手

(Redirected from 🈐)
See also: 爪 and 寞
手 U+624B, 手
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-624B
← 扊
[U+624A]
CJK Unified Ideographs 扌 →
[U+624C]
⌿ U+2F3F, ⼿
KANGXI RADICAL HAND
← ⌟
[U+2F3E]
Kangxi Radicals ✀ →
[U+2F40]
🈐 U+1F210, 🈐
SQUARED CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-624B
[unassigned: U+1F203–U+1F20F]
← 🈂
[U+1F202]
Enclosed Ideographic Supplement 🈑 →
[U+1F211]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Alternative formsEdit

  • 扌 (when used as a left Chinese radical)

Han characterEdit

手 (Kangxi radical 64, 手+0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 手 (Q), four-corner 20500, composition ⿻𠂌䞀)

  1. Kangxi radical #64, ⌿.

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 416, character 28
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 11768
  • Dae Jaweon: page 762, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1824, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+624B

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
手
alternative forms 𠂿

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character 手
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
           

Pictogram (象圢) – hand and fingers. The top stroke is the bent over middle finger, while the horizontal strokes are each two fingers. Compare 爪, 寞, 九.

Note that unlike the other hand/claw characters, 手 has consistently had five fingers: a mammalian/human hand, as opposed to the three digits often found in the others.

Compare also 止 (“foot”), derived from a footprint, originally composed of 3 toes and a sole.

EtymologyEdit

STEDT compares this word to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g-(t)sjəw-k/ŋ (“wing; hand”) based on Karlgren's Archaic Chinese (Old Chinese) reconstruction *śi̯Îg, connecting it to Tibetan àœ‚àœ€àœŒàœ‚ (gshog, “wing”).

However, this comparison is not supported by more recent scholarship, in which the Old Chinese is reconstructed with an alveolar nasal (Unger, 1995; Zhengzhang, 1995; Baxter and Sagart, 2014). Evidence for the nasal initial is given in Sagart (1999):

  • 杻 (“handcuffs”) can be written as 杜, so 侑 (OC *ᵇhnruʔ) (with a nasal initial) and 手 seem to be interchangeable as phonetics.
  • The ancient graph 侑 resembles the graph of 又 (“right hand”). 狃 (OC *ᵇnruʔ, “animal track; claw”) seems to be the modern specialized form of 侑, which has been borrowed to represent an earthly branch.

As done by Sagart (1999), Baxter and Sagart (2014) put 杻 (OC *nÌ¥<r>uʔ, “handcuffs”) and 狃 (OC *Cə.n<r>uʔ, “animal track; claw”) into the same word family as 手 (OC *nÌ¥uʔ). Zhengzhang (1995) suggests a connection to Burmese ညဟိုသ (hnyui:, “forefinger”), which STEDT derives from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-njuŋ ~ *s-m-juŋ ~ *s-m-juw (“finger”).

Alternatively, Schuessler (2007) suggests a tone B endoactive derivation from 收 (OC *nhiu?, “to take; to gather”), literally “that which is doing the taking”.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • chhiú - vernacular;
  • siú - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character 手
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial (聲) 曞 (26)
    Final (韻) å°€ (136)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division (等) III
    Fanqie 曞九切
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɕɹuX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɕiuX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɕiəuX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɕuwX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɕiuX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɕĭəuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɕi̯ə̯uX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shǒu
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    sau2
    Baxter–Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character 手
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shǒu
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ syuwX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*n̥uʔ/
    English hand

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character 手
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 11665
    Phonetic
    component
    手
    Rime
    group
    幜
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    驖
    Old
    Chinese
    /*hnjɯwʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    手

    1. hand (Classifier: 隻只 m c mn; 雙双 m mn; 對对 c)
    2. expert; master
      高手  ―  gāoshǒu  ―  master
    3. -ist; -er
      歌手  ―  gēshǒu  ―  singer
    4. convenient; handy; portable
      手機手机  ―  shǒujī  ―  mobile phone
      手冊手册  ―  shǒucÚ  ―  handbook
    5. handwritten
    6. Classifier for skills.
    7. Classifier for transactions.
    8. (Min Nan) luck in gambling
    9. (Mainland China Hokkien) Classifier for Chinese characters.
    10. (Taiwanese Hokkien) hidden part (general)

    See alsoEdit

    Usage notesEdit

    In many varieties of Chinese south of the Yangtze River, 手 (shǒu) refers to the arm and hand collectively.

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic (手):
    • → Japanese: 手(しゅ) (shu)
    • → Korean: 수(手) (su)
    • → Vietnamese: thủ (手)

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    手

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    手
    お
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese.

    Possibly derived from a fusion of unbound apophonic form 手 (ta) +‎ い (i, emphatic nominal particle). Compare 目 (ma → me, “eye”).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    手(お) • (te) 

    1. a hand
      リンゎを手(お)に持(も)぀
      ringo o te ni motsu
      to hold an apple in one's hand
      手(お)打(う)ちのモヌルス
      te-uchi no Mōrusu
      manually-keyed Morse code
    2. a handle, grip
    3. a paw, foreleg
    4. a way of acting, means
      その手(お)があったか。
      Sono te ga atta ka.
      You could do it that way too?
      è²·(か)うのも䞀(ひず)぀の手(お)である。
      Kau no mo hitotsu no te de aru.
      Another way is buying it.
    5. (board games) a move, play
      • 2002 March 9, Hotta, Yumi; Obata, Takeshi, “第(だい)131(ひゃくさんじゅういち)局(きょく) 詊(ため)される䌊(い)角(すみ) [Game 131: Isumi’s Endeavor]”, in ヒカルの碁 [Hikaru’s Go], volume 16 (fiction), Tokyo: Shueisha, →ISBN, page 54:
        ただそんな手(お)が残(のこ)っおた——投(ずう)了(りょう)は早(はや)すぎた
        Mada sonna te ga nokotteta—— Tōryō wa hayasugita
        There’s still that move — I gave up too soon
    Derived termsEdit

    PrefixEdit

    手(お) • (te-) 

    1. strengthens the prefixed adjective or adjectival noun
      手(お)早(ばや)い、手(お)堅(がた)い
      tebayai, tegatai
      quick, nimble; firm, steady

    SuffixEdit

    手(お) • (-te) 

    1. one who does the previous word's action: -ist, -er
      語(かた)り手(お)
      katarite
      narrator
      䜿(぀か)い手(お)
      tsukaite
      user
    2. (board games) counter for moves in shogi, go, etc.
    Derived termsEdit
    See alsoEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    手
    しゅ
    Grade: 1
    goon

    From Middle Chinese 手 (MC ɕɹuX).

    AffixEdit

    手(しゅ) • (shu) 

    1. hand
    2. handwork
    3. handicraft, skill, talent
    4. one who does an action: -ist, -er
    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 2006, 倧蟞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese 手 (MC ɕɹuX).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 슈ᇢ〯 (Yale: syǔw)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[1] 손〮 (Yale: swón) 슈〮 (Yale: syú)

    PronunciationEdit

    • (hand; person; etc.):
    • (in 수걎 (手巟, sugeon)):
      • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [sÊ°u(ː)]
      • Phonetic hangul: [수(ː)]
        • Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    手 (eumhun 손 수 (son su))

    1. Hanja form? of 수 (“hand”).
    2. Hanja form? of 수 (“suffix related to one's skill or occupation”).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇎계학회 대구겜북지부 (國際退溪孞會 倧邱慶北支郚) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전電子字兞. [2]

    KunigamiEdit

    KanjiEdit

    手

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    手 (hiragana おぃヌ, romaji thÄ«)

    1. a hand

    MiyakoEdit

    KanjiEdit

    手

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    手 (hiragana おぃヌ, romaji tÄ«)

    1. a hand

    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit

    手

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Cognate with Japanese 手 (te).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    手 (hiragana おぃヌ, rōmaji tÄ«)

    1. a hand
    2. a handle, grip
    3. a skill, ability, means; especially in martial arts

    Derived termsEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    手: Hán Việt readings: thủ (曞(thÆ°)九(cá»­u)切(thiết))[1][2][3]
    手: NÃŽm readings: thủ[1][3][4][5]

    1. chữ Hán form of thủ (“hand”).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit


    YaeyamaEdit

    KanjiEdit

    手

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    手 (hiragana おぃヌ, romaji tÄ«)

    1. a hand

    YonaguniEdit

    KanjiEdit

    手

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    手 (hiragana おぃヌ, romaji tÄ«)

    1. a hand