See also: Abate, abaté, abâte, abatē, and abatė

EnglishEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

The verb is derived from Middle English abaten (to demolish, knock down; to defeat, strike down; to strike or take down (a sail); to throw down; to bow dejectedly or submissively; to be dejected; to stop; to defeat, humiliate; to repeal (a law); to dismiss or quash (a lawsuit); to lessen, reduce; to injure, impair; to appease; to decline, grow less; to deduct, subtract; to make one’s way; attack (an enemy); (law) to enter or intrude upon (someone’s property); of a hawk: to beat or flap the wings) [and other forms],[1] from Anglo-Norman abater, abatier, abatre, abbatre, Middle French abattre, abatre, abattre, Old French abatre, abattre (to demolish, knock down; to bring down, cut down; to lessen, reduce; to suppress; to stop; to discourage; to impoverish, ruin; to conquer; to overthrow; to kill; to remove (money) from circulation; (law) to annul), from Late Latin abattere (to bring down, take down; to suppress; to debase (currency)) (compare Late Latin abatare (to annul)), from Latin ab- (prefix meaning ‘away; from; away from’) + battere, battuere (the present active infinitive of battuō (to beat, hit; to beat up; to fight), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *bʰedʰ- (to dig; to stab)).[2]

The noun is derived from the verb.[3]

VerbEdit

abate (third-person singular simple present abates, present participle abating, simple past and past participle abated)

