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U+4E14, 且
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E14

[U+4E13]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E15]
See also: , , and

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 1 +4, 5 strokes, cangjie input 月一 (BM), four-corner 77100, composition𠀃𠄠)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 77, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 29
  • Dae Jaweon: page 154, character 19
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 15, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+4E14

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alt. forms 𠀇
𠀃

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
       





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*zaːl, *zaː
*zlaːl, *sʰaːʔ
*rnaː, *ʔsraː
*ʔsjaː, *zaʔ
*ʔsjaː, *ʔsas, *zaʔ
*ʔsjaː
*ʔslja, *ʔsraːʔ
*ʔsjaːʔ
*ʔsljaːʔ, *ljaːʔ, *ʔsraː
*ʔsjaːʔ
*sʰjaːʔ, *ʔsa
*sʰjaːs, *sʰa
*sʰjaːs
*ʔsraː, *zraː, *zraː
*ʔsraː
*ʔsraː
*ʔsraː
*ʔsraː
*zraː
*zraː, *ʔsa, *ʔsaʔ, *sʰa
*ʔslaːŋʔ, *zaːʔ
*ʔsaː
*ʔsaː, *ʔsaːʔ, *sʰa
*ʔsaːʔ
*ʔsaːʔ
*ʔsaːʔ
*ʔsaːʔ
*sʰaː, *zaːʔ
*zaː
*zaː
*zaːʔ, *zras
*zaːʔ, *sʰa
*ʔsa, *sʰa
*ʔsa, *ʔsas, *sʰa, *zaʔ, *ʔsra
*ʔsaʔ, *zaʔ
*sʰa
*sʰa
*sʰa, *sʰas
*sʰa
*sʰa
*sʰa, *sʰas
*sʰas
*sʰas
*sʰas
*zaʔ
*das
*ʔsra
*ʔsra
*ʔsraʔ, *ʔsras
*ʔsraʔ
*ʔsraʔ, *ʔsras
*zra, *zraʔ
*zra
*zra
*zra, *zras
*zraʔ
*zras

Pictogram (象形). Multiple interpretations:

  • A sacrificial vessel used for chopping and holding meat, as viewed from above (Wang, 1923) – original form of (OC *ʔsraʔ).
  • An erect penis, the symbol of the male ancestor (Guo, 1931) – original form of (OC *ʔsaːʔ).
  • A stone altar – original form of (OC *ʔsaːʔ).

In the oracle bones and bronze inscriptions, this character was commonly used as (OC *ʔsaːʔ). Usage as (OC *ʔsraʔ) is not attested until the Warring States period in the bamboo script.

EtymologyEdit

“and; also; almost; be going to”
Cognate with (OC *ʔsaŋ, *ʔsaŋs) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • 2qia - vernacular;
  • 2qi - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (14)
Final () (100)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡sʰiaX/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡sʰiaX/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡sʰiaX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡sʰiaX/
Li
Rong
/t͡sʰiaX/
Wang
Li
/t͡sʰĭaX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡sʰi̯aX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
qiě
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
qiě
Middle
Chinese
‹ tshjæX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[tsʰ]Aʔ/
English moreover

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 10379
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sʰjaːʔ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. this
  2. almost; nearly
  3. be going to; will; shall
  4. just; for the time being
  5. even (placed after a hypothetical extreme scenario for emphasis)
  6. (dialectal) for a long time
  7. and; also (for juxtaposition)
      ―  érqiě  ―  and; but also
  8. both ... and ...
  9. or (to list alternatives)
  10. moreover (to indicate progression)
  11. if; assuming (to indicate hypotheticality)
  12. sentence-initial or sentence-medial modal particle
  13. A surname​.

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 2Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (13)
Final () (22)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡sɨʌ/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡siɔ/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡siɔ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡sɨə̆/
Li
Rong
/t͡siɔ/
Wang
Li
/t͡sĭo/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡si̯wo/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsjo ›
Old
Chinese
/*tsa/
English [final particle]

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 10413
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ʔsa/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Alternative form of (, “chopping board”).
  2. many; numerous; flourishing
  3. sixth month in the lunar calendar
  4. sentence-final modal particle
  5. Alternative form of (zǎng, “steed”).

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 3Edit


DefinitionsEdit

  1. Alternative form of (“to go to”).

Pronunciation 4Edit


DefinitionsEdit

  1. Only used in 次且 (“hesitant in walking”).

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Related termsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(cha, jeo, jo)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): , , (revised: cha, jeo, jo, McCune-Reischauer: ch'a, chŏ, cho)
    • Name (hangeul): , 공경스러울, 도마 (revised: tto, gonggyeongseureoul, doma, McCune-Reischauer: tto, konggyŏngsǔrǒul, toma)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReferencesEdit


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(thả, vả, )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReferencesEdit