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U+9577, 長
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9577

[U+9576]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9578]
U+2FA7, ⾧
KANGXI RADICAL LONG

[U+2FA6]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2FA8]
U+2ED1, ⻑
CJK RADICAL LONG ONE

[U+2ED0]
CJK Radicals Supplement
[U+2ED2]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Alternative forms edit

  • (when used as a radical)

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 168, +0, 8 strokes, cangjie input 尸一女 (SMV), four-corner 71732, composition ⿱⿺𠄌丿(GJKV) or ⿸⿱⿺𠄌丿(HT) or ⿱⿰𰀀丿(HT))

  1. Kangxi radical #168, .

Derived characters edit

See also edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1328, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 41100
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1829, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 4050, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9577

Chinese edit

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script
     

Pictogram (象形) – originally long hair; compare .

Etymology edit

Three pronunciations below are cognate, all derived from the original root of (*traŋ, “to make long; to stretch; to string a bow”).

Pronunciation 1 ("long") is the endopassive derivative ("be extended, be stretched"), with intransitive voicing. The lack of Tibeto-Burman cognates with the same meaning indicate that this is a Chinese innovation. Pronunciation 2 ("to grow") is the endoactive derivative. The different pronunciations are one of the few instances of contemporary grammatical tone in Mandarin.

See for more.

Pronunciation 1 edit


Note:
  • dòng - colloquial;
  • diòng - literary.
Note:
  • tn̂g/tôⁿ - colloquial;
  • tiô/tiôⁿ - colloquial (only used in 長泰长泰);
  • tiông/tiâng - literary;
  • chhiâng - literary (limited, e.g. 笨長笨长 and 高長高长).
Note:
  • deng5 - colloquial;
  • ciang5 - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 長 (短)
Mandarin Beijing /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ³⁵/
Harbin /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ²⁴/
Tianjin /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ⁴⁵/
/t͡sʰɑŋ⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ⁴²/
Qingdao /tʃʰaŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ⁴²/
Xi'an /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ²⁴/
Xining /ʈ͡ʂʰɔ̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰɑ̃⁵³/
Ürümqi /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /t͡sʰaŋ²¹³/
Chengdu /t͡sʰaŋ³¹/
Guiyang /t͡sʰaŋ²¹/
Kunming /ʈ͡ʂʰã̠¹/
Nanjing /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ²⁴/
Hefei /ʈ͡ʂʰɑ̃⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡sʰɒ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ¹³/
/t͡suə¹³/
Hohhot /t͡sʰɑ̃³¹/
Wu Shanghai /zã²³/
Suzhou /zã¹³/
Hangzhou /d͡zɑŋ²¹³/
Wenzhou /d͡ʑi³¹/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕʰia⁴⁴/
Tunxi /t͡ɕiau⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ʈ͡ʂan¹³/
Xiangtan /ɖ͡ʐɔn¹²/
Gan Nanchang /t͡sʰɔŋ²⁴/
Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰoŋ¹¹/
Taoyuan /tʃʰoŋ¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰœŋ²¹/
Nanning /t͡sʰœŋ²¹/
Hong Kong /t͡sʰœŋ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /tiɔŋ³⁵/
/tŋ̍³⁵/
/t͡sʰiaŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /touŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /tɔŋ²¹/
Shantou (Teochew) /t͡siaŋ⁵⁵/
/tɯŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /siaŋ³¹/
/ʔdo³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/3
Initial () (11)
Final () (105)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter drjang
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɖɨɐŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɖiɐŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȡiɑŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɖɨaŋ/
Li
Rong
/ȡiaŋ/
Wang
Li
/ȡĭaŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȡʱi̯aŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
cháng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
coeng4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
cháng
Middle
Chinese
‹ drjang ›
Old
Chinese
/*Cə-[N]-traŋ/
English long (adj.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/3
No. 1276
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*daŋ/

