See also: , , , and
U+4E3B, 主
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E3B

[U+4E3A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E3C]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order (Japan)
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 3, +4, 5 strokes, cangjie input 卜土 (YG), four-corner 00104, composition or ⿱)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 80, character 20
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 100
  • Dae Jaweon: page 163, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 44, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+4E3B

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script
     



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形): A picture of a lamp or a torch with a flame at the top.

Original form of . Current meaning acquired by sound loan.

EtymologyEdit

Unclear. Compare Tibetan ཇོ་བོ (jo bo, elder brother, nobleman, lord), Tibetan ཇོ་མོ (jo mo, mistress, lady, goddess), Tibetan ཐུ། (thu, chief), Proto-Monic *(d)ndooʔ (to teach, to instruct; headman), and Thai โจก (jòok, leader, chief) (Schuessler, 2007)

Pronunciation 1Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (23)
Final () (24)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡ɕɨoX/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡ɕioX/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ɕioX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/cuə̆X/
Li
Rong
/t͡ɕioX/
Wang
Li
/t͡ɕĭuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡ɕi̯uX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhǔ
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
zyu2
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhǔ
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsyuX ›
Old
Chinese
/*toʔ/
English master; host

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 17618
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*tjoʔ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. owner; master
  2. host
  3. (archaic, honorific) you (honorific second-person pronoun addressing a "senior official" [大夫] or his spouse)
  4. (Christianity, Islam) Lord
  5. emperor
  6. (colloquial, derogatory) person of a specified type
  7. agent; agency
    /   ―  zhǔdòng  ―  active
    /   ―  zhǔ  ―  subject (one who possesses agency)
  8. party; entity
      ―  shìzhǔ  ―  party (in a dispute, especially the one bringing forth the dispute)
  9. main; primary; principal; major
      ―  zhǔyào  ―  main
      ―  zhǔyǎn  ―  leading actor
      ―  zhǔxiū  ―  major curriculum
  10. to be in charge; to lead; to command
      ―  zhǔshì  ―  to be in charge
  11. to indicate; to signify
  12. (grammar) Short for 主語主语 (zhǔyǔ).
  13. (historical) Short for 公主 (gōngzhǔ).
  14. A surname​.

CompoundsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (しゅ) (shu)
  • Korean: (, ju)
  • Vietnamese: chủ ()

Others:

Pronunciation 2Edit


DefinitionsEdit

  1. Classifier for events.
  2. Alternative form of (zhù, “to pour into”).

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
しゅ
Grade: 3
on’yomi

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(しゅ) (shu

  1. head of the family
  2. master, mistress
  3. one's husband
  4. proprietor, landlord
SynonymsEdit

Proper nounEdit

(しゅ) (Shu

  1. the Lord
    (しゅ)(きょう)(だい)ヤコブ
    Shu no kyōdai Yakobu
    James, brother of the Lord

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
ぬし
Grade: 3
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
ぬし
[noun] master
[noun] owner, proprietor
[noun] guardian spirit
[noun] (archaic) you
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
おも
Grade: 3
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
おも
[adjective] chief, main, principal, foremost
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
あるじ
Grade: 3
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
あるじ
[noun] head of a household
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

KoreanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle Chinese (MC t͡ɕɨoX). Recorded as Middle Korean 쥬〮 (Yale: cyu) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

HanjaEdit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 임금 (imgeum ju))
(eumhun 주인 (ju-in ju))

  1. Hanja form? of (king).
  2. Hanja form? of (master; host; main).

CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Naver Hanja Dictionary: 主
  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Việt readings: chủ, chúa
: Nôm readings: chúa, chủ

  1. Hán tự form of chủ (owner).
  2. Nôm form of chúa (retired father of a king).
  3. Nôm form of Chúa (God; Christ; Lord).

Usage notesEdit

CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit