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U+6BCD, 母
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6BCD

[U+6BCC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6BCE]
U+2E9F, ⺟
CJK RADICAL MOTHER

[U+2E9E]
CJK Radicals Supplement
[U+2EA0]
Commons:Category
Commons:Category
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Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 80, +1, 5 strokes, cangjie input 田卜戈 (WYI), four-corner 77500, composition ⿻⿻𠃋𠃌)

Derived characters edit

Related characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 588, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 16723
  • Dae Jaweon: page 980, character 32
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2380, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+6BCD

Further reading edit

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Pictogram (象形) : a woman with breasts with nipples kneeling or standing. In modern form turned on left side. Compare (OC *naʔ, *nas, “woman”), which has developed similarly, but does not include dots for nipples and has lost one breast in the modern form.

Etymology edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *mow (woman, female).

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • mō̤ - “female; capital; suffix”;
  • mū - “mother”.
Note:
  • Xiamen:
    • bú - vernacular;
    • bó͘ - literary.
  • Quanzhou:
    • bú, bó͘ - vernacular;
    • bió - literary.
  • Zhangzhou:
    • bú - vernacular;
    • bó - literary.
  • Taiwan:
    • bó - vernacular;
    • bió/bó͘, bú - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /mu²¹⁴/
Harbin /mu²¹³/
Tianjin /mu¹³/
Jinan /mu⁵⁵/
Qingdao /mu⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /mu⁵³/
Xi'an /mu⁵³/
Xining /mv̩⁵³/
Yinchuan /mu⁵³/
Lanzhou /mu⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /mu⁵¹/
Wuhan /mu⁴²/
/moŋ⁴²/
Chengdu /mu⁵³/
Guiyang /mu⁴²/
Kunming /mu⁵³/
Nanjing /mu²¹²/
Hefei /mʊ²⁴/
/məŋ²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /mu⁵³/
Pingyao /mu⁵³/
Hohhot /mu⁵³/ ~的
/məʔ⁰/ 外~娘
Wu Shanghai /mu²³/
/m̩²³/
Suzhou /mo⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /mu⁵³/
Wenzhou /mu³⁵/
Hui Shexian /mɔ³⁵/
/m̩³⁵/
Tunxi /m̩²⁴/
Xiang Changsha /mo⁴¹/
Xiangtan /mo⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /mu²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /mu⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /mu²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /mou²³/
Nanning /mu²⁴/
Hong Kong /mou¹³/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /bɔ⁵³/
/bu⁵³/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /mo³²/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /mu²¹/
Shantou (Teochew) /bo⁵³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /mu²¹³/
/mai²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (4)
Final () (137)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter muwX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/məuX/
Pan
Wuyun
/məuX/
Shao
Rongfen
/məuX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/məwX/
Li
Rong
/muX/
Wang
Li
/məuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/mə̯uX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
mǒu
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
mau5
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ muwX ›
Old
Chinese
/*məʔ/ (? or *mˁoʔ)
English mother

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9288
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*mɯʔ/

Definitions edit

  1. mother
    Antonym:
      ―    ―  father and mother
      ―    ―  mother and son
  2. Used to address a female elder member of a family.
    Antonym:
      ―    ―  father's sister
      ―    ―  grandmother
  3. (of animal) female
    Synonym: ()
    Antonym: (gōng)
      ―  niú  ―  female cow
  4. (figuratively, of instruments, tools, or connectors) female
  5. pertaining to origin
      ―  xiào  ―  alma mater
  6. a surname

Synonyms edit

Compounds edit

Descendants edit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Vietnamese: mẫu ()

References edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Usage notes edit

In isolation, the character has 5 strokes in modern Japanese – it is not simplified. In shinjitai compound characters, such as or , it is simplified to 4 strokes, as . In hyōgaiji characters such as , however, the component is not simplified.

Alternative forms edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
はは
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese.

/haha/: */papa//fafa//fawa//fafa//haha/.

Medial /f/ [ɸ] regularly changes to /w/ [ɰᵝ], resulting in /fawa//hawa/, the expected final form; see hawa below. This form first appears in the Heian period. However, likely due to spelling influence or reduplication associations, the earlier /fafa/ resurfaced in the late 16th century towards the end of the Muromachi period, with both forms seen until recent times, when hawa falls into disuse.[1] Initial /f-/ [ɸ] regularly becomes [h], resulting in modern [ha̠ha̠].

