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U+8CCA, 賊
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8CCA

[U+8CC9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8CCB]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 154, +6, 13 strokes, cangjie input 月金戈十 (BCIJ), four-corner 63850, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1208, character 14
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 36759
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1672, character 10
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3637, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+8CCA

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
variant forms 𧵪

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sʰrɯɡs, *sʰrɯɡ
*ʔsɯːɡ
*zɯːɡ
*zɯːɡ
*zɯːɡ
*zɯːɡ
*ʔsrɯɡ
*ʔsrɯɡ, *zrɯɡ
*sʰrɯɡ
*sʰrɯɡ
*zrɯɡ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *zɯːɡ): phonetic  (OC *ʔsɯːɡ) + semantic  (weapon).

This was misinterpreted as a compound of (“money”) and (“weapon”) to produce the modern form.

EtymologyEdit

Possibly Sino-Tibetan; compare Tibetan ཇག (jag, robbery) (Coblin, 1986). Schuessler (2007) points out that a palatalized consonant in Tibetan does not usually correspond to an unpalatalized one in Chinese; instead, he compares it to Khmer ឆក់ (chɑk, to snatch; to steal).

Possibly cognate with (OC *ʔslɯː, “natural disaster”) (Schuessler, 2007).

Based on evidence from early loans from Chinese, e.g. Lakkia kjak⁸ (bandit) and Rục kəcʌ́ːk (bandit)Baxter and Sagart (2014) reconstructs the Old Chinese with a *k preinitial.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • zui2 - vernacular;
  • ze2 - literary.
  • (Dungan)
    (Note: Dungan pronunciation is currently experimental and may be inaccurate.)
  • Cantonese
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • chha̍t - vernacular;
    • cha̍t - vernacular (limited to 墨賊);
    • che̍k/chia̍k - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang
  • Note:
    • ce4 - vernacular;
    • zei6 - literary.

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /t͡sei³⁵/
    Harbin /t͡sei²⁴/
    Tianjin /t͡sei⁴⁵/
    /t͡sɤ⁴⁵/
    Jinan /t͡sei⁴²/
    Qingdao /t͡se⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /t͡suei⁴²/
    /t͡sei⁴²/
    Xi'an /t͡sei²⁴/
    Xining /t͡sɨ²⁴/
    Yinchuan /t͡sei⁵³/
    Lanzhou /t͡sei⁵³/
    Ürümqi /t͡sei⁵¹/
    Wuhan /t͡sɤ²¹³/
    Chengdu /t͡suei³¹/
    /t͡se³¹/
    Guiyang /t͡suei²¹/
    Kunming /t͡sei³¹/
    Nanjing /t͡suəi²⁴/
    /t͡səʔ⁵/
    Hefei /t͡se⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡sei¹¹/
    Pingyao /t͡sʌʔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /t͡sɛ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /zəʔ¹/
    Suzhou /zəʔ³/
    Hangzhou /d͡zəʔ²/
    Wenzhou /ze²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /t͡sʰe²²/
    Tunxi /t͡sʰə¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /t͡sei²⁴/
    /t͡sʰə⁵⁵/
    Xiangtan /t͡sʰæ²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡sʰɛʔ²/
    Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰet̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /t͡sʰet̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰak̚²/
    Nanning /t͡sʰɐk̚²²/
    Hong Kong /t͡sʰak̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sik̚⁵/
    /t͡sʰat̚⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sʰɛiʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sʰɛ⁴⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sʰak̚⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /sak̚³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (15)
    Final () (131)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡zək̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡zək̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡zək̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡zək̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /d͡zək̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /d͡zək̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /d͡zʱək̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zéi
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dzok ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*k.dzˁək/
    English injure; murderer, bandit

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 16596
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*zɯːɡ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to damage; to corrupt; to ruin; to destroy
    2. to harm; to injure
    3. to slander
    4. to murder
    5. murderer
    6. harm; disaster
    7. thief; bandit; robber (Classifier: m c)
      琴日電腦 [Cantonese, trad.]
      琴日电脑 [Cantonese, simp.]
      Kam4 jat6 jau5 caak6-2 jap6 zo2 uk1, tau1 zau2 zo2 ngo5 bou6 din6 nou5. [Jyutping]
      Yesterday, a thief came into my house and stole my computer.
    8. villain; traitor
    9. to steal
    10. evil; wicked; treacherous
    11. to restrain
    12. ruthless; vicious
    13. (colloquial) cunning; wily
    14. (dialectal) very; extremely
    15. a kind of pest that eats the joints of a seedling
      /   ―  máozéi  ―  insects that eat the roots and the joints

    Usage notesEdit

    SynonymsEdit

    Dialectal synonyms of 小偷 (“(petty) thief”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) , 小偷, 竊賊
    Mandarin Beijing 小偷兒,
    Taiwan 小偷,
    Tianjin 小偷兒,
    Harbin 小偷兒,
    Shenyang 小偷兒
    Jinan 小偷兒, 小偷, 毛賊, 毛賊子,
    Muping 小偷兒,
    Luoyang 小偷兒,
    Wanrong 毛賊, 賊娃子,
    Xi'an 賊娃子,
    Zhengzhou 小偷兒,
    Xining 小偷兒, 賊娃子
    Yinchuan 賊娃子,
    Lanzhou 賊娃子
    Ürümqi 賊娃子,
    Wuhan 強徒, 小偷
    Huanggang 三隻手
    Chengdu 賊娃子, , 偷跟兒, 偷兒
    Guiyang 小偷
    Guilin 小偷
    Liuzhou 小偷
    Kunming 小偷, 小毛賊, 毛賊
    Yangzhou 小偷, , 強盜
    Nanjing 小偷,
    Hefei 小偷, , 小賊
    Sokuluk (Gansu Dungan) 賊娃子,
    Cantonese Guangzhou 賊仔, , 賊佬, 鼠摸
    Hong Kong 賊仔, , 賊佬, 鼠摸
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) 賊仔
    Hong Kong (Kam Tin Weitou)
    Hong Kong (Ting Kok) 賊佬
    Hong Kong (Tung Ping Chau) 賊佬
    Macau 偷仔
    Panyu 賊仔
    Huadu (Huashan) 夜摸
    Conghua 賊仔
    Zengcheng 偷雞佬, 賊佬
    Foshan 鼠摸
    Nanhai (Shatou) 鼠摸仔
    Shunde 偷仔
    Sanshui 鼠摸
    Gaoming (Mingcheng) 鼠摸仔
    Zhongshan (Shiqi) 偷仔
    Zhuhai (Qianshan) 偷仔
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 三隻手
    Doumen 小摸
    Jiangmen (Baisha) 小摸
    Xinhui 小摸
    Taishan 賊仔, 鼠摸
    Kaiping (Chikan) 小摸
    Enping (Niujiang) 小摸仔
    Heshan (Yayao) 鼠摸仔
    Dongguan 賊仔, 鼠摸 dated
    Bao'an (Shajing) 賊仔
    Shaoguan 賊佬
    Yunfu 雪仔
    Yangjiang 鼠賊,
    Xinyi 賊佬
    Lianjiang 賊佬, 賊仔
    Nanning , 賊佬
    Wuzhou 賊佬
    Yulin
    Hepu , 夜摸
    Danzhou
    Kuala Lumpur 小賊
    Ho Chi Minh City 賊仔
    Gan Nanchang
    Lichuan
    Pingxiang 賊牯
    Hakka Meixian 賊牯, 賊仔
    Xingning 賊牯佬
    Huizhou (Huicheng Bendihua) 賊仔
    Huidong (Daling) 賊牯佬
    Dongguan (Qingxi) 賊佬
    Shenzhen (Shatoujiao) 賊佬
    Zengcheng (Zhengguo) 賊佬
    Zhongshan (Nanlang Heshui) 賊仔
    Wuhua (Shuizhai) 賊哩
    Wuhua (Huacheng) 賊哩
    Wuhua (Changbu) 賊牯佬
    Wuhua (Mianyang) 賊牯佬
    Heyuan (Bendihua)
    Qujiang 賊佬
    Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang) 賊佬
    Liannan 賊佬
    Conghua (Lütian) 小偷
    Jiexi
    Luchuan
    Luchuan (Daqiao) 賊佬
    Changting 賊牯
