See also: , 🈴, , , and
U+5408, 合
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5408

[U+5407]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5409]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 30, +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 人一口 (OMR), four-corner 80601, composition )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 174, character 24
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3287
  • Dae Jaweon: page 387, character 17
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 581, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5408

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.
 
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
           

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意): + (mouth) : Two mouths speaking together.

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *gap ~ kap. Compare (OC *kaːbs, *kaːb, *ɡaːb, “to cover”) and (OC *ɡaːb, “to unite”) (STEDT). Outside of Sinitic, possibly cognate with Burmese ကပ် (kap, to approach).

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • ha̍p - used to mean 'join', 'to combine', 'to unite' and literary readings;
  • ha̍h/a̍h - vernacular (“to suit; to get along well”).
Note:
  • hab8 - alternative pronunciation for "to close";
  • gab4 - "to combine" (e.g. 合藥);
  • gah4 - "to fit", etc..
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • hheq (T5) - regular pronunciation for "together", etc;
    • keq (T4) - alternative pronunciation in certain words like 合算.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (160)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Baxter hop
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦʌp̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦəp̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣɒp̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦəp̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣᴀp̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣɒp̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣăp̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    hap6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hop ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m-kˁop/
    English come together; bring together

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 4970
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡuːb/

    Definitions edit

    1. to close; to shut
        ―  shàng  ―  close
    2. to join; to combine; to unite; to bring together
        ―    ―  to assemble
        ―    ―  to gather, to assemble
    3. to suit; to fit
        ―  shì  ―  to fit, to suit
        ―  shì  ―  suitable, fitting
      紅酒红酒  ―  Yú hé hóngjiǔ bù.  ―  Fish and red wine don't go well together.
      沒有尺寸帽子 [MSC, trad.]
      没有尺寸帽子 [MSC, simp.]
      Nà ge diàn lǐ méiyǒu wǒ chǐcùn de màozǐ. [Pinyin]
      There are no hats in that store that fit me.
    4. to have sexual intercourse
    5. to fight, to have a confrontation with
    6. to be equivalent to, to add up
      公頃十五市畝 [MSC, trad.]
      公顷十五市亩 [MSC, simp.]
      Yī gōngqǐng shíwǔ shìmǔ. [Pinyin]
      A hectare is equivalent to 15 mu.
    7. spouse
    8. whole; entire
    9. together
      卡片我們全家母親節快樂 [MSC, trad.]
      卡片我们全家母亲节快乐 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhè zhāng kǎpiàn shì wǒmen quánjiā sòng de. Zhù nín mǔqīnjié kuàilè. [Pinyin]
      This card comes from the whole family. Happy Mother's Day.
    10. Alternative form of (, box)
    11. (games, battle) round
    12. (astronomy) conjunction
    13. (Hokkien) to get along well
    14. (Chinese phonetics) Short for 合口 (hékǒu, “closed-mouthed”).
    15. Classifier for the number of fights.
    16. to compound; to make up (medicine, etc.)
    17. a surname

    Compounds edit

    Descendants edit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Vietnamese: hợp ()

    Etymology 2 edit

    Pronunciation edit


    Note: literary reading.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (160)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Baxter kop
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kʌp̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kəp̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kɒp̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kəp̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /kᴀp̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /kɒp̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kăp̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    ge
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    gap3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kop ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kˁop/
    English together; put together; combined

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 4955
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kuːb/

    Definitions edit

    1. unit of volume, equal to one tenth of a (shēng)
      1. (Han dynasty) equal to 2 (yuè)

    Etymology 3 edit

    Pronunciation edit


    Definitions edit

    1. (music) Kunqu gongche notation for the note low sol (5̣).
    2. (music) Cantonese opera gongche notation for the note low sol (5̣).

    Compounds edit

    Derived terms edit

    Etymology 4 edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to close, to shut; all of, whole of”).
    (This character is the simplified form of ).
    Notes:

    Etymology 5 edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“box; case”).
    (This character is the second-round simplified form of ).
    Notes:

    References edit

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. fit
    2. suit
    3. join
    4. one tenth

    Readings edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC hop); compare Mandarin (hé, gě):

    From Middle Chinese (MC kop); compare Mandarin ():

    From native Japanese roots:

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    Kanji in this term
    ごう
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    Counter edit

    (ごう) (-gōがふ (gafu)?

    1. covered containers
    2. battles

    Noun edit

    (ごう) (がふ (gafu)?

    1. 0.18039 liters, equaling ten shaku or a tenth of a shō
    2. a tenth of the distance from the base to the summit of a mountain
    See also edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term
    あ(い)
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    あい
    [suffix] mutual, together, each other, meeting
    [noun] Short for 合い服 (あいふく, aifuku, clothing worn in spring or autumn).
    Alternative spelling
    合い
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Korean edit

    Etymology edit

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Middle Korean readings, if any”)

    Pronunciation edit

    Hanja edit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 합할 (haphal hap))

    1. Hanja form? of (to unite).

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Việt readings: hợp[1][2][3][4][5], hiệp[3][4][5], hạp[6][3], cáp[3][4]
    : Nôm readings: hợp[1][2][6], họp[1][2][6], hiệp[1][2], hạp[6], cáp[1], cóp[6], gộp[6], sáp[1]

    1. chữ Hán form of hợp (to unite, suitable).
    2. chữ Hán form of hiệp (unite).
    3. chữ Hán form of hạp (to unite, suitable (rare spelling of hợp)).
    4. Nôm form of sáp (flexible material used to store cosmetics).

    References edit