  1. (transitive)
    1. To lessen (something) in force or intensity; to moderate. [from 14th c.]
      Synonyms: alleviate, assuage, diminish, lower, mitigate, relax, remit, temper
      Antonyms: aggravate, amplify, augment, enhance, foment, increase, intensify, magnify, raise
      • 1576, Gerard Legh, “Azure”, in The Accedens of Armory, London: [] Richard Tottel, OCLC 216668348, folios 6, verso – 7, recto:
        [Jupiter] whiche by his goodnes as Marcianus ſaieth, abateth the malice of Saturne. Therfore the Poets faine, that he did put his father out of his kingdome, Iſidore writeth as he abateth the malice of the euill Planets, []
      • 1599, [William Shakespeare], The Cronicle History of Henry the Fift, [] (First Quarto)‎[1], London: [] Thomas Creede, for Tho[mas] Millington, and Iohn Busby, [], published 1600, OCLC 932920979:
        Abate thy rage ſweete knight, / Abate thy rage.
        These lines do not appear in the version of the play published in the First Folio (1623).
      • 1664, J[ohn] E[velyn], “Pomona, or An Appendix Concerning Fruit-trees, in Relation to Cider, []”, in Sylva, or A Discourse of Forest-trees and the Propagation of Timber in His Majesties Dominions. [], London: [] Jo[hn] Martyn, and Ja[mes] Allestry, printers to the Royal Society, [], OCLC 926218248, chapter VI (Of Transplanting, and Distance), page 17:
        By the oft removal of a Wild-ſtock, cutting the ends of the Roots, and diſ-branching ſomewhat of the Head at every change of place, it will greatly abate of its natural wildneſs, and in time bring forth more civil and ingenuous Fruit: []
      • 1670, Izaack Walton [i.e., Izaak Walton], “The Life of Mr George Herbert. []”, in George Herbert; Alexander B[alloch] Grosart, editor, The Complete Works in Verse and Prose of George Herbert. [] (The Fuller Worthies’ Library), volume III (Prose), London: [] [Robson and Sons] for private circulation, published 1874, OCLC 2551162, page 36:
        And it is to be noted that in the sharpest of his extreme fits he [George Herbert] would often say, 'Lord, abate my great affliction, or increase my patience; but, Lord, I repine not; I am dumb, Lord, before Thee, because Thou doest it.'
      • 1759, William Robertson, “Book II”, in The History of Scotland, during the Reigns of Queen Mary and of King James VI, till His Accession to the Crown of England. [] In Two Volumes, volume I, London: Printed for A[ndrew] Millar [], OCLC 723464553, page 86:
        In the one period, an hundred and fifty years of peace between the two nations, the habit of being ſubjected to the ſame King, and governed by the ſame maxims, had conſiderably abated old animoſities, and prepared both people for incorporating.
      • 1859, John Stuart Mill, “Of the Liberty of Thought and Discussion”, in On Liberty, London: John W[illiam] Parker and Son, [], OCLC 2469480, pages 68–69:
        To abate the force of these considerations, an enemy of free discussion may be supposed to say, that there is no necessity for mankind in general to know and understand all that can be said against or for the opinions by philosophers and theologians.
      • 1937, J. C. Murray, “To the Lusty Legume”, in E[ugene] L[ouis] Chicanot, editor, Rhymes of the Miner: An Anthology of Canadian Mining Verse, Gardenvale, Que.: Federal Publications, OCLC 1086789194, stanza 2, page 181:
        O, Blessed Bean! How often have I ate / Whole plates of Thee, my hunger to abate! / And thou abatedst it, Thou didst indeed, / Thou ever over-satisfying feed!
    2. To reduce (something) in amount or size. [from 14th c.]
      Synonyms: decrease, lessen
      Antonyms: enlarge, increase
      • 1599, [George Flinton, compiler and transl.], “Praiers for Svnneday, Containing Laudes, Praises & Thanks-giuing, for the Benefits that God hath Bestowed vpon Vs. [A Psalme in which the Goodnesse of God is Praised.]”, in A Manvall of Praiers, Gathered Ovt of Many Famous & Good Authors, as well Auncient, as of the Time Present. [], Calicè [Calais; actually London: s.n.], OCLC 1001546433, pages 77–78:
        Thou haſt dominion ouer their power, and when they be exalted & ſet aloft in their waies, thou abateſt their courage, and deſtroyeſt them with thy mighty arme.
      • 1814, Robert Southey, “Notes”, in Roderick, the Last of the Goths, London: [] [F]or Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, [], by James Ballantyne and Co. [], OCLC 1029061356, page cxi:
        And receive into thy heart the instructions that I shall give thee now, and see that thou swerve not from them, nor abatest them a jot; for if thou observest them not, or departest in aught from them, thou wilt bring damnation upon thy soul; []
      • 1822, [Walter Scott], chapter IV, in Peveril of the Peak. [], volume III, Edinburgh: [] Archibald Constable and Co.; London: Hurst, Robinson, and Co., OCLC 2392685, page 100:
        [] Lance, after having made some shew of helping him to his horse, ran back to tell his master the joyful intelligence, that a lucky accident had abated Chiffinch's party to their own number.
      1. To cut away or hammer down (material from metalwork, a sculpture, etc.) in such a way as to leave a figure in relief.
    3. To lower (something) in price or value. [from mid 14th c.]
    4. (archaic)
      1. To demolish or level to the ground (a building or other structure). [from early 15th c.]
        • 1550, Edward Hall, “[The Triumphant Reigne of Kyng Henry the VIII.] The .V. Yere.”, in The Vnion of the Two Noble and Illustre Famelies of Lancastre & Yorke, Beyng Long in Continuall Discension for the Croune of this Noble Realme, [], London: [] Rychard Grafton, [] [and Steven Mierdman], OCLC 1112934976, folio xxxviij, recto:
          [T]he kyng of Scottes [] with all hys hoſte and power entered into Englande (and threw doune pyles) the .xxij. daye of August, and planted hys ſiege before the Caſtell of Norham, and ſore abated the walles.
      2. To give no consideration to (something); to treat as an exception. [from late 16th c.]
      3. (chiefly figuratively) To dull (an edge, point, etc.); to blunt. [from mid 16th c.]
    5. (law)
      1. To make (a writ or other legal document) void; to nullify. [from late 15th c.]
        to abate a writ
      2. To put an end to (a nuisance).
        She was ordered by the court to abate the nuisance.
      3. (chiefly US) To dismiss or otherwise bring to an end (legal proceedings) before they are completed, especially on procedural grounds rather than on the merits.
    6. (obsolete)
      1. To curtail or end (something); to cause to cease. [14th–17th c.]
        Synonyms: cut short, stop, suppress, terminate
        To order restrictions to abate an emergency.
      2. To give (someone) a discount or rebate; also, to relieve (someone) of a debt. [15th–19th c.]
      3. To bring down (someone) mentally or physically; to lower (someone) in status; to abase or humble. [14th–17th c.]
        Synonym: depress
      4. Chiefly followed by from, of, etc.: to omit or remove (a part from a whole); to deduct, to subtract. [15th–19th c.]
