- (Received Pronunciation, General American) IPA(key): /lɪst/
Audio (GA) (file) Audio (AU) (file)
- Rhymes: -ɪst
From Middle English lī̆st, lī̆ste (“band, stripe; hem, selvage; border, edge, rim; list, specification; barriers enclosing area for jousting, etc.”), from Old English līste (“hem, edge, strip”), or Old French liste, listre (“border; band; strip of paper; list”), or Medieval Latin lista, all from Proto-Germanic *līstǭ (“band, strip; hem, selvage; border, edge”), possibly from Proto-Indo-European *leys- (“to trace, track”). The word is cognate with Dutch lijst (“list”), Finnish lista (“(informal) list; batten”), Galician lista (“band, strip; list”), German Leiste (“ledge; (heraldry) bar”), Icelandic lista, listi, Italian lista (“list; strip”), Portuguese lista (“list”), Spanish lista (“list, roll; stripe”), Swedish lista (“list”).
list (plural lists)
- A strip of fabric, especially from the edge of a piece of cloth.
- c. 1603–1604, William Shakespeare, “Measvre for Measure”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies: Published According to the True Originall Copies (First Folio), London: Printed by Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act I, scene ii], lines 27–34, page 62, column 1:
- 1. Gent[leman]. Well: there went but a paire of ſheeres betweene vs. / Luc[io]. I grant: as there may betweene the Liſts, and the Veluet. Thou art the Liſt. / 1. Gent. And thou the Veluet. Thou art good Veluet; thou'rt a three pild-piece I warrant thee: I had as liefe be a Lyſt of an Engliſh Kerſey, as be pil'd, as thou art pil'd, for a French Veluet. Do I ſpeake feelingly now?
- 1st Gentleman. Well, you and I are cut from the same cloth. / Lucio. I agree: just as the lists [scraps from the edge of the cloth] and the velvet are from the same cloth. You are the list. / 1st Gentleman. And you are the velvet. You are good velvet; you are a three-piled piece, I'll bet. I would willingly be a list of an English kersey, than be full of piles [haemorrhoids], as you are piled, like a French velvet. Do I speak feelingly now?
- Material used for cloth selvage.
- 1871 September 18, “The Jewish New Year”, in The Jewish Herald: A Record of Christian Effort for the Salvation of Israel, London: John Snow & Co., […]; and the British Society [for the Propagation of the Gospel Among the Jews], […], published 1 November 1871, OCLC 749304689, page 174:
- Previous to the offering up of prayer, however, the persons chosen for this office [of praying for the people] had divested themselves of their boots and put on list slippers, their hands being washed by "the descendants of Levi" at a basin near the Holy of Holies.
- 1893, A[rthur] Conan Doyle, “The Naval Treaty”, in The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes, New York, N.Y.: A. L. Burt, OCLC 691143; republished London: John Murray, […], January 1950, OCLC 632221174, page 255:
- "How is it, then, that the woman who came into the room about nine left to traces with her muddy boots?" / "I am glad you raise the point. It occurred to me at the time. The charwomen are in the habit of taking off their boots at the commissionaire's office, and putting on list slippers."
- A register or roll of paper consisting of a compilation or enumeration of a set of possible items; the compilation or enumeration itself. [from 1600]
- 1625, Francis Bacon, “Of Youth and Age. XLII.”, in The Essayes or Covncils, Civill and Moral, […] Newly Written, London: Printed by Iohn Haviland for Hanna Barret, OCLC 863521290; newly enlarged edition, London: Printed by Iohn Haviland, […], 1632, OCLC 863527675, pages 247–248:
- 1843 December 19, Charles Dickens, “Stave I. Marley’s Ghost.”, in A Christmas Carol. In Prose. Being a Ghost Story of Christmas, London: Chapman & Hall, […], OCLC 55746801, pages 11–12:
- "Scrooge and Marley's, I believe," said one of the gentlemen, referring to his list. "Have I the pleasure of addressing Mr. Scrooge, or Mr. Marley?"
