# log

See also: lóg, lòg, lög, løg, lǫg, loğ, log., -log, and løg-
 ㏒ U+33D2, ㏒ SQUARE LOG
 ← ㏑[U+33D1] CJK Compatibility ㏓ →[U+33D3]

## Translingual

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

### Symbol

log

1. logarithm
if ${\displaystyle x=b^{y}}$  then ${\displaystyle \log _{b}(x)=y}$

#### Usage notes

If not specified, the base of the logarithm is assumed to be either 2, 10, or e, depending on context:

• Base e is most common in professional mathematics.
• Base 10 is typical for many calculators, in the physical sciences, and in secondary school pedagogy.
• Base 2 is frequently used in theoretical computer science but rare outside that field.

#### Hyponyms

• (with base e) ln
• (with base 10) lg
• (with base 2) lb, ld

## English

### Pronunciation

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

### Etymology 1

From Middle English logg, logge (first recorded in Anglo-Latin as loggum), of uncertain origin,[1] but probably from Old Norse lóg, lág (felled tree, log), derived from Old Norse liggja (to lie). If so, then cognate with Norwegian låg (fallen tree), Dutch loog (wood, timber, lumber).

Alternatively, directly from Norwegian låg (fallen tree), which could have been borrowed through the Norwegian timber trade.[2] However the Old Norse/Middle Norwegian vowel is long while Middle English vowel is short.[3]

#### Noun

log (plural logs)

1. The trunk of a dead tree, cleared of branches.
They walked across the stream on a fallen log.
2. Any bulky piece as cut from the above, used as timber, fuel etc.
• 1995, New American Standard Bible: Matthew 7, 3 - 5[1]:
Why do you look at the speck that is in your brother's eye, but do not notice the log that is in your own eye? Or how can you say to your brother, "Let me take the speck out of your eye," and behold, the log is in your own eye? You hypocrite, first take the log out of your own eye, and then you will see clearly to take the speck out of your brother's eye.
3. A unit of length equivalent to 16 feet, used for measuring timber, especially the trunk of a tree.
4. Anything shaped like a log; a cylinder.
• 1999, Glen Duncan, Hope:
[] it was a thing of sinuous durability, wound around the spirit like a tapeworm around a log of shit.
• 2011, Edward Espe Brown, The Complete Tassajara Cookbook:
Dip both sides in the sauce on the plate and then arrange a log of cheese filling down the middle of the tortilla.
5. (nautical) A floating device, usually of wood, used in navigation to estimate the speed of a vessel through water.
Hyponyms: chip log, taffrail log
• 1659, Navigation by the Mariners Plain Scale New Plain'd, by John Collins
Every Noon the Master and his Mates take the reckoning off the Log-board, and double the Knots run, and then divide the Product, which is the number of Miles run by three, the quotient is the Leagues run since the former Noon, and according to custom the Log is thrown every two hours, and I never knew the course nearer expressed on the Log-board, then to half a point of the Compass.
6. A blockhead; a very stupid person.
7. () A heavy longboard.
• 1999, Neal Miyake [2]
I know he hadn’t surfed on a log much in his childhood
8. A rolled cake with filling.
Hyponyms: Swiss roll, Yule log
9. (mining) A weight or block near the free end of a hoisting rope to prevent it from being drawn through the sheave.
10. (vulgar) A piece of feces.
11. (vulgar) A penis.
##### Translations
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

#### Verb

log (third-person singular simple present logs, present participle logging, simple past and past participle logged)

1. To cut trees into logs.
2. To cut down (trees).
• 2013 June 29, “Unspontaneous combustion”, in The Economist, volume 407, number 8842, page 29:
Since the mid-1980s, when Indonesia first began to clear its bountiful forests on an industrial scale in favour of lucrative palm-oil plantations, “haze” has become an almost annual occurrence in South-East Asia. The cheapest way to clear logged woodland is to burn it, producing an acrid cloud of foul white smoke that, carried by the wind, can cover hundreds, or even thousands, of square miles.
3. To cut down trees in an area, harvesting and transporting the logs as wood.

### Etymology 2

From logbook, itself from log (above) + book, from a wooden float (chip log, or simply log) used to measure speed.