        We will abate this price from the total.
        • 1655, Thomas Fuller, “Section III. To the Right Worshipful Sir Richard Shugborough, of Shugborough in Warwickshire.”, in James Nichols, editor, The Church History of Britain, [], volume II, new edition, London: [] [James Nichols] for Thomas Tegg and Son, [], published 1837, OCLC 913056315, book V, subsection 30–43 (Pope’s Profit by Sale of Trinkets, []), page 54:
          Peter-pence succeeded; granted by Ina, king of the West Saxons, to pope Gregory II. anno 626. It was a penny paid for every chimney that smoked in England, which in that hospitable age had few smokeless ones; [] Now, though none can tell what these amounted to, yet conjecture may be made, by descending to such proportions, which no rational man will deny. Allowing nine thousand parishes (abating the odd hundreds) in England and Wales, a hundred houses in every parish, two chimneys in every house, one with another, it ariseth unto a yearly sum of seven thousand five hundred pounds.
        • 1881, Mark Twain [pseudonym; Samuel Langhorne Clemens], “The Prince a Prisoner”, in The Prince and the Pauper: A Tale for Young People of All Ages, Montreal, Que.: Dawson Brothers, OCLC 5911724, page 186:
          Three shillings and eightpence, your worship—I could not abate a penny and set forth the value honestly.
      5. Chiefly followed by of: to deprive (someone or something of another thing). [15th–19th c.]
  2. (intransitive)
    1. To decrease in force or intensity; to subside. [from 14th c.]
      Synonyms: decline, ebb, slacken, soften, wane
    2. To decrease in amount or size. [from mid 16th c.]
      • 1560, [William Whittingham et al., transl.], The Bible and Holy Scriptures Conteyned in the Olde and Newe Testament. [] (the Geneva Bible), Geneva: [] Rouland Hall, OCLC 557472409, Genesis VIII:3, folio 4, recto:
        And the waters returned from aboue the earth, going and returning: and after the end of the hundreth and fiftieth day the waters abated.
      • a. 1627, Francis Bacon, “Of the True Greatness of the Kingdom of Britain”, in James Spedding, Robert Leslie Ellis, and Douglas Denon Heath, editors, The Works of Francis Bacon, [], volume VII, London: Longman, Green, and Co.; [], published 1859, OCLC 855393451, page 60:
        [T]he same greatness of wealth is for the most part not collected and obtained without sucking it from many, according to the received similitude of the spleen, which never swelleth but when the rest of the body pineth and abateth.
      • 1851 November 14, Herman Melville, “The Chase.—Third Day.”, in Moby-Dick; or, The Whale, 1st American edition, New York, N.Y.: Harper & Brothers; London: Richard Bentley, OCLC 57395299, page 629:
        Whether fagged by the three days' running chase, and the resistance to his swimming in the knotted hamper he bore; or whether it was some latent deceitfulness and malice in him: whichever was true, the White Whale's way now began to abate, as it seemed, from the boat so rapidly nearing him once more; though indeed the whale's last start had not been so long a one as before.
    3. To lower in price or value; (law) specifically, of a bequest in a will: to lower in value because the testator's estate is insufficient to satisfy all the bequests in full. [from early 18th c.]
      Bequests and legacies are liable to be abated entirely or in proportion, upon a deficiency of assets.
      • 1766, William Blackstone, “Of Title by Testament, and Administration”, in Commentaries on the Laws of England, book II (Of the Rights of Things), Oxford: [] Clarendon Press, OCLC 65350522, pages 512–513:
        And in the caſe of a deficiency of aſſets, all the general legacies muſt abate proportionably, in order to pay the debts; but a ſpecific legacy (of a piece of plate, a horſe, or the like) is not to abate at all, or allow any thing by way of abatement, unleſs there be not ſufficient without it.
    4. (archaic, chiefly figuratively) Of an edge, point, etc.: to become blunt or dull. [from mid 16th c.]
      • 1550, Edward Hall, “[The Triumphant Reigne of Kyng Henry the VIII.] The .XVI. Yere.”, in The Vnion of the Two Noble and Illustre Famelies of Lancastre & Yorke, Beyng Long in Continuall Discension for the Croune of this Noble Realme, [], London: [] Rychard Grafton, [] [and Steven Mierdman], OCLC 1112934976, folio cxxxiij, verso:
        The third ſhild yelow, ſignifying the Barriers, and he that toucheth that ſhilde ſhalbee anſwered twelve ſtrokes at the Barriers, wyth the ſworde, edge and poynt abated.
    5. (law)
      1. (chiefly historical) Of a writ or other legal document: to become null and void; to cease to have effect. [from late 15th c.]
        The writ has abated.
        • 1680, Edward Coke, “Where a Writ shall be Brought by Journeys Accompts. Hill. 45 Eliz. Rot. 36. in the Common Pleas. Spencer’s Case.”, in The Reports of Sir Edward Coke, Kt. [], 2nd edition, London: [] H. Twyford, [], OCLC 1227559786, part VI, page 375:
          But where the Writ abateth for default of the Clerk, as where it abateth for falſe Latin, or variance, or want of form, there the defendant ſhall have the benefit of a new Writ by Journeys Accompts, becauſe it was the fault of the Clerk of the Chancery, and not the fault of the defendant himſelf, []
        • 1778, Matthew Bacon [i.e., Mathew Bacon], “Error”, in A New Abridgement of the Law. [], 4th edition, London: [] W[illiam] Strahan and M. Woodfall, []; for C. Bathurst, [], OCLC 83474735, section G (Of the Proceedings after the Record Removed, and herein of the Abatement of the Writ of Error), page 209:
          If a Writ of Error abates or diſcontinues by the Act and Default of the Party, a ſecond Writ of Error ſhall be no Superſedeas; otherwiſe if it abates or diſcontinues by the Act of God or the Law.
      2. (chiefly US) Of legal proceedings: to be dismissed or otherwise brought to an end before they are completed, especially on procedural grounds rather than on the merits.
        • 1768, William Blackstone, “Of Pleading”, in Commentaries on the Laws of England, book III (Of Private Wrongs), Oxford: [] Clarendon Press, OCLC 65350522, page 302:
          [I]n actions ariſing ex contractu, by breach of promiſe and the like, where the right deſcends to the repreſentatives of the plaintiff, and thoſe of the defendant have aſſets to anſwer the demand, though the ſuits ſhall abate by the death of the parties, yet they may be revived againſt or by the executors: being indeed rather actions againſt the property than the perſon, in which the executors now have the ſame intereſt that their teſtator had before.
    6. (obsolete)
      1. To give a discount or rebate; to discount, to rebate. [16th–19th c.]
      2. To bow down; hence, to be abased or humbled. [14th–17th c.]
      3. Chiefly followed by of: to deduct or subtract from. [15th–19th c.]
ConjugationEdit
Derived termsEdit
Related termsEdit
TranslationsEdit
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

