See also: , , , and
U+4E3B, 主
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E3B

[U+4E3A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E3C]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order (Japan)
 
Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 3, +4, 5 strokes, cangjie input 卜土 (YG), four-corner 00104, composition or )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 80, character 20
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 100
  • Dae Jaweon: page 163, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 44, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+4E3B

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script
     



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形) : A picture of a lamp or a torch with a flame at the top.

Original form of . Current meaning acquired by sound loan.

Etymology edit

Unclear. Compare Tibetan ཇོ་བོ (jo bo, elder brother, nobleman, lord), Tibetan ཇོ་མོ (jo mo, mistress, lady, goddess), Tibetan ཐུ། (thu, chief), Proto-Monic *(d)ndooʔ (to teach, to instruct; headman), and Thai โจก (jòok, leader, chief) (Schuessler, 2007)

Pronunciation 1 edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (23)
Final () (24)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter tsyuX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡ɕɨoX/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡ɕioX/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ɕioX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/cuə̆X/
Li
Rong
/t͡ɕioX/
Wang
Li
/t͡ɕĭuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡ɕi̯uX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhǔ
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
zyu2
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhǔ
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsyuX ›
Old
Chinese
/*toʔ/
English master; host

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 17618
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*tjoʔ/

Definitions edit

  1. owner; master
  2. host
  3. (archaic, honorific) you (honorific second-person pronoun addressing a "senior official" [大夫] or his spouse)
  4. (Christianity, Islam) Lord
  5. emperor
  6. (colloquial, derogatory) person of a specified type
  7. agent; agency
      ―  zhǔdòng  ―  active
      ―  zhǔ  ―  subject (one who possesses agency)
  8. party; entity
      ―  shìzhǔ  ―  party (in a dispute, especially the one bringing forth the dispute)
  9. main; primary; principal; major
      ―  zhǔyào  ―  main
      ―  zhǔyǎn  ―  leading actor
      ―  zhǔxiū  ―  major curriculum
  10. to be in charge; to lead; to command
      ―  zhǔshì  ―  to be in charge
  11. to indicate; to signify
  12. (grammar) Short for 主語主语 (zhǔyǔ).
  13. (historical) Short for 公主 (gōngzhǔ).
  14. a surname

Compounds edit

Descendants edit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (しゅ) (shu)
  • Korean: 주(主) (ju)
  • Vietnamese: chủ ()

Others:

Pronunciation 2 edit


Definitions edit

  1. Classifier for events.
  2. Alternative form of (zhù, to pour into)

References edit

Japanese edit

Shinjitai  
Kyūjitai
[1][2][3]

主󠄁
+&#xE0101;?
(Adobe-Japan1)
 
主󠄃
+&#xE0103;?
(Hanyo-Denshi)
(Moji_Joho)
The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
See here for details.

Kanji edit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. lord, master
  2. main, principal

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
しゅ
Grade: 3
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (MC tsyuX).

The kan'on pronunciation, so likely a later borrowing.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(しゅ) (shu

  1. head of the family
  2. master, mistress
  3. one's husband
  4. proprietor, landlord
Synonyms edit

Proper noun edit

(しゅ) (Shu

  1. the Lord
    (しゅ)(きょう)(だい)ヤコブ
    Shu no kyōdai Yakobu
    James, brother of the Lord

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
ぬし
Grade: 3
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
ぬし
[noun] : master
[noun] : owner, proprietor
[noun] : guardian spirit
[noun] : (archaic) you
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term
おも
Grade: 3
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
おも
[adjective] chief, main, principal, foremost
Alternative spelling
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 4 edit

Kanji in this term
あるじ
Grade: 3
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
あるじ
[noun] head of a household
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

References edit

  1. ^ 白川静 (Shirakawa Shizuka) (2014) “”, in 字通 (Jitsū)[1] (in Japanese), popular edition, Tōkyō: Heibonsha, →ISBN
  2. ^ Haga, Gōtarō (1914) 漢和大辞書 [The Great Kanji-Japanese Dictionary] (in Japanese), Fourth edition, Tōkyō: Kōbunsha, →DOI, page 62 (paper), page 81 (digital)
  3. ^ Shōundō Henshūjo, editor (1927), 新漢和辞典 [The New Kanji-Japanese Dictionary] (in Japanese), Ōsaka: Shōundō, →DOI, page 56 (paper), page 40 (digital)
  4. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (MC tsyuX). Recorded as Middle Korean 쥬〮 (cyú) (Yale: cyu) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 임금 (imgeum ju))
(eumhun 주인 (ju'in ju))

  1. Hanja form? of (king).
  2. Hanja form? of (master; host; main).

Compounds edit

References edit

  • Naver Hanja Dictionary: 主
  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Việt readings: chủ, chúa
: Nôm readings: chúa, chủ

  1. chữ Hán form of chủ (owner).
  2. Nôm form of chúa (retired father of a king).
  3. Nôm form of Chúa (God; Christ; Lord).

Usage notes edit

Compounds edit

References edit