Appendix:Dutch Swadesh list

For further information, including the full final version of the list, read the Wikipedia article: Swadesh list.

At the end of the 1940s, new insights of radiocarbon dating became known to the public. Linguist Morris Swadesh believed that words decayed with age in a roughly similar way and therefore applied similar methods to determine the relationship of languages. To be able to compare languages from different cultures, he based his lists on meanings he presumed would be available in as many cultures as possible. He then used the fraction of agreeing cognates between any two related languages to compute their divergence time by some (still debated) algorithms. Starting in 1950 with 165 meanings, his list grew to 215 in 1952, which was so expansive that many languages lacked native vocabulary for some terms. Subsequently, it was reduced to 207, and reduced much further to 100 meanings in 1955. A reformulated list was published posthumously in 1971.

ListEdit

No. English Dutch
Nederlands
IPA
pronunciation
1 I ik IPA(key): ɪk
2 you (singular) jij (informal), u (formal) IPA(key): jɛi, IPA(key): y
3 he hij IPA(key): hɛi
4 we wij, we IPA(key): ʋɛi, IPA(key): ʋə
5 you (plural) jullie IPA(key): jʏli
6 they zij, ze IPA(key): zɛiː, IPA(key):
7 this deze, dit IPA(key): deːzə, IPA(key): dɪt
8 that die, dat IPA(key): di, IPA(key): dɑt
9 here hier IPA(key): hiːr
10 there daar IPA(key): daːr
11 who wie IPA(key): ʋi
12 what wat IPA(key): ʋɑt
13 where waar IPA(key): ʋaːr
14 when wanneer IPA(key): ʋɑneːr
15 how hoe IPA(key): hu
16 not niet IPA(key): nit
17 all al,alle IPA(key): ɑl, IPA(key): ˈɑlə
18 many veel, menig IPA(key): veːl, IPA(key): meːnəx
19 some enkele, sommige IPA(key): ˈɛŋkələ, IPA(key): ˈsɔməɣə
20 few weinig IPA(key): ˈʋɛinəχ
21 other ander IPA(key): ˈandər
22 one een IPA(key): eːn
23 two twee IPA(key): tʋeː
24 three drie IPA(key): dri
25 four vier IPA(key): viːr
26 five vijf IPA(key): vɛif
27 big groot IPA(key): ɣroːt
28 long lang IPA(key): lɑŋ
29 wide breed, wijd IPA(key): breːt, IPA(key): ʋɛit
30 thick dik IPA(key): dɪk
31 heavy zwaar, hevig IPA(key): zʋaːr, IPA(key): heːvəx
32 small klein IPA(key): klɛin
33 short kort IPA(key): kɔrt
34 narrow smal IPA(key): smɑl
35 thin dun IPA(key): dʏn
36 woman vrouw IPA(key): vrɔu
37 man (male) man IPA(key): mɑn
38 man (human) mens IPA(key): mɛns
39 child kind IPA(key): kɪnt
40 wife vrouw, echtgenote IPA(key): vrɔu, IPA(key): ˈɛxtxənoːtə
41 husband man, echtgenoot IPA(key): mɑn, IPA(key): ˈɛxtxənoːt
42 mother moeder IPA(key): ˈmudər
43 father vader IPA(key): ˈvaːdər
44 animal dier IPA(key): diːr
45 fish vis IPA(key): vɪs
46 bird vogel IPA(key): ˈvoːɣəl
47 dog hond IPA(key): hont
48 louse luis IPA(key): lɶys
49 snake slang IPA(key): slɑŋ
50 worm worm IPA(key): ʋɔrm
51 tree boom IPA(key): boːm
52 forest woud IPA(key): ʋɔut
53 stick stok IPA(key): stɔk
54 fruit fruit, vrucht IPA(key): frɶyt, IPA(key): vrʏxt
55 seed zaad IPA(key): zaːt
56 leaf blad IPA(key): blɑt
57 root wortel IPA(key): ˈʋɔrtəl
58 bark (of a tree) schors IPA(key): sxɔrs
59 flower bloem IPA(key): blum
60 grass gras IPA(key): ɣrɑs
61 rope touw, koord IPA(key): tɔuw, IPA(key): koːrt
62 skin huid IPA(key): hɶyt
63 meat vlees IPA(key): vleːs
64 blood bloed IPA(key): blut
65 bone been IPA(key): beːn
66 fat (noun) vet IPA(key): vɛt
67 egg ei IPA(key): ɛi
68 horn hoorn IPA(key): hoːrn
69 tail staart IPA(key): staːrt
70 feather veer IPA(key): veːr
71 hair haar IPA(key): haːr
72 head hoofd, kop IPA(key): hoːft, IPA(key): kɔp
73 ear oor IPA(key): oːr
74 eye oog IPA(key): oːx
75 nose neus IPA(key): nøːz
76 mouth mond IPA(key): mɔnt
77 tooth tand IPA(key): tɑnt
78 tongue tong IPA(key): tɔŋ
79 fingernail vingernagel IPA(key): ˈvɪŋərnaːɣəl
80 foot voet IPA(key): vut
81 leg been IPA(key): beːn
82 knee knie IPA(key): kni
83 hand hand IPA(key): hɑnt
84 wing vleugel IPA(key): ˈvløːɣəl
85 belly buik IPA(key): bɶyk
86 guts darmen IPA(key): ˈdɑrmə
87 neck nek IPA(key): nɛk
88 back rug IPA(key): rʏx
89 breast borst IPA(key): bɔrst
90 heart hart IPA(key): hɑrt
91 liver lever IPA(key): ˈleːvər
92 to drink drinken IPA(key): ˈdrɪŋkə
93 to eat eten IPA(key): ˈeːtə
