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U+91D1, 金
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-91D1

[U+91D0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+91D2]
U+2FA6, ⾦
KANGXI RADICAL GOLD

[U+2FA5]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2FA7]
U+F90A, 金
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F90A

[U+F909]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F90B]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Alternative forms

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  • (when used as a left Chinese radical)

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 167, +0, 8 strokes, cangjie input (C), four-corner 80109, composition 𫢉)

  1. Kangxi radical #167, .

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1295, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 40152
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1795, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 4167, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+91D1

Chinese

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simp. and trad.
alternative forms
Chemical element
Au
Previous: () (Pt)
Next: (gǒng) (Hg)
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
 
Crystals of (jīn): gold.

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *krɯm) : semantic (upside-down axe) + semantic (two blocks of metal) + phonetic . is the ancient form for (OC *krɯm). Shuowen interprets it as an image of metal in the earth ('象金在土中形') with as phonetic.

Originally referred to copper; later the meaning was extended to metal as a whole, and then to gold.

Etymology

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Starostin reconstructs Proto-Sino-Tibetan *gǝ̆m (metal); compare Tedim Chin xam (gold) and Lepcha ᰀᰩᰮ (kóm, silver, coin, money).

Copper[prior to 5th BCE] → “metals in general” → “gold”.

The main senses now are “gold” and “metal”.

The surname also appears among Manchus and one of its sources is calque of Manchu ᠠᡳᠰᡳᠨ (aisin, gold) in ᠠᡳᠰᡳᠨ
ᡤᡳᠣᡵᠣ
(aisin gioro). Therefore, part of the Manchu people with this surname are descendants of the Qing imperial family.

Pronunciation

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Note:
  • gim1 - Chaozhou, Shantou;
  • ging1 - Chenghai.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
Harbin /t͡ɕin⁴⁴/
Tianjin /t͡ɕin²¹/
Jinan /t͡ɕiẽ²¹³/
Qingdao /t͡ɕiə̃²¹³/
Zhengzhou /t͡ɕin²⁴/
Xi'an /t͡ɕiẽ²¹/
Xining /t͡ɕiə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /t͡ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕĩn³¹/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
Chengdu /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
Guiyang /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
Kunming /t͡ɕĩ⁴⁴/
Nanjing /t͡ɕin³¹/
Hefei /t͡ɕin²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕiəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /t͡ɕiŋ¹³/
Hohhot /t͡ɕĩŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /t͡ɕiŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /t͡ɕin³³/
Wenzhou /t͡ɕaŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕiʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /t͡ɕin¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕin³³/
Xiangtan /t͡ɕin³³/
Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕin⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /kim⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /kim²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /kɐm⁵³/
Nanning /kɐm⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /kɐm⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /kim⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /kiŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /keiŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /kim³³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /kim²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (140)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter kim
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kˠiɪm/
Pan
Wuyun
/kᵚim/
Shao
Rongfen
/kiem/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kjim/
Li
Rong
/kjəm/
Wang
Li
/kĭĕm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ki̯əm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jīn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gam1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jīn
Middle
Chinese
‹ kim ›
Old
Chinese
/*k(r)[ə]m/
English metal, bronze

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 6679
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*krɯm/
Notes

Definitions

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  1. (obsolete) copper (Cu)
  2. metal
      ―  jīn  ―  alloy
  3. metalware
  4. gold (Au)
    顏色黃銅相似 [MSC, trad.]
    颜色黄铜相似 [MSC, simp.]
    Jīn de yánsè hé huángtóng hěn xiāngsì. [Pinyin]
    Gold is similar in color to brass.
  5. golden; blond
      ―  jīn  ―  blond
    獎勵一塊 [MSC, trad.]
    奖励一块 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā bèi jiǎnglì le yīkuài jīn biǎo. [Pinyin]
    He received a golden watch as a prize.
  6. (by extension) money; material wealth
      ―  xiànjīn  ―  cash
      ―  jīn  ―  funds
      ―  jīnqián  ―  currency
  7. (historical) ancient currency unit
  8. (historical) gong or other metalware for signalling commands in the military
    鼓齊鳴鼓齐鸣  ―  jīngǔqímíng  ―  the gongs and drums of war sound out in unison
  9. respectful; precious
    玉良言  ―  jīnyùliángyán  ―  precious advice
  10. Used in 金城 (jīnchéng).
    城湯池城汤池  ―  jīnchéngtāngchí  ―  strongly fortified city
  11. Short for 金星 (Jīnxīng, “Venus”).
  12. one of the eight kinds of instruments (八音 (-))
  13. metal, one of the five elements of Wu Xing (五行 (-))
  14. (Cantonese, cant) fire; flame
  15. (Cantonese, cant) roasted
    [Cantonese]  ―  gam1 zyu1 [Jyutping]  ―  roasted suckling pig
  16. (~朝) (historical) The Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115–1234)
  17. (~朝, ) (historical) Synonym of 後金后金 (Hòujīn), the Jurchen Later Jin state (1616–1636)
  18. a surname
      ―  Jīn Shèngtàn  ―  Jin Shengtan (Chinese literary critic)
      ―  Jīn Yàn  ―  Jin Yan (Chinese actor)