- 2013 June 29, “A punch in the gut: How microbes promote liver cancer in the overweight”, in The Economist, volume 407, number 8842, pages 72–73:
- Mostly, the microbiome is beneficial. […] Research over the past few years, however, has implicated it in diseases from atherosclerosis to asthma to autism. Dr Yoshimoto and his colleagues would like to add liver cancer to that list.
- (in the plural, historical) The barriers or palisades used to fence off a space for jousting or tilting tournaments.
- 1662, [Samuel Butler], “[The First Part of Hudibras]”, in Hudibras. The First and Second Parts. […], London: Printed by T[homas] N[ewcomb] for John Martyn and Henry Herringman, […], published 1678, OCLC 890163163; republished in A[lfred] R[ayney] Waller, editor, Hudibras: Written in the Time of the Late Wars, Cambridge: At the University Press, 1905, OCLC 963614346, canto II, page 32:
- With Truncheon tip'd with Iron head, / The Warrior to the Lists [he] led; […]
- 1715, Homer; [Alexander] Pope, transl., “Book III”, in The Iliad of Homer, volume I, London: Printed by W[illiam] Bowyer, for Bernard Lintott between the Temple-Gates, OCLC 670734254, lines 319–323, page 16:
- Ariſe, O Father of the Trojan State! / The Nations call, thy joyful People wait, / To ſeal the Truce and end the dire Debate. / Paris thy Son, and Sparta’s King advance, / In meaſur’d Liſts to toſs the weighty Lance; […]
- 1820, Walter Scott, chapter VIII, in Ivanhoe; a Romance. [...] In Three Volumes, volume I, Edinburgh: Printed for Archibald Constable and Co.; London: Hurst, Robinson, and Co. […], OCLC 230694662, page 139:
- William de Wyvil, and Stephen de Martival, […] armed at all points, rode up and down the lists to enforce and preserve good order among the spectators.
- (computing, programming) A codified representation of a list used to store data or in processing; especially, in the LISP programming language, a data structure consisting of a sequence of zero or more items.
- 1985 March 10, Ed Acly, “A Tale of Three Languages: C, Ada & Lisp”, in Computerworld: The Newsweekly for the Computer Community, volume XIX, number 12, Framingham, Mass.: CW Communications, ISSN 0010-4841, OCLC 234191689, page ID/10, columns 1–2:
- Lisp is an applicative language. This means that it is structured around applying functions (operations) to a linked list of arguments that accompany those functions. […] A function call or function definition is only coded in the syntax of a list, which can be of an indefinite length. Thus, the list is the only data structure for a Lisp program.
- (architecture) A little square moulding; a fillet or listel.
- 1788, [John Carter], “STRIÆ”, in The Builder’s Magazine: Or, A Universal Dictionary for Architects, Carpenters, Masons, Bricklayers, &c. […], new edition, London: Printed for E. Newbery, […], OCLC 12051583, page 284:
- STRIÆ, in ancient architecture, the liſts, fillets or rays which ſeparate the ſtriges or flutings of columns.
- 1876, Edward Shaw; Thomas W[illiam] Silloway; George M[ilford] Harding, “Introduction”, in Civil Architecture; being a Complete Theoretical and Practical System of Building, Containing the Fundamental Principles of the Art. […], 11th edition, Philadelphia, Pa.: Henry Carey Baird & Co., […], OCLC 191228916, page 22, column 2:
- A volute is a kind of spiral scroll, used in the Ionic and Composite capitals, of which it makes the principal characteristic and ornament. […] There are several diversities practised in the volute. In some, the list or edge, throughout all the circumvolutions, is in the same line or plane. […] [I]n others, the canal or one circumvolution is detached from the list of another by a vacuity or aperture.
- (carpentry) A narrow strip of wood, especially sapwood, cut from the edge of a board or plank.
- (ropemaking) A piece of woollen cloth with which the yarns are grasped by a worker.
- (tin-plate manufacture) The first thin coating of tin; a wire-like rim of tin left on an edge of the plate after it is coated.
- (obsolete) A stripe.
- 1646, Thomas Browne, “Of the Same [i.e., the Blacknesse of Negroes]”, in Pseudodoxia Epidemica: Or, Enquiries into Very Many Received Tenents, and Commonly Presumed Truths, London: Printed for Tho. Harper for Edvvard Dod, OCLC 838860010; Pseudodoxia Epidemica: Or, Enquiries into Very Many Received Tenents, and Commonly Presumed Truths. […], book 6, 2nd corrected and much enlarged edition, London: Printed by A. Miller, for Edw[ard] Dod and Nath. Ekins, […], 1650, OCLC 152706203, page 282:
- Thus the Aſſe having a peculiar mark of a croſſe made by a black liſt down his back, and another athwart, or at right angles down his ſhoulders; common opinion aſcribes this figure unto a peculiar ſignation; ſince that beaſt had the honour to bear our Saviour on his back.
- (obsolete) A boundary or limit; a border.
- c. 1597, [William Shakespeare], The History of Henrie the Fovrth; […], quarto edition, London: Printed by P[eter] S[hort] for Andrew Wise, […], published 1598, OCLC 932916628, [Act IV, scene i]:
- [W]ere it good / […] to ſet ſo rich a maine / On the nice hazard of one doubtfull houre? / It were not good for therein ſhould we read / The very bottome and the ſoule of hope, / The very liſt, the very vtmost bound / Of all our fortunes.
- Is it good / […] to place so high a stake / On the risky hazard of one doubtful hour? / No, it would be no good for we would read into it that we had reached / The end of our hope, / The very limit, the very utmost boundary / Of all our luck.
- (enumeration or compilation of items): see Thesaurus:list
- access control list
- adjacency list
- association list
- bucket list
- buddy list
- bullet list, bulleted list
- Christmas list
- clout list
- dean's list
- definition list
- display list
- distribution list
- drop-down list
- dropdown list
- friends list
- grocery list
- hit list
- honeydew list
- honey do list, honey-do list
- jump list
- laundry list
- life list
- linked list
- List 99
- list box
- list price
- List X
- mailing list
- material list
- no fly list, no-fly list
- numbered list
- price list
- prize list
- punch list
- reading list
- Red List
- reference list
- set list, setlist
- shit list, shitlist
- shopping list
- short list
- shot list, shotlist
- sick list
- skip list
- snagging list
- stop list
- Swadesh list
- to-do list
- transfer list
- Verlet list
- waiting list
- want list
- watch list, watchlist
- wine list
- wish list, wishlist
- word list, wordlist
- The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.
- (transitive) To create or recite a list.
- (transitive) To place in listings.
- 1993, Ooi Jin Bee, “The Tropical Rain Forest: Patterns of Exploitation and Trade”, in Tropical Deforestation: The Tyranny of Time, Singapore: Singapore University Press, →ISBN, page 62:
- As the export market for tropical hardwoods expanded, timber from tropical rain forests very rapidly became the dominant or major forest product, dominant to such an extent that trade figures often do not even list the minor forest products exported, or their value.
- (transitive) To sew together, as strips of cloth, so as to make a show of colours, or to form a border.
- (transitive) To cover with list, or with strips of cloth; to put list on; to stripe as if with list.
- to list a door
- (transitive, agriculture) To plough and plant with a lister.
- (transitive, agriculture, chiefly Southern US) To prepare (land) for a cotton crop by making alternating beds and alleys with a hoe.
- (transitive, carpentry) To cut away a narrow strip, as of sapwood, from the edge of.
- to list a board
- (transitive, military) To enclose (a field, etc.) for combat.
- (transitive, obsolete) To engage a soldier, etc.; to enlist.
