See also: , , 𠁽, , and 𠔼
U+51E1, 凡
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-51E1

[U+51E0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+51E2]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 16, +1, 3 strokes, cangjie input 竹弓戈 (HNI), four-corner 77210, composition )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 134, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1739
  • Dae Jaweon: page 299, character 10
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 276, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+51E1

Chinese edit

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
           

Pictogram (象形) – a plate, a flat dish.

Borrowed for abstract meanings. Another character (OC *baːn) was created to refer to the original word.

Etymology 1 edit

simp. and trad.

According to Schuessler (2007), Sino-Tibetan in origin; compare Mizo pum (whole; all), Burmese ဘုံ (bhum, common, public, communal). Cognate with (OC *pqab, “law”).

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • huang5/huam5 - "ordinary" (huang5 - Shantou, huam5 - Chaozhou);
  • huang6/huam6 - “outline, every, altogether, surname” (huang6 - Shantou, huam6 - Chaozhou).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /fan³⁵/
    Harbin /fan²⁴/ 下~
    /fan⁵³/ ~是
    Tianjin /fan⁴⁵/
    Jinan /fã⁴²/
    Qingdao /fã⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /fan⁴²/
    Xi'an /fã²⁴/
    Xining /fã²⁴/
    Yinchuan /fan⁵³/
    Lanzhou /fɛ̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /fan⁵¹/
    Wuhan /fan²¹³/
    Chengdu /fan³¹/
    Guiyang /fan²¹/
    Kunming /fã̠³¹/
    Nanjing /faŋ²⁴/
    Hefei /fæ̃⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /fæ̃¹¹/
    Pingyao /xuɑŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /fæ̃³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ve²³/
    Suzhou /ve̞¹³/
    Hangzhou /vẽ̞²¹³/
    Wenzhou /va³¹/
    Hui Shexian /fɛ⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /fuːə⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /fan¹³/
    Xiangtan /ɸan¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /fan⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /fan¹¹/
    Taoyuan /fɑm¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /fan²¹/
    Nanning /fan²¹/
    Hong Kong /fan²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /huan³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /huaŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /uaiŋ²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /huaŋ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /faŋ³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (3)
    Final () (146)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter bjom
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /bɨɐm/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /biɐm/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /biɐm/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /buam/
    Li
    Rong
    /biɐm/
    Wang
    Li
    /bĭwɐm/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /bʱi̯wɐm/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    fán
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    faan4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    fán
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ bjom ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[b]rom/
    English in every case

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 2914
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*bom/
    Notes

    Definitions edit

    1. in general; every, all, any; indicates that the statement applies generally, to all cases.
    2. altogether; in total (of numbers)
    3. ordinary; commonplace
        ―  fēifán  ―  extraordinary
        ―  fánrén  ―  common people
    4. worldly; mortal; earthly
    5. (literary) outline; gist
    6. a surname

    Antonyms edit

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    simp. and trad.

    Pronunciation edit


    Definitions edit

    1. (music) Kunqu gongche notation for the note fa (4).
      Synonym: (Cantonese opera)

    Derived terms edit

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. in general, by and large
    2. ordinary, common, mediocre
    3. outline, gist

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    Kanji in this term
    ぼん
    Grade: S
    goon
    Alternative spelling
    (rare)

    */bɨəm//bomʉ//boɴ/

    From Middle Chinese (MC bjom).

    Pronunciation edit

    Adjective edit

    (ぼん) (bon-na (adnominal (ぼん) (bon na), adverbial (ぼん) (bon ni))

    1. mediocre, ordinary
      Antonym: 非凡 (hibon)
    Inflection edit
    Derived terms edit

    Noun edit

    (ぼん) (bon

    1. mediocrity
      Antonym: 非凡 (hibon)

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term
    おお
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    /opo//ofo//oho//oː/

    From Old Japanese.

    Cognate with (ō, great, large), and the oho- element in おほほし (ohohoshi, unclear, indistinct; depressed, gloomy; stupid, imbecilic).[2][1]

    Historically also realized as obo in old texts, and cognate with the obo- element in (oboro, hazy, vague, dim, indistinct).[2][1]

    Pronunciation edit

    Adjective edit

    (おお) (ōおほ (ofo)?-nari

    1. (archaic) dim, faint
      Synonym: 仄か (honoka)
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū, (book 2, poem 219):
        , text here
        (そら)(かぞふ)凡津(おほつの)子之(こが)(あひし)(ひに)於保(おほ)()()(しか)()(いま)()(くやしき) [Man'yōgana]
        空数(そらかぞ)(おほ)()()()ひし()おぼ()しかば(いま)(くや)しき [Modern spelling]
        sora kazou Ōtsu no ko ga aishi hi ni oboni mishikaba ima zo kuyashiki
        (please add an English translation of this example)
    2. (archaic) moderate
      Synonym: いい加減 (iikagen)
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū, (book 14, poem 3535):
        , text here
        於能我乎遠(おのがをを)於保(おほ)尓奈於毛比曽(になおもひそ)尓波尓多知(にはにたち)恵麻須我可良尓(ゑますがからに)古麻尓安布毛能乎(こまにあふものを) [Man'yōgana]
        (おの)()おほにな(おも)ひそ(には)()()ますがからに(こま)()ふものを [Modern spelling]
        onoga o o ōni na omoi so niwa ni tachi emasu ga kara ni koma ni au mono o
        (please add an English translation of this example)
    3. (archaic) mediocre, ordinary
      Synonyms: 普通 (futsū), 平凡 (heibon)
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū, (book 6, poem 965):
        , text here
        (おほ)(なら)()左毛右毛将為乎(かもかもせむを)(かしこみ)()振痛袖(ふりたきそで)()(しのび)()(ある)香聞(かも) [Man'yōgana]
        おほならばかもかもせむを(かしこ)みと()りたき(そで)(しの)びてあるかも [Modern spelling]
        ōnaraba ka mo ka mo semu o kashikomi to furitaki sode o shinobite aru ka mo
        (please add an English translation of this example)
    4. (archaic) : large, big; roomy, loose
    Derived terms edit

    Etymology 3 edit

    Kanji in this term
    おおし
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese.

    Appears to be a lexicalized adverbial use of the 終止形 (shūshikei, terminal form) of classical adjective 多し (ōshi, many, modern 多い (ōi), same opoofoohoō root).

    Alternatively, might be adjective stem ō + conjunctive particle (shi).

    Pronunciation edit

    Adverb edit

    (おおし) (ōshiおほし (ofosi)?

    1. about, generally, in general
      Synonyms: 凡そ (oyoso), 大体 (daitai)
    Derived terms edit

    References edit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Akira Matsumura, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    Korean edit

    Hanja edit

    (eumhun 무릇 (mureut beom))

    1. Hanja form? of (all, any, every).
    2. Hanja form? of (ordinary, common).

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Nôm readings: phàm

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.