Synonyms

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Compounds

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Descendants

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Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (きん) (kin)
  • Korean: 금(金) (geum), 김(金) (gim)
  • Vietnamese: kim ()

Others:

  • Bouyei: jiml (gold)
  • Lao: ຄຳ (kham, gold)
  • Thai: คำ (kam, gold)
  • Zhuang: gim (gold)

References

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(First grade kyōiku kanji)

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
きん
Grade: 1
kan'on
Chemical element
Au
Previous: 白金 (Pt)
Next: 水銀 (Hg)
 
(kin): Synthetically produced crystalline gold.
 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja

/kimʉ//kiɴ/

From Middle Chinese (kim). Compare modern Mandarin (jīn).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(きん) (kin

  1. gold (Au)
  2. money
    (きん)(いっ)(ぷう)をもらった。kin ippū o moratta.I received a gift of money.
  3. Short for 金属 (kinzoku): metal
  4. (shogi) Short for 金将 (kinshō): a gold general
  5. metal as one of the five classical elements in traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine
  6. Short for 金曜日 (kin’yōbi): Friday
Derived terms
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Affix

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(きん) (kin

  1. metal, metallic
  2. gold, gold-colored
  3. money
  4. (by extension of “golden) excellent, fine, splendid
Derived terms
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Proper noun

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(きん) (Kin

  1. the Jin dynasty (1115–1234)
See also
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Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
こん
Grade: 1
goon

/komʉ//koɴ/

From Middle Chinese (kim).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(こん) (kon

  1. metal as one of the five classical elements in traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine

Affix

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(こん) (kon

  1. metal, metallic
  2. gold, gold-colored
  3. (by extension of “golden) excellent, fine, superb
Derived terms
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Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term
かね
Grade: 1
kun'yomi
Alternative spellings


 
(kane): Hot metal work from a blacksmith.

From Old Japanese.

Possibly derived from unbound prefix kana- fused with (i, nominal particle). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Cognate with terms with a ka- stem pertaining to “hardness”?”)

The four kanji spellings of this term, (“gold”), (silver), (copper), and (iron), hint at the importance of each of these four metals in ancient Japan.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(かね) (kane

  1. metal
    Synonym: 金属 (kinzoku)
  2. (impolite) Clipping of お金 (okane): money
  3. (colloquial) Short for 曲尺 (kanejaku): a carpenter’s square
  4. (colloquial) Short for 金物 (kanamono) or 金具 (kanagu): metal fittings
  5. Short for 金性 (kaneshō): fineness of gold metal, compare English karat
  6. Synonym of 金箔 (kinpaku): gold leaf
Usage notes
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The spelling is the most common for this term.

Derived terms
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Etymology 4

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Kanji in this term
こがね
Grade: 1
kun'yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
黄金こがね
[noun] gold (Au) as a metal
[noun] money, more specifically the large 大判 (ōban) gold coins formerly used in Japan
[noun] Short for 黄金色 (kogane iro): gold as a colour
[noun] Short for 黄金の泥 (kogane no dei): powdered gold suspended in a base and used as paint
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN

Korean

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Etymology 1

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From Middle Chinese (MC kim).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 (Yale: kùm)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[3] 쇠〮 (Yale: swóy) (Yale: kùm)

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (soe geum))

  1. Hanja form? of (gold; amount of money). [noun]
  2. Hanja form? of (money). [suffix]
  3. Hanja form? of (Short for 금요일(金曜日) (geumyoil, Friday).).
Compounds
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Etymology 2

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Most likely a borrowing from Early Mandarin (EM *kim) during Mongol rule in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.[1]

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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(eumhun 사람-의 성(姓) (saram-ui seong gim))

  1. Hanja form? of (a surname; used in placenames).
Compounds
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References

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  1. ^ 권인한 (2004) “성씨 김(金)의 한자음 연원을 찾아서”, in Sae Gugeo Saenghwal[1] (in Korean), volume 14, number 4, pages 143—155
  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [4]

Old Japanese

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Compounds

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Etymology 1

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From Proto-Japonic *kanai.

Possibly derived from unbound prefix kana- stemmed with nominal particle (i). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Noun

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(kane) (kana かね)

  1. a metal, especially gold
    Coordinate terms: , , (kane)
Derived terms
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Descendants
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  • > Japanese: (kane) (inherited)

Etymology 2

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From (ku, yellow) +‎ (kane, metal).

Noun

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(kugane) (kana くがね)

  1. Alternative spelling of 黃金 (kugane): gold as a metal
    Coordinate terms: (akagane), (kuro₁gane), (siro₁gane)
Descendants
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Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Việt readings: kim[1][2][3]
: Nôm readings: kim[1][2][4], ghim[3][5], câm[2], găm[3], ghim[4]

  1. Chữ Hán form of kim (gold; metal).
  2. Chữ Hán form of Kim (a surname from Chinese.).

Compounds

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References

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