- 1642 October 28, [Philip Morant], History and Antiquities of the Borough of Colchester, in the County of Essex. […], Colchester, Essex: Printed and sold by I. Marsden, [...], published 1810, OCLC 14454124, pages 48–49:
- […] It is therefore ordered that the Maior and Aldermen of Colchester [et al.], shall forthwith procure and raise in the said severall townes, and other pleces adjacent, two thousand horses for dragooners, or as manie as possible they may, for the service as aforesaid, and with all possible speed to send them up to London unto Thomas Browne Grocer, and Maximilian Beard Girdler, by us appointed to list horses for the service aforesaid; […]
- 1822, [Walter Scott], chapter IV, in Peveril of the Peak. [...] In Four Volumes, volume I, Edinburgh: Printed for Archibald Constable and Co.; London: Hurst, Robinson, and Co., OCLC 2392685, page 107:
- "I have a gun, madam," said little Julian, "and the park-keeper is to teach me how to fire it next year." / "I will list you for my soldier, then," said the Countess.
- (intransitive, obsolete) To engage in public service by enrolling one's name; to enlist.
From Middle English list, liste (“ability, cleverness, cunning, skill; adroitness, dexterity; strategem, trick; device, design, token”), from Old English list (“art, craft; cleverness, cunning, experience, skill”), from Proto-Germanic *listiz (“art, craft”), from Proto-Indo-European *leys-, *leyǝs- (“furrow, trace, track, trail”). The word is cognate with Dutch list (“artifice, guile, sleight; ruse, strategem”), German List (“cunning, guile; ploy, ruse, trick”), Low German list (“artifice, cunning; prudence, wisdom”), Icelandic list (“art”), Saterland Frisian list (“cunning, knowledge”), Scots list (“art, craft, skill; cunning”), Swedish list (“art; cunning, guile, wile; ruse, trick; stealth”), and possibly Spanish listo (“clever”). It is also related to learn, lere, lore.
- (archaic) Art; craft; cunning; skill.
- 1877 November 16, “Vaticanism”, in The Literary World. Choice Readings from the Best New Books, and Critical Reviews, volume XVI, number 420 (New Series), London: James Clarke & Co., […], OCLC 221123288, page 313, column 3:
- In discussing the Syllabus and the last dogma of 1870, so much must be allowed for Italian list and cunning, or a word-fence. An Englishman, with his matter-of-fact way of putting things, is no match for these gentry.
- 1893, S[olomon] C[aesar] Malan, chapter XXVI, in Original Notes on the Book of Proverbs. Mostly from Eastern Writings, volume III (Ch. xxi.–xxxi.), London: Williams and Norgate, […], OCLC 610436370, page 349:
- Sophos, fab[le] 40. "The foxes had heard that the fowls were sick, and went to see them decked in peacock's feathers; said of men who speak friendly, but only with list or cunning within."
- 1990, Alexander L. Ringer, “The Rise of Urban Musical Life between the Revolutions, 1789–1848”, in Alexander [L.] Ringer, editor, The Early Romantic Era: Between Revolutions: 1789 and 1848 (Man and Music; 6), Basingstoke, Hampshire; London: The Macmillan Press, DOI:10.1007/978-1-439-11297-5, →ISBN, figure 13, caption, page 22:
- 'The general bass, in its fixed lines, is taken by surprise and overwhelmed by List [[Franz] Liszt]' (List = cunning); anonymous lithograph (c 1842).
- 1992, Reading Medieval Studies: Annual Proceedings of the Graduate Centre for Medieval Studies in the University of Reading, [Reading, Berkshire]: Graduate Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Reading, ISSN 0950-3129, OCLC 624457645, page 92:
- 2000, Jakov Ljubarskij, “John Kinnamos as a Writer”, in Cordula Scholz and Georgios Makris, editors, ΠΟΛΥΠΛΕΥΡΟΣ ΝΟΥΣ [POLYPLEUROS NOUS]: Miscellanea für Peter Schreiner zu seinem 60. Geburtstag [VERSATILE MIND: Miscellanea for Peter Schreiner for His 60th Birthday] (Byzantinisches Archiv [Byzantine Archive]; 19), Munich; Leipzig: K[laus] G[erhard] Saur, →ISBN, footnote 11, page 166:
- 2008, Jon B. Sherman, The Magician in Medieval German Literature (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation), Urbana; Champaign, Ill.: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, OCLC 695692595:
- One man can accomplish with list (magic), that which a thousand could not accomplish, regardless of how strong they were.
