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See also: , , 𠁽, , and 𠔼
U+51E1, 凡
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-51E1

[U+51E0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+51E2]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 16, +1, 3 strokes, cangjie input 竹弓戈 (HNI), four-corner 77210, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 134, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1739
  • Dae Jaweon: page 299, character 10
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 276, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+51E1

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
           
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*b·ruːm
*b·uːm
*pʰomʔ
*pʰoms, *bum
*bom
*bom, *boms
*bom, *boms
*bomʔ
*bloms, *bum
*boːŋ, *bum
*plum, *plums
*plum
*plum
*plum
*plum
*plum
*plum
*plums
*blum
*blum
*bums

Pictogram (象形) – a plate, a flat dish.

Borrowed for abstract meanings. Another character (OC *baːn) was created to refer to the original word.

EtymologyEdit

  This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

PronunciationEdit


Note: huam6 - “outline, every, altogether, surname”.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /fan³⁵/
Harbin /fan²⁴/ 下~
/fan⁵³/ ~是
Tianjin /fan⁴⁵/
Jinan /fã⁴²/
Qingdao /fã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /fan⁴²/
Xi'an /fã²⁴/
Xining /fã²⁴/
Yinchuan /fan⁵³/
Lanzhou /fɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /fan⁵¹/
Wuhan /fan²¹³/
Chengdu /fan³¹/
Guiyang /fan²¹/
Kunming /fã̠³¹/
Nanjing /faŋ²⁴/
Hefei /fæ̃⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /fæ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /xuɑŋ¹³/
Hohhot /fæ̃³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ve²³/
Suzhou /ve̞¹³/
Hangzhou /vẽ̞²¹³/
Wenzhou /va³¹/
Hui Shexian /fɛ⁴⁴/
Tunxi /fuːə⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /fan¹³/
Xiangtan /ɸan¹²/
Gan Nanchang /fan⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /fan¹¹/
Taoyuan /fɑm¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /fan²¹/
Nanning /fan²¹/
Hong Kong /fan²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /huan³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /huaŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /uaiŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /huaŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /faŋ³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (3)
Final () (146)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bɨɐm/
Pan
Wuyun
/biɐm/
Shao
Rongfen
/biɐm/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/buam/
Li
Rong
/biɐm/
Wang
Li
/bĭwɐm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱi̯wɐm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
fán
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
fán
Middle
Chinese
‹ bjom ›
Old
Chinese
/*[b]rom/
English in every case

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 2914
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*bom/
Notes

DefinitionsEdit

  1. ordinary; commonplace
  2. worldly; mortal; earthly
  3. outline; gist
  4. (music) the fourth scale degree in the Gongche musical notation
  5. every; all; any
  6. altogether
  7. A surname​.

AntonymsEdit

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. in general, by and large
  2. ordinary, common, mediocre
  3. outline, gist

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Alternative formsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
ぼん
Grade: S
on’yomi

*/bɨəm//bomʉ//boɴ/

From Middle Chinese (MC bɨɐm).

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

(-na inflection, hiragana ぼん, rōmaji bon)

  1. mediocre, ordinary
    Antonym: 非凡 (hibon)
InflectionEdit
Derived termsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana ぼん, rōmaji bon)

  1. mediocrity
    Antonym: 非凡 (hibon)

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
おお
Grade: S
kun’yomi

/opo//ofo//oho//oː/

From Old Japanese.

Cognate with (ō, great, large), and the oho- element in おほほし (ohohoshi, unclear, indistinct; depressed, gloomy; stupid, imbecilic).[2][1]

Historically also realized as obo in old texts, and cognate with the obo- element in (oboro, hazy, vague, dim, indistinct).[2][1]

AdjectiveEdit

(-nari inflection, hiragana おお, rōmaji ō, historical hiragana おほ)

  1. (archaic) dim, faint
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 2, poem 219), text here
       (そら) (かぞふ)凡津 (おほつの) () () (あひし) (ひに) () () () () (しか) () (いま) () (くやしき) [Man'yōgana]
      空数 (そらかぞ) (おほ) () () ()ひし ()おぼ ()しかば (いま) (くや)しき [Modern spelling]
      sora kazou Ōtsu no ko ga aishi hi ni oboni mishikaba ima zo kuyashiki
      (please add an English translation of this example)
    Synonym: 仄か (honoka)
  2. (archaic) moderate
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3535), text here
       () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () [Man'yōgana]
       (おの) ()おほにな (おも)ひそ (には) () ()ますがからに (こま) ()ふものを [Modern spelling]
      onoga o o ōni na omoi so niwa ni tachi emasu ga kara ni koma ni au mono o
      (please add an English translation of this example)
    Synonym: いい加減 (iikagen)
  3. (archaic) mediocre, ordinary
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 6, poem 965), text here
       (おほ) (なら) () () () () () () () () (かしこみ) ()振痛袖 (ふりたきそで) () (しのび) () (ある) () () [Man'yōgana]
      おほならばかもかもせむを (かしこ)みと ()りたき (そで) (しの)びてあるかも [Modern spelling]
      ōnaraba ka mo ka mo semu o kashikomi to furitaki sode o shinobite aru ka mo
      (please add an English translation of this example)
    Synonyms: 普通 (futsū), 平凡 (heibon)
  4. (archaic) : large, big; roomy, loose
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
おおし
Grade: S
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese.

Appears to be a lexicalized adverbial use of the 終止形 (shūshikei, terminal form) of classical adjective 多し (ōshi, many, modern 多い (ōi), same opoofoohoō root).

Alternatively, might be adjective stem ō + conjunctive particle (shi).

AdverbEdit

(hiragana おおし, rōmaji ōshi, historical hiragana おほし)

  1. about, generally, in general
    Synonyms: 凡そ (oyoso), 大体 (daitai)
Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(beom)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Việt readings: phàm

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.