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(はは) (hahaはは (fafa)?

  1. mother
    ()()(のぶ)(なが)(はは)(なぞ)(おお)い。
    Oda Nobunaga no haha wa nazo ga ōi.
    Oda Nobunaga's mother was a mysterious woman.
Usage notes edit
  • This term conveys neither positive nor negative connotations. However, using it to describe someone the speaker knows personally is often considered lacking respect, where more polite forms like (かあ)さん (okāsan) are preferred.
  • This term is sometimes used in objective narrations, but for this purpose, (はは)(おや) (hahaoya) is more common.
Coordinate terms edit
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
はわ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese, the phonologically expected development. See etymology for haha above for details.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(はわ) (hawaはは (fafa)?

  1. (humble) mother
    • 1603–1604, Nippo Jisho, page 213:
      Faua. ハワ (母) 母親.
      Faua. ハワ (母) 母親.
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)
    • 1603–1604, Nippo Jisho, page 196:
      Fafa. l, faua. ハハ. または、ハワ(母) 母.
      Fafa. l, faua. ハハ. または、ハワ(母) 母.
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)
    • 1603–1604, Nippo Jisho, page 71:
      Caca. カカ (かか) Faua (母)に同じ. 母. これは子供の言葉である. また、尊敬すべき婦人、あるいは、年長で一家の主婦のような婦人の意に取られる.
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)
    • 1603–1604, Nippo Jisho, page 60:
      Bogui. ボギ (母儀) Faua (母)に同じ. 母.
      Bogui. ボギ (母儀) Faua (母)に同じ. 母.
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)
Usage notes edit

Obsolete in mainstream Japanese. May persist in dialects.

Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Possibly an abbreviation of haha, or possibly the original form.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

() (ha

  1. (obsolete) mother
Usage notes edit

Not found in isolation, only found in compounds. Obsolete and unused in modern Japanese.

Derived terms edit

Etymology 4 edit

Kanji in this term
あも
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Obsolete and unused in modern Japanese. Already falling into disuse by the writing of the Man'yōshū in 759, where it is only found in pieces written in eastern dialects.[1] Possibly cognate with Korean 엄마 (eomma, mother), 어머니 (eomeoni, mother).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(あも) (amo

  1. (obsolete) mother
Derived terms edit

Etymology 5 edit

Kanji in this term
おも
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Obsolete and unused in modern Japanese. Appears to be an alteration from amo above.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(おも) (omo

  1. (obsolete) mother
  2. a woman who breastfeeds and raises a child in place of a parent: a wet nurse
Synonyms edit
Derived terms edit

Etymology 6 edit

Kanji in this term
かか
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Unknown. One theory holds that this is a corrupted and abbreviated form of 御方様 (okatasama), a term to refer to or address someone else's wife (now extremely formal, but much more everyday in the Edo period), possibly influenced by children's speech:

/okatasama//katasama//kakasama//kaka/

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(かか) (kaka

  1. (childish) mommy, mummy
    • 1603–1604, Nippo Jisho, page 71:
      Caca. カカ (かか) Faua (母)に同じ. 母. これは子供の言葉である. また、尊敬すべき婦人、あるいは、年長で一家の主婦のような婦人の意に取られる.
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)
  2. (obsolete) wife
    Seen in the Edo period among the lower socioeconomic classes. Used to refer both to one's own wife when talking to others, and to refer to someone else's wife.[1]
Derived terms edit

Etymology 7 edit

Kanji in this term
かあ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Alteration of kaka[1]: /kaka//-kka//kaː/

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(かあ) (

  1. mother
Usage notes edit

Almost never seen in isolation. Most commonly seen with honorific prefix o- and honorific suffix -san, as (かあ)さん (okāsan).

Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN

Korean edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (MC muwX).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 무ᇢ〯 (Yale: mwǔw)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 어〮미〮 (Yale: émí) 모〯 (Yale: mwǒ)

Pronunciation edit

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [mo̞(ː)]
  • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
    • Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 어미 (eomi mo))

  1. Hanja form? of (mother).

Compounds edit

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

Old Japanese edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (MC muwX).

Phonogram edit

(mo2)

  1. Denotes phonographic syllable mo2.

Further reading edit

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Việt readings: mẫu[1][2]
: Nôm readings: mẫu[1][2][3][4], mẹ[5]

  1. chữ Hán form of mẫu (mother).

References edit