Definitions edit

  1. long (of distance)
      ―  chángzhēng  ―  Long March
  2. length
      ―  quáncháng  ―  full length (of a river)
  3. long (in space); far; distant
  4. long (of time); lasting
  5. everlasting; permanent
  6. constantly; frequently
    See also:
  7. straight; perfectly straight
  8. upright; right; good; fine
  9. strength; advantage; merit
  10. skill; specialism
  11. to excel in
  12. (Mainland China Hokkien) to take advantage of someone
  13. (Quanzhou and Xiamen Hokkien) segment of time or object
    [Hokkien, trad.]
    [Hokkien, simp.]
    hun chòe nn̄g tn̂g [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]
    to divide into two segments
  14. (Quanzhou and Xiamen Hokkien) regularly; often; frequently
  15. a surname

Compounds edit

Descendants edit

Sino-Xenic ():

Pronunciation 2 edit


Note:
  • tióng/tiáng - literary;
  • tiúⁿ/tióⁿ/tiáuⁿ - vernacular ("leader");
  • chiáng - colloquial ("to grow", limited).
Note:
  • ziang2 - "leader", "grow", "senior";
  • dion2 - dialectal usage ("manager of shops").

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/3
Initial () (9)
Final () (105)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter trjangX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʈɨɐŋX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʈiɐŋX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȶiɑŋX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʈɨaŋX/
Li
Rong
/ȶiaŋX/
Wang
Li
/ȶĭaŋX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȶi̯aŋX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhǎng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
zoeng2
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhǎng
Middle
Chinese
‹ trjangX ›
Old
Chinese
/*traŋʔ/
English grow; elder

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/3
No. 1263
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*taŋʔ/

Definitions edit

  1. to begin to grow; to grow; to develop
      ―  zhǎng  ―  to grow old
    健康 [MSC, trad.]
    健康 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ jiā de shù zhǎng dé hěn jiànkāng. [Pinyin]
    The tree in my house is growing healthily.
  2. (of a person) to look; to appear (e.g. beautiful)
  3. (transitive) to increase; to enhance
  4. (intransitive) to increase; to go up
    See also:
  5. to nourish
  6. old (of age)
      ―  niánzhǎng  ―  senior
  7. senior; elder
      ―  xiōngzhǎng  ―  elder brother
  8. leader; master; chief; head
  9. eldest; oldest
  10. to exalt; to honor
  11. to wield; to be in control of
Synonyms edit

Compounds edit

Descendants edit

Sino-Xenic ():

Pronunciation 3 edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 3/3
Initial () (11)
Final () (105)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter drjangH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɖɨɐŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɖiɐŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȡiɑŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɖɨaŋH/
Li
Rong
/ȡiaŋH/
Wang
Li
/ȡĭaŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȡʱi̯aŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhàng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
zoeng6
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 3/3
No. 1280
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*daŋs/

Definitions edit

  1. (archaic) length; measure of length
    See also:
  2. (archaic, Min) to be left over; surplus, residue
    今旦 [Eastern Min, trad.]
    今旦 [Eastern Min, simp.]
    gĭng-dáng buông diông iā sâ̤ / [kiŋ⁵⁵⁻⁵³ (t-)nɑŋ²¹³ puɔŋ²⁴² tuɔŋ²⁴² ia³³ sɑ²⁴²] [Bàng-uâ-cê / IPA]
    There is a lot of leftover food today.

Compounds edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. long, lengthy
  2. long time
  3. growing, increasing
  4. excellent, great
  5. comfortable, relaxing
  6. elder, old, senior
  7. chief, head, leader
  8. Short for 長門 (Nagato no kuni): Nagato Province

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
ちょう
Grade: 2
on’yomi

/tjau//t͡ɕjau//t͡ɕɔː//t͡ɕoː/

From Middle Chinese (MC trjangX) in the sense of “chief, head, leader” and (MC drjang) (literally meaning “long”) for other senses. The two Middle Chinese readings were distinct but etymologically connected.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(ちょう) (chōちやう (tyau)?