NounEdit

abate (countable and uncountable, plural abates) (obsolete)

  1. (uncountable) Abatement; reduction; (countable) an instance of this. [15th–17th c.]
    • 1681 October 23, William Penn, chapter XIV, in Samuel M[acpherson] Janney, The Life of William Penn: With Selections from His Correspondence and Autobiography, 2nd edition, Philadelphia, Pa.: Lippincott, Grambo & Co., published 1852, OCLC 1264038521, page 192:
      [Letter to Algernon Sidney dated 13 October 1681 (Julian calendar).] There are many things make a man's life uneasy in the world, which are great abates to the pleasure of living, but scarcely one equal to that of the unkindness or injustice of friends.
  2. (uncountable) Deduction; subtraction; (countable) an instance of this. [17th c.]
    • 1650, Thomas Browne, “Concerning Weight”, in Pseudodoxia Epidemica: [], 2nd edition, London: [] A. Miller, for Edw[ard] Dod and Nath[aniel] Ekins, [], OCLC 152706203, 4th book, page 167:
      That men weigh heavier dead than alive, if experiment hath not failed us, we cannot reaſonably grant. For though the triall hereof cannot ſo well be made on the body of Man, nor will the difference be ſenſible in the abate of ſcruples or dragmes, yet can we not confirm the ſame in leſſer animalls from whence the inference is good; []

Etymology 2Edit

From Anglo-Norman abatre, probably an alteration of Anglo-Norman and Middle French embatre, enbatre (to drive or rush into; to enter into a tenement without permission) (compare Late Latin abatare), from Middle French, Old French em-, en- (prefix meaning ‘in, into’) + Middle French, Old French batre (to beat, hit, strike) (from Latin battere, battuere, the present active infinitive of battuō (to beat, hit; to beat up; to fight); see further at etymology 1). The English word was probably also influenced by the verb abate.[4]

VerbEdit

abate (third-person singular simple present abates, present participle abating, simple past and past participle abated)

  1. (transitive, intransitive, law, chiefly historical) To enter upon and unlawfully seize (land) after the owner has died, thus preventing an heir from taking possession of it. [from mid 15th c.]
    • 1680, Edward Coke, “Mich. 7 Jacobi. In the Common Pleas. Buckmere’s Case.”, in The Reports of Sir Edward Coke, Kt. [], 2nd edition, London: [] H. Twyford, [], OCLC 1227559786, part VI, pages 570–571:
      So, if Lands be given to Father and Son, and to the heirs of their two bodies begotten, the remainder over in fee, and afterwards the Father dieth without any Iſſue but the Son, and afterwards the Son dieth without Iſſue, and a Stranger abateth, he in the remainder ſhall have one Formedon in the remainder, although the Eſtate tails were ſeveral, []
TranslationsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Borrowed from Italian abate (abbot), from Latin abbātem, the accusative singular of abbās (abbot), from Ancient Greek ἀββᾶς (abbâs), a variant of ἀββᾱ (abbā, father; title of respect for an abbot), from Aramaic אַבָּא(’abbā, father; ancestor; teacher; chief, leader; author, originator), from Proto-Semitic *ʔabw- (father), ultimately imitative of a child’s word for “father”. The English word is a doublet of abbot.[5]