#### Noun

log (plural logs)

1. A logbook, or journal of a vessel's (or aircraft's) progress.
• 1881–1882, Robert Louis Stevenson, Treasure Island, London, Paris: Cassell & Company, published 14 November 1883, →OCLC:
The captain sat down to his log, and here is the beginning of the entry:...
• 2023 November 15, Prof. Jim Wild, “This train was delayed because of bad weather in space”, in RAIL, number 996, page 30:
The scientific instruments of the day recorded rapid fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field, as powerful electrical currents flowed through the upper atmosphere. Ships' logs noted observations of the northern lights as far south as the Caribbean, and telegraph systems across the world were disrupted as electrical currents were induced in the copper lines.
2. A chronological record of actions, performances, computer/network usage, etc.
3. Specifically, an append-only sequence of records written to file.
##### Translations
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

#### Verb

log (third-person singular simple present logs, present participle logging, simple past and past participle logged)

1. To make, to add an entry (or more) in a log or logbook.
to log the miles travelled by a ship
2. To travel (a distance) as shown in a logbook.
3. To travel at a specified speed, as ascertained by a chip log.

### Etymology 3

#### Verb

log (third-person singular simple present logs, present participle logging, simple past and past participle logged)

1. (obsolete) To move to and fro; to rock.

### Etymology 4

From Hebrewלֹג⁩.

#### Noun

log (plural logs)

1. (historical units of measure) A Hebrew unit of liquid volume (about 13 liter).
• 1611, The Holy Bible, [] (King James Version), London: [] Robert Barker, [], →OCLC, Leviticus 14:10:
...and one log of oil...
• 1902, Jewish Encyclopedia, s.v. "Weights and Measures":
In the Hebrew system the log (Lev. xiv. 10) corresponds to the mina. Since the Hellenistic writers equate the log with the Græco-Roman sextarius, whatever these writers say on the relation of the sextarius to other measures applies also to the relation of these measures to the log. The log and the sextarius, however, are not equal in capacity. The sextarius is estimated at .547 liter, while there is no reason to regard the log as larger than the Babylonian mina, especially as other references of the Greek metrologists support the assumption that the log was equal to the mina. The fact that in the Old Testament the log is mentioned only as a fluid measure may be merely accidental, for the dry measures, which are distinguished in all other cases from the liquid measures, also have the log as their unit. The corresponding dry measure may, however, have been known under a different name.

### Etymology 5

#### Noun

log (plural logs)

1. Synonym of logarithm.
To multiply two numbers, add their logs.
2. (sciences) A difference of one in the logarithm, usually in base 10; an order of magnitude.
• 1978, F. J. Silverblatt, I. Ofek, “Influence of Pili on the Virulence of Proteus mirabilis in Experimental Hematogenous Pyelonephritis”, in The Journal of Infectious Diseases, volume 138, number 5, →DOI:
During the first 24 hr, however, titers of the lightly piliated organisms in the kidney increased by 4 logs, whereas the heavily piliated P. mirabilis were virtually all eliminated.

### References

1. ^ T. F. Hoad. "log." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology
2. ^ Elliott K. Dobbie, C. William Dunmore, Robert K. Barnhart, et al. (editors), Chambers Dictionary of Etymology (Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, 2004 [1998], →ISBN), p. 607.
3. ^ https://blog.oup.com/2018/06/etymology-gleanings-may-2018-part-2/

## Albanian

### Etymology

From Proto-Albanian *lēga, from Proto-Indo-European *legʰ- (to put down, lie down). Compare Old Frisian lōch, Dutch oorlog (war), Middle High German urlage (fate, battle), Old English log (place), Old Norse løgi (tranquillity), Greek λόχος (lóchos, confinement), Tocharian A lake, Tocharian B leke (lair), Old Irish lige (bad, grave). Alternatively derived from Proto-Slavic *lǫgъ, compare Serbo-Croatian lug, Bulgarian лъг (lǎg).[1][2]

### Noun

log m (plural logje, definite logu, definite plural logjet)

1. field (in a forest); flat ground, area
2. battlefield

### References

1. ^ Omari, Anila (2012), “log”, in Marrëdhëniet Gjuhësore Shqiptaro-Serbe, Tirana, Albania: Krishtalina KH, page 185
2. ^ Orel, Vladimir E. (1998), “log”, in Albanian Etymological Dictionary, Leiden; Boston; Köln: Brill, →ISBN, page 230

## Dutch

### Etymology 1

Cognates may include English log, lag, Middle High German luggich (slow).

1. lumbering, inert, slow in movement; immobile
2. (originally) plumb, (too) heavy in built and/or weight
3. cumbersome, hard to move or change
4. dull, uninspired
##### Inflection
Inflection of log
uninflected log
inflected logge
comparative logger
positive comparative superlative
het logste
indefinite m./f. sing. logge loggere logste
n. sing. log logger logste
plural logge loggere logste
definite logge loggere logste
partitive logs loggers

### Etymology 2

Cognate with liegen (to (tell a) lie), German lügen.

#### Noun

log n (plural loggen, diminutive logje n)

1. A lie, violation of the truth

### Etymology 3

Borrowed from German Loch (hole, opening, cavity).