  1. chief, head, leader
    (はん)(ちょう)
    han chō
    the group leader
  2. strong point
    Antonym: (tan)
    (ちょう )( の)ばす
    chō o nobasu
    enrich a strong point
  3. (music) major
    Antonym: (tan)

Proper noun edit

(ちょう) (Chōちやう (tyau)?

  1. a surname

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
おさ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

/wosa//osa/

From Old Japanese.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(おさ) (osaをさ (wosa)?

  1. chief, head, leader
    Synonym: (kashira)
Derived terms edit

Proper noun edit

(おさ) (Osaをさ (wosa)?

  1. a place name
  2. a surname

Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term
なが
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese.

Stem form of classical adjective 長し (nagashi), modern 長い (nagai, long, lengthy).

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

(なが) (naga-

  1. long
Derived terms edit

Proper noun edit

(なが) (Naga

  1. a surname

Etymology 4 edit

Kanji in this term
つかさ
Grade: 2
irregular
Alternative spellings



From Old Japanese.

Probably derived from 就か (tsuka, irrealis form of verb 就く (tsuku), “to take a position) +‎ (-sa, -ness, suffix indicating state or degree). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(つかさ) (tsukasa

  1. a manager, a headman, a foreman
  2. an official
    Synonym: 役人 (yakunin)
  3. government service

Proper noun edit

(つかさ) (Tsukasa

  1. a surname
  2. a unisex given name

Etymology 5 edit

Kanji in this term
たき
Grade: 2
irregular

⟨taki1 → */takʲi//taki/

Possibly a variant of take below.[3] Appears in the Ruiju Myōgishō of around 1081-1100 CE.

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(たき) (taki

  1. height

Etymology 6 edit

Kanji in this term
たけ
Grade: 2
irregular

⟨take2 → */takəj//take/

Cognate with (taka, height), 高い (takai, high), and 長ける (takeru, to be high).

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(たけ) (take

  1. height

Proper noun edit

(たけ) (Take

  1. a surname

Etymology 7 edit

Kanji in this term
たける
Grade: 2
irregular

Nominalization of verb 長ける (takeru, to excel at).

Proper noun edit

(たける) (Takeru

  1. a surname
  2. a male or female given name

Etymology 8 edit

Kanji in this term
ひさし
Grade: 2
irregular

From Old Japanese.

Nominalization of classical adjective 久し (hisashi), modern 久しい (hisashii, long time).

Proper noun edit

(ひさし) (Hisashi

  1. a surname
  2. a male or female given name

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN
  3. ^ Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

Korean edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle Chinese (MC drjang, “long”).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 땨ᇰ (Yale: ttyàng)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Sinjeung Yuhap, 1576 (Yale: kin) (Yale: tyang)

Pronunciation edit

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (gil jang))

  1. Hanja form? of (long; lengthy). [prefix]

Compounds edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Middle Chinese (MC trjangX, “grow; elder”).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 댜ᇰ〯 (Yale: tyǎng)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Sinjeung Yuhap, 1576 (Yale: kil) (Yale: tyang)

Pronunciation edit

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [t͡ɕa̠(ː)ŋ]
  • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
    • Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

Hanja edit

(eumhun 어른 (eoreun jang))

  1. Hanja form? of (head; chief; manager). [noun, suffix]
  2. Hanja form? of (to grow; to develop). [affix]

Compounds edit

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Việt readings: trường ((trực)(lương)(thiết))[1][2][3], trưởng ((triển)(lưỡng)(thiết))[1][2][3], tràng[3]
: Nôm readings: tràng[1][2][4], trường[1][2][4], trưởng[1][2][4], dài[1], chường[2], trành[3], trườn[5]

Etymology 1 edit

chữ Hán form of trưởng (head; leader; to grow).

Compounds edit

Etymology 2 edit

chữ Hán form of trường (long (of distance and time)).

Compounds edit

References edit