94 to bite bijten IPA(key): ˈbɛitə
95 to suck zuigen IPA(key): ˈzɶyɣə
96 to spit spuwen IPA(key): ˈspywə
97 to vomit braken, overgeven IPA(key): braːkə, IPA(key): oːvərɣeːvə
98 to blow blazen IPA(key): ˈblaːzə
99 to breathe ademen IPA(key): ˈaːdəmə
100 to laugh lachen IPA(key): ˈlɑxə
101 to see zien IPA(key): zin
102 to hear horen IPA(key): ˈhoːrə
103 to know weten IPA(key): ˈʋeːtə
104 to think denken IPA(key): ˈdɛŋkə
105 to smell ruiken IPA(key): ˈrɶykə
106 to fear vrezen IPA(key): ˈvreːzə
107 to sleep slapen IPA(key): ˈslaːpə
108 to live leven IPA(key): ˈleːvə
109 to die sterven IPA(key): ˈstɛrvə
110 to kill doden IPA(key): ˈdoːdə
111 to fight vechten IPA(key): ˈvɛxtə
112 to hunt jagen IPA(key): ˈjaːɡə
113 to hit slaan, raken IPA(key): slaːn, IPA(key): ˈraːkə
114 to cut knippen, snijden IPA(key): ˈknɪpə, IPA(key): ˈsnɛidə
115 to split splijten IPA(key): ˈsplɛitə
116 to stab steken IPA(key): ˈsteːkə
117 to scratch krabben IPA(key): ˈkrɑbə
118 to dig graven IPA(key): ˈɣraːvə
119 to swim zwemmen IPA(key): ˈzʋɛmə
120 to fly vliegen IPA(key): ˈvliɣə
121 to walk lopen, stappen IPA(key): loːpə, IPA(key): ˈstɑpə
122 to come komen IPA(key): ˈkoːmə
123 to lie (as in a bed) liggen IPA(key): ˈlɪɣə
124 to sit zitten IPA(key): ˈzɪtə
125 to stand staan IPA(key): staːn
126 to turn (intransitive) draaien IPA(key): ˈdraːjə
127 to fall vallen IPA(key): ˈvɑlə
128 to give geven IPA(key): ˈɣeːvə
129 to hold houden IPA(key): ˈhɔudə
130 to squeeze knijpen IPA(key): ˈknɛipə
131 to rub wrijven IPA(key): ˈʋrɛivə
132 to wash wassen IPA(key): ˈʋɑsə
133 to wipe vegen IPA(key): ˈveɣə
134 to pull trekken IPA(key): ˈtrɛkə
135 to push duwen IPA(key): ˈdywə
136 to throw werpen, gooien IPA(key): ˈʋɛrpə, IPA(key): ˈɣoːjə
137 to tie vastmaken, binden IPA(key): ˈvɑstmaːkə, IPA(key): bɪndə
138 to sew naaien IPA(key): ˈnaːjə
139 to count tellen IPA(key): ˈtɛlə
140 to say zeggen IPA(key): ˈzɛɣə
141 to sing zingen IPA(key): ˈzɪŋə
142 to play spelen IPA(key): ˈspeːlə
143 to float zweven IPA(key): ˈzʋeːvə
144 to flow vloeien IPA(key): ˈvlujə
145 to freeze vriezen IPA(key): ˈvrizə
146 to swell zwellen IPA(key): ˈzʋɛlə
147 sun zon IPA(key): zɔn
148 moon maan IPA(key): maːn
149 star ster IPA(key): stɛr
150 water water IPA(key): ˈʋaːtər
151 rain regen IPA(key): ˈreːɣən
152 river rivier IPA(key): riˈviːr
153 lake meer IPA(key): meːr
154 sea zee IPA(key): zeː
155 salt zout IPA(key): zɔut
156 stone steen IPA(key): steːn
157 sand zand IPA(key): zɑnt
158 dust stof IPA(key): stɔf
159 earth aarde IPA(key): ˈaːrdə
160 cloud wolk IPA(key): ˈʋɔlk
161 fog mist, nevel IPA(key): mɪst, IPA(key): ˈneːvəl
162 sky lucht, hemel IPA(key): lʏxt, IPA(key): ˈheːməl
163 wind wind IPA(key): ʋɪnt
164 snow sneeuw IPA(key): sneːw
165 ice ijs IPA(key): ɛis
166 smoke rook IPA(key): roːk
167 fire vuur IPA(key): ˈvʏːr
168 ash as IPA(key): ɑs
169 to burn branden IPA(key): ˈbrɑndə
170 road weg IPA(key): ʋɛx
171 mountain berg IPA(key): bɛrx
172 red rood IPA(key): roːt
173 green groen IPA(key): ɣrun
174 yellow geel IPA(key): ɣeːl
175 white wit IPA(key): ʋɪt
176 black zwart IPA(key): zʋɑrt
177 night nacht IPA(key): nɑxt
178 day dag IPA(key): dɑx
179 year jaar IPA(key): jaːr
180 warm warm IPA(key): ʋɑrm
181 cold koud IPA(key): kɔut
182 full vol IPA(key): vɔl
183 new nieuw IPA(key): niːw
184 old oud IPA(key): ɔut
185 good goed IPA(key): ɣut
186 bad slecht IPA(key): slɛxt
187 rotten rot IPA(key): rɔt
188 dirty vuil IPA(key): vɶyl
189 straight recht IPA(key): rɛxt
190 round rond IPA(key): rɔnt
191 sharp (as a knife) scherp IPA(key): sxɛrp
192 dull (as a knife) stomp, bot IPA(key): stɔmp, IPA(key): bɔt
193 smooth glad IPA(key): ɣlat
194 wet nat IPA(key): nɑt
195 dry droog IPA(key): droːx
196 correct juist, correct IPA(key): jɶyst, IPA(key): kɔˈrɛkt
197 near dichtbij IPA(key): dɪxtˈbɛi
198 far ver IPA(key): vɛr
199 right rechts IPA(key): rɛxts
200 left links IPA(key): lɪŋks
201 at aan, te, bij, etc. IPA(key): aːn, IPA(key): , IPA(key): bɛi
202 in in IPA(key): ɪn
203 with met IPA(key): mɛt
204 and en IPA(key): ɛn
205 if als, indien IPA(key): ɑls, IPA(key): ɪndin
206 because omdat IPA(key): ɔmdɑt
207 name naam IPA(key): naːm
  • Pronunciation :

