle, to be quelled).

Chinese characters belonging to the same word family include:

  • (OC *nuːb, “to make enter”)
  • (OC *nuːbs, “inside”)
  • (OC *nuːb, “reins on the inside of the horse”)
  • (OC *nuːms, *nuːb, *rnoːd, “to marry (a girl)”)
  • and potentially Cantonese (laap3, “to bring together, to collect”)

The regular Mandarin pronunciation as predicted from Middle Chinese is . The irregular sound change is for taboo reasons - to avoid homophony with its derived vulgar meaning "to enter > to have sexual intercourse", nowadays represented by ().

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • ĭk - literary;
  • nĭk - vernacular.
Note: rig8 - Chenghai.
Note:
  • 5zeq - literary;
  • 5nyiq - vernacular.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʐu⁵¹/
Harbin /lu⁵³/
/ʐu⁵³/
Tianjin /iu⁵³/
/ʐu⁵³/
Jinan /lu²¹/
Qingdao /y⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʐu²⁴/
Xi'an /vu²¹/
Xining /v̩⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ʐu¹³/
Lanzhou /vu¹³/
Ürümqi /ʐu²¹³/
/vu²¹³/
Wuhan /y²¹³/
Chengdu /zu³¹/
Guiyang /zu²¹/
Kunming /ʐu³¹/
Nanjing /ʐuʔ⁵/
Hefei /ʐuəʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /zuəʔ²/ 出~
/zəʔ²/ ~怪
Pingyao /zuʌʔ⁵³/
/zz̩ʷ⁵³/
Hohhot /ʐuəʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /zəʔ¹/
Suzhou /zəʔ³/
Hangzhou /zəʔ²/
Wenzhou /zai²¹³/
Hui Shexian /y²²/
Tunxi /ie¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /y²⁴/
Xiangtan /y²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /lɨʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /ŋip̚⁵/
Taoyuan /ŋip̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jɐp̚²/
Nanning /jɐp̚²²/
Hong Kong /jɐp̚²/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /lip̚⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /niʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /ni⁴²/
Shantou (Teochew) /zip̚⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /zip̚⁵/
/zip̚³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (38)
Final () (141)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter nyip
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵiɪp̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵip̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑjep̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵip̚/
Li
Rong
/ȵiəp̚/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑĭĕp̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑi̯əp̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jap6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ nyip ›
Old
Chinese
/*n[u]p/
English enter

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 10885
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*njub/

Definitions edit

  1. to enter; to go into
    [Cantonese]  ―  jap6 lai4 co5 laa1! [Jyutping]  ―  Come in and sit!
      ―  chūn  ―  to enter into spring
    [MSC, trad.]
    [MSC, simp.]
    bìng cóng kǒu , huò cóng kǒu chū [Pinyin]
    illness comes in via the mouth because of food and trouble goes out via the mouth because of words
    Synonym: (jìn)
    Antonym: (chū)
  2. to join; to become a member of
      ―  jiā  ―  to join
      ―  dǎng  ―  to join a political party
  3. (literary) to accept; to admit
  4. (literary) to pay
  5. income
      ―  shōu  ―  income
      ―  suì  ―  annual income
  6. to confirm; to agree
      ―  qíng  ―  to be fair and reasonable
  7. to arrive (at); to attain
  8. (literary) to enter the imperial government and become an official
  9. (telephony) to get through
    Synonym:
  10. (Cantonese) in; inside
    Antonym: (Cantonese)
    [Cantonese]  ―  jap6 min6 [Jyutping]  ―  inside
  11. (Cantonese) to stock up on
  12. (Cantonese) to submit
    [Cantonese]  ―  jap6 biu2 [Jyutping]  ―  to submit a form to the government
  13. (Cantonese) to input; to enter; to type into a computer
    [Cantonese]  ―  jap6 fan1 [Jyutping]  ―  to input scores
    資料资料 [Cantonese]  ―  jap6 zi1 liu6-2 [Jyutping]  ―  to enter data
  14. (Cantonese) to put something into
    信封 [Cantonese]  ―  jap6 seon3 fung1 [Jyutping]  ―  (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    [Cantonese]  ―  jap6 doi6-2 [Jyutping]  ―  (please add an English translation of this usage example)
  15. (literary, dialectal Mandarin, dialectal Wu, vulgar) to fuck; to have sexual intercourse
    Synonym:
  16. (Chinese phonetics) Short for 入聲入声 (rùshēng, “the checked tone”).
      ―  yáng  ―  light checked tone

