E

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E U+0045, E
LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E
D
[U+0044]
Basic Latin F
[U+0046]
U+FF25, E
FULLWIDTH LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E

[U+FF24]
Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms
[U+FF26]

Translingual edit

 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Etymology edit

From the Etruscan letter 𐌄 (e, e), from the Ancient Greek letter Ε (E, epsilon), derived from the Phoenician letter 𐤄 (h, he), from the Egyptian hieroglyph 𓀠.

Letter edit

E (lower case e)

  1. The fifth letter of the basic modern Latin alphabet.

See also edit

Symbol edit

E

  1. (sciences, computing) Symbol separating mantissa from the exponent in scientific notation.
    2E5 = 2 × 105
  2. (computing) Hexadecimal symbol for 14.
  3. (physics) Energy.
    E=mc2
  4. (biochemistry) IUPAC 1-letter abbreviation for glutamic acid
  5. (mathematics) expectation function
  6. Abbreviation of exa-.
  7. (linguistics) A wildcard for a front vowel
    synonyms: I
  8. (clothing) Bra cup size.

Synonyms edit

  • (scientific notation): e

Gallery edit

See also edit

The template Template:Letter does not use the parameter(s):
Character=E5
Please see Module:checkparams for help with this warning.

Other representations of E:

English edit

Pronunciation edit

  • (phoneme, usually): IPA(key): /ɛ/, /iː/, or silent
  • (file)
  • (file)
  • (letter name): IPA(key): /iː/
  • Rhymes: -iː

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle English and Old English upper case letter E and split of Æ, EA, EO, and Œ, from five 7th century replacements of Anglo-Saxon Futhorcs by Latin letters:

  •   Old English letter E, from replacement by Latin letter E of the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter (e).
  •   Old English letter Æ from replacement by Latin ligature Æ of the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter (æ).
  •   Old English digraph EA, from replacement by Latin digraph EA of the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter (ea).
  •   Old English digraph EO from replacement by Latin digraph EO of Anglo-Saxon Futhorc (eo).
  •   Old English letter Œ from replacement by Latin ligature Œ of the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter (œ).

Letter edit

E (upper case, lower case e, plural Es or E's)

  1. The fifth letter of the English alphabet, called e and written in the Latin script.
    • 1943 November – 1944 February (date written; published 1945 August 17), George Orwell [pseudonym; Eric Arthur Blair], Animal Farm [], London: Secker & Warburg, published May 1962, →OCLC:
      On several occasions, indeed, he did learn E, F, G, H, but by the time he knew them, it was always discovered that he had forgotten A, B, C, and D.

Number edit

E (upper case, lower case e)

  1. The ordinal number fifth, derived from this letter of the English alphabet, called e and written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

Abbreviation.

Symbol edit

E

  1. (ESRB rating) Abbreviation of everyone.
  2. East.
Translations edit

Noun edit

E (plural Es)

  1. (slang) The drug ecstasy (MDMA), particularly in pill form.
    • 1994 [1993], Irvine Welsh, Trainspotting, London: Minerva, →ISBN, page 156:
      Sick Boy brings oot some E. White doves; ah think. It's mental gear. Most Ecstasy hasnae any MDMA in it, it's just likesay, ken, part speed, part acid in its effects . . .
    • 1995, “Sorted For E’s and Wizz”, in Jarvis Cocker (lyrics), Different Class, performed by Pulp:
      And I don't quite understand just what this feeling is / But that's okay cause we're all sorted out for E's and wizz
    • 2002, Hugh Mackay, Winter Close, Sydney: Hodder Headline, →ISBN, page 85:
      You mentioned you were taking stuff. Did you mean ecstasy? / What else? It’s excellent. I’m not an addict or nothing, and I steer clear of crack and that. People say E is for losers but, hey, I’d never be without some eccy in my bag.
  2. (especially in LGBT contexts) The hormone estrogen/estradiol. (Contrast T, testosterone.)
  3. The grade below D in some grading systems. In most such systems, it is a failing grade.
    • 1999, Julian Stallabrass, High Art Lite: British Art in the 1990s, Verso, →ISBN, page 25,
      In line with this, he is marketed not only as a mental innocent, but as a class primitive, someone who only got an E in A-level art […]
    • a2003, Rick, quoted in Linda MacDowell, Redundant Masculinities?: Employment Change and White Working Class Youth, Blackwell Publishing (2003), →ISBN, page 198,
      My results weren’t that great, to be honest. I weren’t right happy with them; I got an E in Maths and that were a surprise, but I did get a B in Technology – that were all right.
    • 2005, S. J. Smith, Joe Public, Virtualbookworm Publishing, →ISBN, page 125,
      Not really, but perhaps I’d have got an ‘E’ in Tech Drawing no matter how much I’d asserted myself. Maybe Mr. Pinkerton would have seen to it that my exam paper was tampered with. A spot of teacher to student revenge.
    • 2005, Craig Taylor, Light, Reverb, →ISBN, page 103,
      But she didn’t get the bit about my accidental artistic career, “But you can’t draw love. You got an E in your exam. I remember that. You drew that onion that looked like a boil.”
  4. Abbreviation of episode. (installment of a series)
    The pilot episode is S01E01.
Translations edit

Proper noun edit

E

  1. (religion) Abbreviation of Elohist.

Etymology 3 edit

 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

From the Hanyu Pinyin romanization of the Mandarin (È).

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Proper noun edit

E

  1. (history) A state in ancient China of varying location in present-day Shanxi, Henan, and Hubei.
    • 2002, The Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities[1], →ISSN, →OCLC, page 229:
      The discovery suggests also that the center of the state of E was located in the Suizao corridor in Hubei, not far from the location of E as suggested by ancient geographical works.
    • 2006, Li Feng, Landscape and Power in Early China[2], Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, →OCLC, pages 330–331:
      These three bronzes, though clearly modeled on Zhou types, are quite distinctive from the Zhou tradition. They suggest that, although the state of E served as an ally and agent of the Western Zhou state, it probably had a distinctive cultural origin of its own.
    • 2014, Liu Yang, Cast for Eternity[3], Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, →ISBN, →OCLC, →OL, page 15:
      A six-character inscription cast inside the bowl records that this gui was made for a nobleman of the E state. Due to gaps in Chinese historical records, the exact history of the state of E is uncertain. Since the E Shu Gui was salvaged from a pile of scrap copper shipped to the Shanghai Foundry from Hubei province, some scholars have inferred that the gui was excavated from Hubei, therefore proving that the E state during the Western Zhou was located in today's Hubei province.
  2. (history) Its capital, also known as Echeng and Ezhou.
  3. A surname from Mandarin Chinese.
Related terms edit
Translations edit

Etymology 4 edit

 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

From the Hanyu Pinyin romanization of Mandarin (ê̄), from E ɛ⁵⁵.

Pronunciation edit

Proper noun edit

E

  1. A Tai-Chinese mixed language spoken primarily in Rongshui Miao Autonomous County, Guangxi, China; Kjang E.
Translations edit
See also edit

Etymology 5 edit

 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Unknown.

Proper noun edit

E

  1. A river in Highland council area, Scotland.

Afar edit

Letter edit

E

  1. The fifth letter of the Afar alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Afrikaans edit

Pronunciation edit

  • (letter name): IPA(key): /ɪə/

Letter edit

E (upper case, lower case e)

  1. The fifth letter of the Afrikaans alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Noun edit

E (plural E's, diminutive E'tjie)

  1. E

Angami edit

Letter edit

E

  1. The ninth letter of the Angami alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Azerbaijani edit

Letter edit

E upper case (lower case e)

  1. The sixth letter of the Azerbaijani alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Basque edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

E (upper case, lower case e)

  1. The fifth letter of the Basque alphabet, called e and written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Central Franconian edit

Etymology edit

  • /ɛ/ is from Middle High German e (both ë and ) in most closed syllables, in some dialects also in open syllables; in Moselle Franconian from ö in the same positions.
  • /e/ is from i in most closed syllables; in Moselle Franconian from ü in the same positions.
  • /eː/ is from ei in Ripuarian and western Moselle Franconian (latter also öu); from ie in Ripuarian and northern Moselle Franconian (latter also üe); from ē, œ in southern Moselle Franconian; in some Moselle Franconian dialects from e, ö in open syllables.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): (short open) /ɛ/, (short closed) /e/, (long) /eː/, (reduced) /ə/

Letter edit

E

  1. A letter in the German-based alphabet of Central Franconian.
  2. A letter in the Dutch-based alphabet of Central Franconian.

Usage notes edit

  • In the German-based spelling, short open /ɛ/ may also be represented by Ä (see there).
  • In the Dutch-based spelling, short closed /e/, which ranges phonetically between [e] and [ɪ], is represented by I (see there).

Chinese edit

Etymology 1 edit

Romanisation of 𪘲𬺌 (ji1).

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

E

  1. (Cantonese, nonstandard) Alternative form of 𪘲𬺌 (ji1).

Etymology 2 edit

Romanisation of (ji1).

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

E

  1. (Cantonese, nonstandard) Alternative form of (ji1, this; these).
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

Pronunciation 1 edit


Letter edit

E

  1. The fifth letter of the Latin alphabet.

Pronunciation 2 edit

Letter edit

E

  1. The fifth letter used in Pinyin.
Usage notes edit
  • The pronunciation above are only used while referring to letters in Pinyin. They are not used in other context (such as English).

Dutch edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

E (capital, lowercase e)

  1. The fifth letter of the Dutch alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Elfdalian edit

Alternative forms edit

  • (Dalecarlian runes)

Letter edit

E (upper case E, lower case e)

  1. The seventh letter of the Elfdalian alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Esperanto edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

E (upper case, lower case e)

  1. The sixth letter of the Esperanto alphabet, called e and written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Noun edit

E

  1. Abbreviation of eosto (east).

Estonian edit

 
Estonian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia et

Letter edit

E (upper case, lower case e)

  1. The fifth letter of the Estonian alphabet, called ee and written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Finnish edit

Etymology edit

The Finnish orthography using the Latin script was based on those of Swedish, German and Latin, and was first used in the mid-16th century. No earlier script is known. See the Wikipedia article on Finnish for more information, and E for information on the development of the glyph itself.

Letter edit

E (upper case, lower case e)

  1. The fifth letter of the Finnish alphabet, called ee and written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Noun edit

E

  1. Abbreviation of eximia cum laude approbatur.
  2. Alternative letter-case form of e (E (musical note))

French edit

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

E

  1. Abbreviation of est; east

Noun edit

E m

  1. Abbreviation of est; east

Letter edit

E

  1. The fifth letter of the French alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Galician edit

Noun edit

E

  1. leste (east)

Synonyms edit

  • (east): L

German edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

E (upper case, lower case e)

  1. The fifth letter of the German alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Hungarian edit

Pronunciation edit

  • (letter or phoneme itself; identifier): IPA(key): [ˈɛː][1]
  • (musical note): IPA(key): [ˈeː] (in the names of major scales; see also e)

Letter edit

E (upper case, lower case e)

  1. The ninth letter of the Hungarian alphabet, called e and written in the Latin script.

Declension edit

Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, front unrounded harmony)
singular plural
nominative E E-k
accusative E-t E-ket
dative E-nek E-knek
instrumental E-vel E-kkel
causal-final E-ért E-kért
translative E-vé E-kké
terminative E-ig E-kig
essive-formal E-ként E-kként
essive-modal
inessive E-ben E-kben
superessive E-n E-ken
adessive E-nél E-knél
illative E-be E-kbe
sublative E-re E-kre
allative E-hez E-khez
elative E-ből E-kből
delative E-ről E-kről
ablative E-től E-ktől
non-attributive
possessive - singular
E-é E-ké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
E-éi E-kéi
Possessive forms of E
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. E-m E-im
2nd person sing. E-d E-id
3rd person sing. E-je E-i
1st person plural E-nk E-ink
2nd person plural E-tek E-itek
3rd person plural E-jük E-ik

Derived terms edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Siptár, Péter and Miklós Törkenczy. The Phonology of Hungarian. The Phonology of the World’s Languages. Oxford University Press, 2007. →ISBN, p. 280

Ido edit

Letter edit

E (lower case e)

  1. The fifth letter of the Ido alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Indonesian edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

E (upper case, lower case e)

  1. The fifth letter of the Indonesian alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Italian edit

 
Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia it

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

E f or m (invariable, upper case, lower case e)

  1. The fifth letter of the Italian alphabet, called e and written in the Latin script.

Noun edit

E m

  1. Abbreviation of est; east

See also edit

Japanese edit

Romanization edit

E

  1. Rōmaji transcription of

Kashubian edit

Etymology edit

The Kashubian orthography is based on the Latin alphabet. No earlier script is known. See the Kashubian alphabet article on Wikipedia for more, and E for development of the glyph itself.

Letter edit

E (upper case, lower case e)

  1. The seventh letter of the Kashubian alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Latvian edit

 
Latvian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia lv

Etymology edit

Proposed in 1908 as part of the new Latvian spelling by the scientific commission headed by K. Mīlenbahs, which was accepted and began to be taught in schools in 1909. Prior to that, Latvian had been written in German Fraktur, and sporadically in Cyrillic.

Pronunciation edit

(file)
(file)

Letter edit

 
E

E (upper case, lower case e)

  1. The seventh letter of the Latvian alphabet, called e and written in the Latin script.

Usage notes edit

The letter E/e (like its long counterpart Ē/ē) represent two sounds, [ɛ]šaurais e (narrow e) — and [æ]platais e (broad e). In principle, [ɛ] is used when there is a palatal element (the vowels i, ī, e, ē, the diphthongs ie, ei, and the palatal consonants j, ķ, ģ, ļ, ņ, š, ž, č, , and, in the old spelling, ŗ) either in the same or in the following syllable; otherwise, [æ] is used. Unfortunately, some historical changes have obscured this pattern by removing some previously existing palatal elements; as a result of that, for a number of words the actual pronunciation of the letter e[ɛ] or [æ] — must be memorized.

See also edit

Luxembourgish edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /æ/, /eː/, (chiefly unstressed) /ə/, /e/

Letter edit

E (lower case e)

  1. A letter of the Luxembourgish alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Usage notes edit

  • Long /eː/ is normally spelt ee. Before a single consonant it may be spelt e, but this is restricted to internationalisms (e.g. Meter).
  • Apart from unstressed syllables, the pronunciation /ə/, /e/ also occurs in the function words ech; mech, dech, sech; meng, deng, seng; net. Otherwise these vowels are spelt Ë or É.

Malay edit

 
Malay Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ms

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

E

  1. The fifth letter of the Malay alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Norwegian Bokmål edit

Letter edit

E (lowercase e)

  1. The fifth letter of the Norwegian Bokmål alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Nupe edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

E (upper case, lower case e)

  1. The sixth letter of the Nupe alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Polish edit

Etymology edit

The Polish orthography is based on the Latin alphabet. No earlier script is known. See the history of Polish orthography article on Wikipedia for more, and E for development of the glyph itself.

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

E (upper case, lower case e)

  1. The seventh letter of the Polish alphabet, called e and written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Portuguese edit

Letter edit

E (upper case, lower case e)

  1. The fifth letter of the Portuguese alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Romani edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

E (upper case, lower case e)

  1. (International Standard) The seventh letter of the Romani alphabet, written in the Latin script.
  2. (Pan-Vlax) The eighth letter of the Romani alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Romanian edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

E (upper case, lower case e)

  1. The seventh letter of the Romanian alphabet, called e and written in the Latin script.

Usage notes edit

At the beginnings of some common words, this letter takes on the sound of /je/ as in este (/ˈje.ste/).

The digraph ea represents the diphthong /e̯a/, as in prea (/pre̯a/).

See also edit

Saanich edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

E

  1. The ninth letter of the Saanich alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Scottish Gaelic edit

Letter edit

E (upper case, lower case e)

  1. The fifth letter of the Scottish Gaelic alphabet, written in the Latin script. It is preceded by d and followed by f. Its traditional name is eadha (aspen).

See also edit

Silesian edit

Etymology edit

The Silesian orthography is based on the Latin alphabet. No earlier script is known. See the Silesian language article on Wikipedia for more, and E for development of the glyph itself.

Letter edit

E (upper case, lower case e)

  1. The seventh letter of the Silesian alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Skolt Sami edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

E (lower case e)

  1. The tenth letter of the Skolt Sami alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Slovene edit

 
Slovene Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia sl

Alternative forms edit

  • Є (Metelko alphabet)

Etymology edit

From Gaj's Latin alphabet E, from Czech alphabet E, from Latin E, from the Etruscan letter 𐌄 (e, e), from the Ancient Greek letter Ε (E, epsilon), derived from the Phoenician letter 𐤄 (h, he), from the Egyptian hieroglyph 𓀠.

Pronunciation edit

  • (phoneme, Standard Slovene): IPA(key): /éː/, /èː/, /ɛ́/, /ɛ́ː/, /ɛ̀ː/, /ə́/, /ə̀/, /e/, /ɛ/, [ɪ́], [ɪ̀], [é̞], [è̞]
  • (phoneme, Resian): IPA(key): /ɛ/
  • (phoneme, Natisone Valley dialect): IPA(key): /ɛː/, /ɛ/, /ɛ̆/
  • (letter name): IPA(key): /èː/, /éː/
  • (letter name, archaic): IPA(key): /ɛ́/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -eː
  • Homophone: e

Letter edit

E (upper case, lower case e)

  1. The sixth letter of the Slovene alphabet, written in the Latin script.
  2. The eighth letter of the Resian alphabet, written in the Latin script.
  3. The sixth letter of the Natisone Valley alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Noun edit

E m inan or n

  1. The name of the Latin script letter E / e.

Usage notes edit

Nowadays, it is hardly ever neuter gender, so it is considered obsolete.[1]

Inflection edit

  • Overall more common
 
The diacritics used in this section of the entry are non-tonal. If you are a native tonal speaker, please help by adding the tonal marks.
Masculine inan., soft o-stem
nom. sing. E
gen. sing. E-ja
singular dual plural
nominative
(imenovȃlnik)
E E-ja E-ji
genitive
(rodȋlnik)
E-ja E-jev E-jev
dative
(dajȃlnik)
E-ju E-jema E-jem
accusative
(tožȋlnik)
E E-ja E-je
locative
(mẹ̑stnik)
E-ju E-jih E-jih
instrumental
(orọ̑dnik)
E-jem E-jema E-ji
  • More common when with a definite adjective
Masculine inan., no endings
nom. sing. E
gen. sing. E
singular dual plural
nominative E E E
accusative E E E
genitive E E E
dative E E E
locative E E E
instrumental E E E
  • Obsolete
Neuter, no endings
nom. sing. E
gen. sing. E
singular dual plural
nominative E E E
accusative E E E
genitive E E E
dative E E E
locative E E E
instrumental E E E

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Toporišič, Jože (2000) Slovenska slovnica / Jože Toporišič. - 4. prenovljena in razširjena izd. (in Slovene), Maribor: Obzorja, →ISBN

Further reading edit

  • E”, in Slovarji Inštituta za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša ZRC SAZU, portal Fran

Somali edit

Pronunciation edit

  • (phoneme): IPA(key): /ɛ/, /e/
  • (letter name): IPA(key): /ʔɛ/

Letter edit

E upper case (lower case e)

  1. The twenty-fourth letter of the Somali alphabet, called e and written in the Latin script.

Usage notes edit

  1. The twenty-fourth letter of the Somali alphabet, which follows Arabic abjad order. It is preceded by A and followed by I.

See also edit

Spanish edit

Letter edit

E (upper case, lower case e)

  1. The fifth letter of the Spanish alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Noun edit

E m

  1. Abbreviation of este; east

Tagalog edit

Etymology edit

From Spanish E. Each pronunciation has a different source:

  • Filipino alphabet pronunciation is influenced by English E.
  • Abakada alphabet pronunciation is influenced by the Baybayin character (i).
  • Abecedario pronunciation is from Spanish E.

Pronunciation edit

  • Hyphenation: E
  • (letter name, Filipino alphabet): IPA(key): /ˈʔi/, [ˈʔɪ]
  • (letter name, Abakada alphabet, Abecedario): IPA(key): /ˈʔe/, [ˈʔɛ]
  • (phoneme): IPA(key): /e/, [ɛ]
  • Rhymes: -i, -e

Letter edit

E (upper case, lower case e, Baybayin spelling )

  1. The fifth letter of the Tagalog alphabet (Filipino alphabet), called i and written in the Latin script.
  2. The fifth letter of the Tagalog alphabet (Abakada alphabet), called e and written in the Latin script.
  3. (historical) The sixth letter of the Tagalog alphabet (Abecedario), called e and written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Further reading edit

  • E”, in Pambansang Diksiyonaryo | Diksiyonaryo.ph, Manila, 2018

Turkish edit

Letter edit

E (upper case, lower case e)

  1. The sixth letter of the Turkish alphabet, called e and written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Vietnamese edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

E (upper case, lower case e)

  1. The eighth letter of the Vietnamese alphabet, called e and written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Welsh edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

E (upper case, lower case e)

  1. The seventh letter of the Welsh alphabet, called e and written in the Latin script. It is preceded by Dd and followed by F.

Mutation edit

  • E cannot be mutated but, being a vowel, does take h-prothesis, for example with the word eliffant (elephant):
Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal h-prothesis
eliffant unchanged unchanged heliffant
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

See also edit

Further reading edit

  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “E”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies

Yoruba edit

Pronunciation edit

Letter edit

E (upper case, lower case e)

  1. The fourth letter of the Yoruba alphabet, called é and written in the Latin script.

See also edit

Zulu edit

Letter edit

E (upper case, lower case e)

  1. The fifth letter of the Zulu alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also edit