    Pingyu 賊牯
    Wuping 賊牯
    Liancheng 賊牯
    Ninghua 賊牯
    Yudu 賊牯
    Ruijin 賊牯
    Shicheng 賊牯
    Shangyou 賊佬, 強盜
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 賊仔
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 賊仔
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 賊仔
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 賊仔,
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Hong Kong 賊佬
    Sabah (Longchuan) 賊佬
    Senai 扒手
    Singkawang
    Huizhou Jixi 賊骨頭, , 銃手
    Jin Taiyuan 小偷兒,
    Pingyao 小綹兒
    Xinzhou
    Hohhot 小偷, , 賊小子
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou 賊囝,
    Fuqing , 賊囝
    Matsu 賊囝
    Min Nan Xiamen 賊仔, 鼠賊
    Quanzhou 賊仔, 鼠賊
    Jinjiang 鼠賊仔
    Yongchun
    Zhangzhou 賊仔, 鼠賊, 佬賊仔
    Dongshan 賊仔
    Taipei 賊仔
    Kaohsiung 勍仔
    Tainan 賊仔
    Taichung 賊仔
    Hsinchu 賊仔
    Lukang 賊仔
    Sanxia 賊仔
    Yilan 勍仔
    Kinmen 鼠賊仔
    Magong
    Penang
    Philippines (Manila) 賊仔
    Zhangping (Yongfu)
    Pingnan
    Chaozhou 鼠賊囝
    Shantou 賊囝, 鼠賊
    Johor Bahru 鼠賊囝
    Wenchang 賊囝
    Haikou 賊囝,
    Puxian Min Putian 賊囝
    Xianyou 賊囝
    Pinghua Nanning , 小偷
    Guilin , 小偷
    Wu Shanghai 賊骨頭, , 小偷
    Suzhou 賊骨頭, , 賊伯伯, 小賊
    Wuxi 賊骨頭, 小偷
    Hangzhou 賊骨頭,
    Wenzhou 小偷兒, 小偷,
    Chongming 小偷,
    Danyang 小偷, , 賊老官, 做賊佬
    Jinhua 賊骨頭, , 小偷
    Ningbo 賊骨頭, 小偷
    Xiang Changsha 賊老倌, 賊牯子,
    Shuangfeng 賊牯子
    Xiangtan 夜摸子
    Loudi 賊牯子
    Quanzhou
    Dialectal synonyms of (“very; quite”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 非常, , 十分,
    Mandarin Beijing , , 倍兒
    Taiwan ,
    Tianjin ,
    Jinan ,
    Xi'an
    Wuhan ,
    Chengdu ,
    Yangzhou , ,
    Hefei
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Taishan
    Yangjiang
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) , ,
    Liudui (S. Sixian) , ,
    Hsinchu (Hailu) , ,
    Dongshi (Dabu) , ,
    Hsinchu (Raoping) , ,
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) , , 實在
    Sabah
    Jin Taiyuan ,
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou ,
    Min Nan Xiamen , , , 有夠
    Quanzhou , , , 有夠
    Zhangzhou , , , 足範, 有夠, 出奇, 極死, 見死
    Taipei ,
    Kaohsiung 有夠, , , ,
    Tainan 有夠, , , ,
    Taichung , ,
    Hsinchu ,
    Lukang ,
    Sanxia ,
    Yilan 有夠, , ,
    Kinmen ,
    Magong ,
    Penang , , 真正
    Philippines (Manila) ,
    Chaozhou
    Wu Shanghai ,
    Suzhou
    Wenzhou , ,
    Xiang Changsha ,
    Shuangfeng

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():

    Others:

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit


    Kanji in this term
    ぞく
    Grade: S
    on’yomi

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC d͡zək̚).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ぞく, rōmaji zoku)

    1. thief
    2. rebel

    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (jeok) (hangeul )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (tặc, giặc)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.