Synonyms edit

See also edit

The tones (of Chinese) in Mandarin · 聲調声调 (shēngdiào) (layout · text)
平仄 (píngzè) (píng)
平聲平声 (píngshēng)
()
仄聲仄声 (zèshēng)
平上去入 (píngshǎngqùrù)
四聲四声 (sìshēng)
(píng)
平聲平声 (píngshēng)
(shǎng)
上聲上声 (shǎngshēng)
()
去聲去声 (qùshēng)
()
入聲入声 (rùshēng)
標調方法标调方法 (biāodiào fāngfǎ)
標調法标调法
四角標調法四角标调法 ꜀◌ ꜂◌ ◌꜄ ◌꜆
[Term?] ◌〪 ◌〫 ◌〬 ◌〭
傍點傍点 ◌〮 ◌〯
四聲八調四声八调 陰平阴平 (yīnpíng) 陽平阳平 (yángpíng) 陰上阴上 (yīnshǎng) 陽上阳上 (yángshǎng) 陰去阴去 (yīnqù) 陽去阳去 (yángqù) 陰入阴入 (yīnrù) 陽入阳入 (yángrù)
(yīn) (yáng)
標調方法标调方法 (biāodiào fāngfǎ)
標調法标调法
四角標調法四角标调法 ꜀◌ ꜁◌ ꜂◌ ꜃◌ ◌꜄ ◌꜅ ◌꜆ ◌꜇
The tones (of Standard Mandarin) in Mandarin · 聲調声调 (shēngdiào) (layout · text)
四聲四声 (sìshēng) 陰平阴平 (yīnpíng)
一聲一声
陽平阳平 (yángpíng)
二聲二声 (èrshēng)
上聲上声 (shǎngshēng)
三聲三声 (sānshēng)
去聲去声 (qùshēng)
四聲四声 (sìshēng)
輕聲轻声 (qīngshēng)

Compounds edit

References edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. to enter
  2. to insert

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
い(り)
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

The (れん)(よう)(けい) (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of the verb () (iru, to go in, to be in)..[1][2][3][4]

Attested as a standalone noun since the early 1200s.[2]

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

  1. [from early 1200s] entering, going in
  2. [from 1693] setting, such as a sunset or moonset (from the idea of the sun or moon going into the horizon)
  3. [from 1441] the beginning or first day of a period of time
  4. [date unclear] income, takings
    Synonym: 収入 (shūnyū)
  5. [from 1774] a subtotal or portion of some larger payment amount
    Synonym: 内金 (uchikin)
  6. [from 1929] an expense, an amount needed
  7. [from 1675] the amount of people or things that fit into a space: capacity; admission, admittance
    Synonyms: 容量 (yōryō, capacity), 入場者数 (nyūjō shasū, admission, number of people who have entered)
  8. [date uncertain] "on" switch, the "on" position for a switch
    Antonym: (kiri)

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
しお
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

Counter edit

(しお) (-shio

  1. (archaic) counter for soakings (of fabric in a dye)

References edit

  1. ^ Shinmura, Izuru, editor (1998), 広辞苑 (in Japanese), Fifth edition, Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 ”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000
  3. 3.0 3.1 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. 4.0 4.1 Kindaichi, Kyōsuke et al., editors (1997), 新明解国語辞典 (in Japanese), Fifth edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  5. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN

Korean edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (MC nyip).

Historical readings

Pronunciation edit

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (deul ip))

  1. Hanja form? of (enter).
  2. Hanja form? of (come in (to); join).

Compounds edit

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Việt readings: nhập[1][2][3]
: Nôm readings: nhập[2][3], nhạp[3][4], nhấp[1], nhắp[1], vào[1], nhép[3], nhẹp[3]

  1. chữ Hán form of nhập (to enter; to join).

References edit