Appendix:Jarai Swadesh list

This is a Swadesh list of words in Jarai, compared with definitions in English.

Presentation edit

For further information, including the full final version of the list, read the Wikipedia article: Swadesh list.

American linguist Morris Swadesh believed that languages changed at measurable rates and that these could be determined even for languages without written precursors. Using vocabulary lists, he sought to understand not only change over time but also the relationships of extant languages. To be able to compare languages from different cultures, he based his lists on meanings he presumed would be available in as many cultures as possible. He then used the fraction of agreeing cognates between any two related languages to compute their divergence time by some (still debated) algorithms. Starting in 1950 with 165 meanings, his list grew to 215 in 1952, which was so expansive that many languages lacked native vocabulary for some terms. Subsequently, it was reduced to 207, and reduced much further to 100 meanings in 1955. A reformulated list was published posthumously in 1971.

List edit

No. English Jarai
Jarai
1 I kâo
2 you (singular) ih, ŏng (masculine, informal)
3 he, she, it gơ̆, ñu
4 we gơmơi, ƀing gơmơi (exclusive), ta, ƀing ta (inclusive)
5 you (plural) gih, ƀing gih (informal), ƀing ih (formal)
6 they arăng, ƀing gơ̆, gơñu (exclusive), ƀing gơñu
7 this anai
8 that anŭn
9 here anai
10 there anŭn, adih
11 who hlơi
12 what hơget
13 where pơpă
14 when tơdang
15 how hiư̆m
16 not ƀu}, ôh}
17 all raih
18 many lu
19 some đơđa
20 few ƀiă
21 other phara
22 one sa
23 two dua
24 three klâo
25 four
26 five rơma
27 big prĭn, prŏng
28 long glông
29 wide prong, prong krin
30 thick kơpal
31 heavy kơtraŏ
32 small anĕt
33 short bêr (length), djăl(height)
34 narrow kơsep
35 thin net
36 woman đah bơnai
37 man (adult male) đah rơkơi
38 man (human being) mơnuih
39 child ană
40 wife bơnai
41 husband rơkơi
42 mother amĭ
43 father ama
44 animal hlô mơnŏng
45 fish akan
46 bird čĭm
47 dog asâo
48 louse kơtâo
49 snake ala
50 worm rơ̆năng
51 tree kơyâo
52 forest glai
53 stick gai
54 fruit bôh
55 seed asar
56 leaf hla
57 root akha
58 bark (of a tree) kơđuh
59 flower bơnga
60 grass rơk
61 rope tơlơi
62 skin klĭ
63 meat mơnŏng
64 blood drah
65 bone tơlang
66 fat (noun) rơmă
67 egg boh
68 horn tơki
69 tail aku
70 feather blâo
71 hair ƀuk(head), blâo (body)
72 head akŏ
73 ear tơngia
74 eye mơta
75 nose adŭng
76 mouth mơbah
77 tooth tơgơi
78 tongue (organ) jơlăh
79 fingernail tơkâo
80 foot tơkai
81 leg tơkai
82 knee tơŭt
83 hand tơngan
84 wing čơčăng
85 belly tian
86 guts pruaĭ
87 neck tơkuai
88 back rŏng
89 breast tơda (chest)
90 heart hơtai bôh
91 liver hơtai
92 to drink mơñum
93 to eat huă (with rice)
94 to bite
95 to suck ƀop (straw)
96 to spit kơčuh
97 to vomit ŏ
98 to blow bluh
99 to breathe suă pran
100 to laugh klao
101 to see ƀuh
102 to hear hơmư̆
103 to know thâo
104 to think pơmĭn
105 to smell ƀâo
106 to fear bơngŏt
107 to sleep pĭt
108 to live hơdĭp
109 to die djai
110 to kill pơ̆djai
111 to fight pơrơtaih
112 to hunt hiu lua
113 to hit păh
114 to cut
115 to split čar
116 to stab čŭt
117 to scratch kuah
118 to dig kuai (with hands or claws)
119 to swim luai
120 to fly pŏr
121 to walk hiu
122 to come truh
123 to lie (as in a bed) đih
124 to sit dô̆
125 to stand tơgŭ
126 to turn (intransitive) pơ̆dar
127 to fall lê̆ (humans)
128 to give brơi
129 to hold djă
130 to squeeze ñač (wring)
131 to rub mlia
132 to wash rao
133 to wipe
134 to pull dui
135 to push čur
136 to throw glŏm
137 to tie čăp (in a bundle)
138 to sew čơčoh (with a machine)
139 to count yap
140 to say laĭ
141 to sing adôh
142 to play ngui
143 to float pơđông
144 to flow
145 to freeze
146 to swell bơ̆brăh}
147 sun yang hrơi
148 moon yang ƀlan
149 star pơ̆tŭt
150 water ia
151 rain hơjan
152 river čroh ia
153 lake dơnao
154 sea rơsĭ
155 salt hra
156 stone pơtâo
157 sand čuah
158 dust ƀruih
159 earth lŏn
160 cloud gơ̆thul
161 fog gơ̆thul
162 sky adai
163 wind angĭn
164 snow
165 ice
166 smoke asăp
167 fire apui
168 ash hơ̆bao
169 to burn čuh
170 road jơlan
171 mountain čư̆
172 red mraih
173 green mơtah
174 yellow kơñĭ
175 white
176 black
177 night mlăm
178 day hrơi
179 year thŭn
180 warm pơđao
181 cold rơŏt
182 full
183 new pơ̆hrâu
184 old tha (living being)
185 good hiam
186 bad sat
187 rotten brŭ
188 dirty grĭ
189 straight anang
190 round wĭl
191 sharp (as a knife) tơma
192 dull (as a knife) tơ̆nol
193 smooth
194 wet pơsah
195 dry kro
196 correct djơ̆
197 near giăm, jê̆
198 far ataih
199 right gah hơnuă
200 left gah ieo
201 at
202 in amăng
203 with hăng
204 and hăng
205 if plă
206 because yuadah
207 name anăn