#### Noun

log n (plural loggen)

1. (obsolete) Alternative form of loch

### Etymology 4

From English log (see above), sense (and short for) chip log.

#### Noun

log m (plural loggen, diminutive logje n)

1. A chip log, instrument to measure a vessel's speed

### Etymology 5

From logboek.

#### Noun

log n (plural loggen, diminutive logje n)

### Etymology 6

#### Noun

log n or m (plural logs, diminutive logje n)

1. (Internet) weblog
Synonym: blog

log

## Irish

### Etymology

From Old Irish loc (place; hollow, pit, ditch; burial place, grave), possibly from Latin locus.

### Noun

log m or f (genitive singular loig or loige, nominative plural loig)

#### Declension

Alternative declension

#### Descendants

• Yola: lhug, lug

## Norwegian Nynorsk

### Etymology 1

From Old Norse lǫgr (lake, liquid),[1] from Proto-Germanic *laguz, and ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *lókus (pond, pool). Cognates include Latin lacus and Scottish Gaelic loch.

#### Alternative forms

• Log (obsolete capitalization)[2]

#### Noun

log m (definite singular logen, indefinite plural logar, definite plural logane)

1. a fluid used in the boiling of plant material
1. the resulting broth or stock from such a process
2. a drink for livestock made from hey boiled or soaked in water
3. (brewing) hot water poured over the malt during the brewing process
2. (in place names) a body of water, usually a river or lake
##### Related terms
• låg (Norwegian Bokmål)

### Etymology 2

From Old Norse lǫg, neuter plural nominative and accusative of lag. Akin to English law.

#### Alternative forms

• Log (obsolete capitalization)[2]

#### Noun

log f (definite singular logi, indefinite plural loger, definite plural logene)

1. Archaic form of lov (law).
• 1894, Log um sams normaltid fyr kongeriket Norig [Law about standard time in the Kingdom of Norway] (Wikipedia)
§2 Naar normaltid etter denne logi er innførd, og det daa maatte visa seg trong til aa byta um noko klokkeslætte, som er nemnt i eldre loger, skal kongen kunne taka avgjerd um slikt umbyte fyr det heile land elder fyr einskilde landsluter.
§2 If when, standard time is introduced according to this law, there be need to change some times mentioned in older laws, the king shall decide on such a change for all the land, or for a specific province.

### Etymology 3

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

log

### Etymology 4

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

#### Verb

log

1. (non-standard since 1917) past of le

### References

1. ^ “log” in The Nynorsk Dictionary.
2. Ivar Aasen (1850), “Log”, in Ordbog over det norske Folkesprog, Oslo: Samlaget, published 2000

## Old English

### Etymology 1

From Proto-Germanic *lōgą (site, situation, camp), from Proto-Indo-European *legʰ- (to be situated, lie). Cognate with Old Frisian lōch (place, locality), Old High German luog (cave, den, cubicle), Old Norse lóg (place). The Indo-European root is also the source of Greek λέκτρον (léktron), Latin lectus (bed), Albanian log (place for men, gathering), Proto-Celtic *legeti (Old Irish lige, Irish luí), Proto-Slavic *ležati (Russian лежа́ть (ležátʹ)).

#### Noun

lōg n

on his lōgin his place; instead of him

Inflected forms.

lōg

## Serbo-Croatian

### Noun

lȏg m (Cyrillic spelling ло̑г)

1. (archaic) bed

### References

• log” in Hrvatski jezični portal

## Slovene

### Etymology

From Proto-Slavic *lǫgъ.

### Noun

lọ̑g m inan

1. grove
2. small forest

#### Inflection

 The diacritics used in this section of the entry are non-tonal. If you are a native tonal speaker, please help by adding the tonal marks.
Masculine inan., hard o-stem
nom. sing. lóg
gen. sing. lóga
singular dual plural
nominative
(imenovȃlnik)
lóg lóga lógi
genitive
(rodȋlnik)
lóga lógov lógov
dative
(dajȃlnik)
lógu lógoma lógom
accusative
(tožȋlnik)
lóg lóga lóge
locative
(mẹ̑stnik)
lógu lógih lógih
instrumental
(orọ̑dnik)
lógom lógoma lógi

This noun needs an inflection-table template.

• log”, in Slovarji Inštituta za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša ZRC SAZU, portal Fran

log

## Volapük

### Etymology

Compound of French le and German Auge.

### Noun

log (nominative plural logs)

1. (anatomy) eye

## White Hmong

### Etymology

From Thai ล้อ (lɔ́ɔ) ("wheel") + or from Lao ລໍ້ () ("wheel"), ultimately from Middle Chinese (luk̚) ("wheel").

### Noun

log

1. wheel; tire (of a vehicle)