Clipping of list(en).
- (intransitive, poetic) To listen.
- c. 1606–1607, William Shakespeare, “The Tragedie of Anthonie and Cleopatra”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies: Published According to the True Originall Copies (First Folio), London: Printed by Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act IV, scene iii], page 359, column 1:
- 2 [Soldier] Peace, what noiſe? / 1 [Soldier] Liſt liſt. / 2 Hearke. / 1 Music i' th' Ayre.
- 1801, Thomas Browne, “Delia: A Pastoral Ballad—in Four Parts”, in Poems on Several Occasions, New York, N.Y.: Printed for William Durell, […] by George F. Hopkins, […], OCLC 466635222, part the fourth (Rejection), page 60:
- Go my flock where ye list on the plain, / And leave your fond shepherd to weep; / I shall never be able again / To guide your stray steps, my poor sheep: […]
- 1860–1861, “What of the Night?”, in Frank Moore, editor, The Rebellion Record: A Diary of American Events, with Documents, Narratives, Illustrative Incidents, Poetry, etc., volume II, New York, N.Y.: G[eorge] P[almer] Putnam, […], published 1862, OCLC 910200780, page 96, column 1:
- We list to the trumpings that herald the storm, / To the roll of the drum, and the order to form!
- 1881, Aeschylus; E[dmund] D[oidge] A[nderson] Morshead, transl., “Agamemnon”, in The House of Atreus: Being The Agamemnon, Libation-bearers, and Furies of Æschylus. Translated into English Verse, London: Simpkin and Marshall, […]; Winchester, Hampshire: Warren and Son, […], OCLC 911826265, pages 65–66:
- Ye hold me as a woman, weak of will, / And strive to sway me: but my heart is stout, / Nor fears to speak its uttermost to you, / Albeit ye know its message. Praise or blame, / Even as ye list,—I reck not of your words.
- (transitive, poetic) To listen to.
From Middle English listen, list, liste, leste, lesten (“to choose, desire, wish (to do something)”), from Old English lystan, from Proto-Germanic *lustijaną, from Proto-Germanic *lustuz (“pleasure”). The word is cognate with Danish lyste (“to desire, feel like, want”), Dutch lusten (“to appreciate, like; to lust”), Faroese lysta (“to desire”), Old Norse lyste (“to desire; to lust”), Old High German lusten (modern German gelüsten and lüsten).
The noun sense is from the verb, or from Middle English list, liste, lest, leste (“desire, wish; craving, longing; enjoyment, joy, pleasure”), which is derived from Middle English listen, list (verb).
- (transitive, archaic) To be pleasing to.
- (transitive, archaic) To desire, like, or wish (to do something).
- 1536–1542, Thomas Wyatt, “That Unkindness hath Slain His Poor True Heart”, in The Poetical Works of Sir Thomas Wyatt, London: William Pickering, published 1831, OCLC 503979158, pages 88–89:
- Who list to live in quietness / By me let him beware. / For I by high disdain / Am made without redress; / And unkindness, alas! hath slain / My poor true heart, all comfortless.
- 1610–1611, William Shakespeare, “The Tempest”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies: Published According to the True Originall Copies (First Folio), London: Printed by Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act III, scene ii], page 12, column 2:
- 1678, John Bunyan, The Pilgrim’s Progress from This World, to That which is to Come: […], London: Printed for Nath[aniel] Ponder […], OCLC 228725984; reprinted in The Pilgrim’s Progress (The Noel Douglas Replicas), London: Noel Douglas, […], 1928, OCLC 5190338, page 206:
- What! would you have us truſt to what Chriſt in his own perſon has done without us! This conceit would looſen the reines of our luſt, and tollerate us to live as we liſt: For what matter how we live, if we may be Juſtified by Chriſts perſonal righteouſneſs from all, when we believe it?
