See also: , , and
U+6C23, 氣
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6C23

[U+6C22]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6C24]

TranslingualEdit

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han characterEdit

(radical 84, +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 人弓火木 (ONFD), four-corner 80917, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 599, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17059
  • Dae Jaweon: page 990, character 26
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2011, character 14
  • Unihan data for U+6C23

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp. *
alternative forms
𣱛
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • Qi (English)

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kʰɯds, *qʰɯds): phonetic (OC *kʰɯds) + semantic (rice) – to give rice as a gift.

Later borrowed meanings of “air, flow” from (OC *kʰɯds). The derivative (OC *qʰɯds) refers to the original word. Compare (OC *kʰɯds, *kʰɯd).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note: khùi - vernacular, khì - literary.
Note:
  • ki3 - literary;
  • kui3 - vernacular.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕʰi⁵¹/
    Harbin /t͡ɕʰi⁵³/
    Tianjin /t͡ɕʰi⁵³/
    Jinan /t͡ɕʰi²¹/
    Qingdao /t͡ɕʰi⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /t͡ɕʰi³¹²/
    Xi'an /t͡ɕʰi⁴⁴/
    Xining /t͡ɕʰji²¹³/
    Yinchuan /t͡ɕʰi¹³/
    Lanzhou /t͡ɕʰi¹³/
    Ürümqi /t͡ɕʰi²¹³/
    Wuhan /t͡ɕʰi³⁵/
    Chengdu /t͡ɕʰi¹³/
    Guiyang /t͡ɕʰi²¹³/
    Kunming /t͡ɕʰi²¹²/
    Nanjing /t͡ɕʰi⁴⁴/
    Hefei /t͡sʰz̩⁵³/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕʰi⁴⁵/
    Pingyao /t͡ɕʰi³⁵/
    Hohhot /t͡ɕʰi⁵⁵/
    Wu Shanghai /t͡ɕʰi³⁵/
    Suzhou /t͡ɕʰi⁵¹³/
    Hangzhou /t͡ɕʰi⁴⁴⁵/
    Wenzhou /t͡sʰz̩⁴²/
    Hui Shexian /t͡ɕʰi³²⁴/
    Tunxi /t͡ɕʰi⁴²/
    Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕʰi⁵⁵/
    Xiangtan /t͡ɕʰi⁵⁵/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕʰi²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /hi⁵³/
    Taoyuan /hi⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /hei³³/
    Nanning /hi³³/
    Hong Kong /hei³³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kʰi²¹/
    /kʰui²¹/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kʰɛi²¹²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kʰi³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /kʰi²¹³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /xi³⁵/
    /xui³⁵/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (29)
    Final () (20)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kʰɨiH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʰɨiH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kʰiəiH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kʰɨjH/
    Li
    Rong
    /kʰiəiH/
    Wang
    Li
    /kʰĭəiH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kʰe̯iH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ khjɨjH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.qʰəp-s/
    English cloudy vapors

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 10140
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰɯds/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. air; gas
      天然 / 天然  ―  tiānrán  ―  natural gas
      出去 / 出去  ―  Chūqù tòu tòu!  ―  Go out to breathe fresh air!
      輪胎 / 轮胎  ―  Lúntāi lòu le.  ―  The tire is leaking gas.
    2. breath (Classifier: m;  m;  c)
      喘不過 / 喘不过  ―  chuǎnbùguò lái  ―  to be out of breath
      戰鬥最后 [MSC, trad.]
      战斗最后 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒ huì zhàndòu dào zuìhòu yī kǒu . [Pinyin]
      I will fight to my last breath.
    3. (Chinese philosophy) qi; vital energy; life force
    4. smell; odour
      /   ―  wèi  ―  smell
      廚炊煙火衣服去掉 [MSC, trad.]
      厨炊烟火衣服去掉 [MSC, simp.]
      Bǎ chúchuī de yānhuǒ cóng yīfú shàng qùdiào shì hěn nán de. [Pinyin]
      It is difficult to remove the smell of cooking from clothes.
    5. angriness
      /   ―  shēng  ―  to get angry
    6. to be angry
      /   ―  Wǒ hěn .  ―  I'm very angry.
    7. to make angry; to annoy
      /   ―  Bié wǒ!  ―  Don't annoy me!
    8. to breathe
    9. quality; character; spirit; mettle
      男人 / 男人  ―  yǒu nánrén   ―  manly
    SynonymsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (ki)
    • Korean: (, gi)
    • Vietnamese: khí ()

    Pronunciation 2Edit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (32)
    Final () (20)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /hɨiH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /hɨiH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /xiəiH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /hɨjH/
    Li
    Rong
    /xiəiH/
    Wang
    Li
    /xĭəiH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /xe̯iH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ xjɨjH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qʰət-s/
    English to present food

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 10143
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qʰɯds/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Original form of (, “to give food as a gift”).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    Shinjitai

    Kyūjitai

    KanjiEdit

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

    ReadingsEdit

    • Go-on: (ke)
    • Kan-on: (ki)
    • Kun: いき (iki, )

    Usage notesEdit

    Not used in modern Japanese. Replaced by the shinjitai form .


    KoreanEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC kʰɨiH).

    Historical readings

    PronunciationEdit

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 기운 (giun gi))

    1. Hanja form? of (energy, aura, vitality, vigor).

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC hɨiH).

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 보낼 (bonael hui))

    1. Original form of .

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: khí

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.