The pronunciation shown is the standard pronunciation ("AN", formerly named "ABN"). Depending on the speakers and the area, the actual pronunciation may differ, more or less significantly, from the pronunciation shown.

BibliographyEdit

  • Les langages de l'humanité (Michel Malherbe), Robert Laffont, Paris 1995 - ISBN 2-221-05947-6

External linksEdit

Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Antillean Creole – Arabic (standard) (p), Egyptian Arabic (p), Palestinian Arabic (p), Tunisian Arabic (t) – Armenian (t,p) – Aromanian – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Breton – Bulgarian (t) – Burmese (t,p) – Catalan – Chechen – Chinese: Cantonese, Gan (p), Mandarin (t,p), Min Nan (Amoy) (p), Old Chinese (p) – Czech – Danish – Dutch (p) – Egyptian (Middle)  – Esperanto (p) – Estonian – Finnish – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – French (p) – Frisian (West) – Friulian – Georgian (t,p) – German (p) – Greek (modern) (p), Greek (ancient) – Guaraní – Haida – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hawaiian – Hindi (t) – Hittite – Hmong (White) (p) – Hungarian – Icelandic – Indonesian – Interlingue – Irish (p) – Istro-Romanian – Italian (p) – Japanese (t) – Kashubian – Khmer (p) – Korean (t) – Kurdish – Latin – Latvian – Lingala – Lingua Franca Nova – Lithuanian – Luwian – Macedonian (t) – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian (t) – Old Portuguese (p) – Ossetian (p) – Polish (p) – Portuguese (p) – Proto-Indo-European – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani – Romanian – Russian (p) – Sanskrit (t) – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Sinhalese – Slovenian – Spanish (p) – Sranan – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tajik (t) – Tahitian – Thai (t) – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Zulu

Language families and family branches

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian – Altaic – Araucanian – Austro-Asiatic – Australian – Austronesian – Baltic – Baltic-Finnic – Bantu – Celtic – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Frisian – Germanic – Hokan – Iberian – Italian – Indo-Iranian – Indo-Iranian (extended) – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan – Slavic – Siouan – Tai–Kadai – Tibeto-Burman – Tupi–Guarani – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

The list may also include: (t) the transcription in Latin characters; (p) the phonetic transcription
Last modified on 12 August 2013, at 15:16