NounEdit

abate (plural abates)

  1. An Italian abbot or other member of the clergy. [from early 18th c.]
Alternative formsEdit
TranslationsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ abāten, -i(en, v.”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  2. ^ abate, v.1”, in OED Online  , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, June 2021; “abate, v.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.
  3. ^ † abate, n.”, in OED Online  , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, December 2020.
  4. ^ abate, v.2”, in OED Online  , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, December 2020.
  5. ^ Compare Lesley Brown, editor-in-chief; William R. Trumble and Angus Stevenson, editors (2002), “abate”, in The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles, 5th edition, Oxford; New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 2.

Further readingEdit

AnagramsEdit


ItalianEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Late Latin abbātem, accusative form of abbās, from Ancient Greek ἀββᾶς (abbâs), from Aramaic אבא(’abbā, father).

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /aˈba.te/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -ate
  • Hyphenation: a‧bà‧te

NounEdit

abate m (plural abati, feminine badessa)

  1. abbot
    • 1321, Dante Alighieri, La divina commedia: Purgatorio [The Divine Comedy: Purgatory] (paperback), Bompiani, published 2001, Canto XVIII, lines 118–120, page 272:
      «Io fui abate in San Zeno a Verona ¶ sotto lo 'mperio del buon Barbarossa, ¶ di cui dolente ancor Milan ragiona.»
      «I was San Zeno's abbot at Verona under the empire of good Barbarossa of whom still sorrowing Milan holds discourse.»

Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

  • Albanian: abat
  • Belarusian: абат (abat)
  • Bulgarian: абат (abat)
  • English: abate
  • Romanian: abate
  • Russian: аббат (abbat)
  • Ukrainian: абат (abat)

ReferencesEdit

  • abate in Treccani.it – Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana
  • abate in Dizionario Italiano Olivetti, Olivetti Media Communication

AnagramsEdit


LatvianEdit

 abate on Latvian Wikipedia
 
Abate

EtymologyEdit

From abats (abbott) +‎ -e (fem.).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

abate f (5th declension, masculine form: abats)

  1. abbess (the female superior of a Catholic abbey or nunnery)
    abate ir katoļu sieviešu klostera priekšniecean abbess is the leader of a Catholic nunnery (lit. women's monastery)
    abates ievēlēšana notiek bīskapa vai viņa pilnvarotā pārstāvja klātbūtnēthe selection of an abbess occurs in the presence of a bishop or of his authorized representative

DeclensionEdit

Related termsEdit

Further readingEdit


LithuanianEdit

Pronunciation 1Edit

NounEdit

abatè

  1. locative singular of abatas
  2. instrumental singular of abatė

Pronunciation 2Edit

NounEdit

abãte

  1. vocative singular of abatas
  2. vocative singular of abatė

Middle EnglishEdit

VerbEdit

abate

  1. Alternative form of abaten

PortugueseEdit

VerbEdit

abate

  1. third-person singular (ele and ela, also used with você and others) present indicative of abater
  2. second-person singular (tu, sometimes used with você) affirmative imperative of abater

RomanianEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Vulgar Latin *abbatere, present active infinitive of *abbatō, *abbatuō, from Latin battuō.

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

a abate (third-person singular present abate, past participle abătut3rd conj.

  1. to stray (often figuratively in a moral sense), derogate, deviate, divert from, digress
    Synonyms: devia, îndepărta
  2. to change paths, swerve from, wander from
  3. (reflexive) to stop (going a certain way)
    Synonym: opri
  4. to dissuade
  5. to knock down
    Synonyms: dărâma, da jos
ConjugationEdit

Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Borrowed from Italian abate, from Latin abbās, abbātis, from Ancient Greek ἀββᾶς (abbâs), from Aramaic אבא(’abbā, father).

NounEdit

abate m (plural abați)

  1. abbot
DeclensionEdit

SpanishEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /aˈbate/, [aˈβ̞a.t̪e]

VerbEdit

abate

  1. Third-person singular (él, ella, also used with usted?) present indicative form of abatir.
  2. Informal second-person singular () affirmative imperative form of abatir.