Contents

TranslingualEdit

EtymologyEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
昔-oracle.svg 昔-bronze.svg 昔-silk.svg 昔-bigseal.svg 昔-seal.svg

Two pieces of flesh () left to dry in the sun ().

Han characterEdit

(radical 72 +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 廿日 (TA), four-corner 44601, composition)

  1. formerly
  2. ancient
  3. in the beginning

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 492, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13816
  • Dae Jaweon: page 855, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1488, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+6614

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

PronunciationEdit


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (16)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/siᴇk̚/ /si̯ɛk̚/ /siɛk̚/ /siɛk̚/ /siajk̚/ /sĭɛk̚/ /siæk̚/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ sjek › /*[s]Ak/ in the past

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
13309 0 /*sjaːɡ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReferencesEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

EtymologyEdit

Kanji in this term
むかし
Grade: 3
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. The muka portion derives from the 未然形 ‎(mizenkei, incomplete form) of verb 向く ‎(muku, to face opposite to something), implying “that which stands opposite from the present”. The shi portion is suffix ‎(shi) indicating direction, also found in words 縦し ‎(tatashi, the standing or vertical direction), 横し ‎(yokoshi, the sideways or horizontal direction). This appears to be a somewhat rare alternative form, more commonly encountered as ‎(sa), and may be cognate with the nominalizing adjective ending ‎(sa).[1]

PronunciationEdit

AdverbEdit

‎(hiragana むかし, romaji mukashi)

  1. once (in the indeterminate past)
     (むかし) ()映画 (えいが)
    mukashi mita eiga
    a movie I once saw

NounEdit

‎(hiragana むかし, romaji mukashi)

  1. the past, old times
    • 970-999, Utsubo Monogatari (Toshikage)[3]
      むかし、式部大輔、左大弁かけて清原の王ありけり。
    昔と — past and the present
    昔の自分 — my past self
    昔からの友達 — a longtime friend ("a friend since old times")
    昔に戻る — to return to the past
  2. ancient
    昔の — ancient people
    もう昔のだ。— That's ancient history.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. ^ Kōno, Tama (c. 970–999) Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 10: Utsubo Monogatari 1 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, ISBN 978-4-00-060010-1, published 1959.

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(seok, chak) (hangeul , , revised seok, chak, McCune-Reischauer sŏk, ch'ak, Yale sek, chak)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.
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