- 1843 April, Thomas Carlyle, “Unworking Aristocracy”, in Past and Present, London: Chapman and Hall, OCLC 924818948; republished New York, N.Y.: William H. Colyer, […], May 1843, OCLC 10193956, book III (The Modern Worker), page 102:
- Ye are as gods, that can create soil. Soil-creating gods there is no withstanding. They have the might to sell wheat at what price they list; and the right, to all lengths, and famine-lengths,—if they be pitiless infernal gods!
- 1959, Leo Strauss, “What is Political Philosophy?”, in What is Political Philosophy?: And Other Studies, Glencoe, Ill.: The Free Press, OCLC 497094, page 51:
- License consists in doing what one lists; liberty consists in doing in the right manner the good only; and our knowledge of the good must come from a higher principle, from above.
- 1994, John [Wyon] Burrow, The Historian: The Magazine for Members of the Historical Association, London: The Historical Association, ISSN 0265-1076, OCLC 423924578, page 176, column 2:
- The spirit seemed to blow where it listed among a historically motley collection of Catholic theologians, Puritan zealots and American squires.
- (obsolete) Desire, inclination.
- c. 1603–1604, William Shakespeare, The Tragœdy of Othello, the Moore of Venice. […] (First Quarto), London: Printed by N[icholas] O[kes] for Thomas Walkley, […], published 1622, OCLC 724111485, [Act II, scene i], page 24:
- I know too much: / I finde it, I; for when I ha liſt to ſleepe, / Mary, before your Ladiſhip I grant, / She puts her tongue alittle in her heart, / And chides with thinking.
- I know, [she talks] too much: / I find that, when I have desire to sleep. / Indeed, before your Ladyship I admit, / She keeps a little quiet, / And scolds me with her thoughts.
list (plural lists)
- (architecture) A tilt to a building.
- (nautical) A careening or tilting to one side, usually not intentionally or under a vessel's own power. [from early 17th c.]
- (transitive, nautical) To cause (something) to tilt to one side. [from early 17th c.]
- the steady wind listed the ship
- (intransitive, nautical) To tilt to one side. [from early 17th c.]
- the ship listed to port
- ^ “lī̆st(e, n.(2)” in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007, retrieved 16 June 2018.
- ^ “list(e, n.(1)” in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007, retrieved 24 June 2018.
- ^ “listen, v.(1)” in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007, retrieved 17 June 2018.
- ^ “list, n.(2)” in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007, retrieved 17 June 2018.
- ^ “list” (US) / “list” (UK) in Oxford Dictionaries, Oxford University Press.
- ^ William Long (6 November 2005), “List..the Word II”, in Drbilllong.com, archived from the original on 20 April 2012.
- ^ “list, n. 3” in Douglas Harper, Online Etymology Dictionary, 2001–2019, retrieved 24 June 2018.
- leaf (green and flat organ of vegetative plants)
- letter (written message)
- sheet (sheet of paper)
- Polský list Dziennik Gazeta Prawna nejdříve napsal, že polská hlava státu podepíše dokument ve středu. (iDNES)
- certificate (document containing a certified statement)
- rodný list -- birth certificate
- úmrtní list -- death certificate
- list in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
- list in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989
list c (singular definite listen, not used in plural form)
- imperative of
- a cunning plan
|Declension of list|
list m (diminutive listk)
- imperative of
- “list” in The Bokmål Dictionary.
list f (definite singular lista)
- “list” in The Nynorsk Dictionary.
- Swedish: list
list m inan (diminutive liścik)
- letter (a written message)
- list in Polish dictionaries at PWN
lȋst m (Cyrillic spelling ли̑ст)
- (computing) leaf
- sheet (of paper or other material manufactured in thin sheets)
- newsletter, newspaper
- certificate (any official document attesting a fact)
- (obsolete) letter (written message)
- calf (leg part)
- sole, flatfish (fish species)
- “list” in Hrvatski jezični portal
- list in Slovak dictionaries at korpus.sk
- smartness, trick, cunning
- a strip (of wood or metal, a thin and long board), a border, a beading
- (graphical user interface) a bar
|Declension of list|