See also: , , and
U+4E14, 且
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E14

[U+4E13]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E15]
Commons:Category
Wikimedia Commons has more media related to:

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 1, +4, 5 strokes, cangjie input 月一 (BM), four-corner 77100, composition𠀃𠄠)

  1. Shuowen Jiezi radical №494

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 77, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 29
  • Dae Jaweon: page 154, character 19
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 15, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+4E14

Further readingEdit

Chinese Wikisource has digitized text of the Kangxi Dictionary entry for :

Wikisource


ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠀇
𠀃

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形). Multiple interpretations:

  • A sacrificial vessel used for chopping and holding meat, as viewed from above (Wang, 1923) – original form of (OC *ʔsraʔ).
  • An erect penis, the symbol of the male ancestor (Guo, 1931) – original form of (OC *ʔsaːʔ).
  • A stone altar – original form of (OC *ʔsaːʔ).

In the oracle bones and bronze inscriptions, this character was commonly used as (OC *ʔsaːʔ). Usage as (OC *ʔsraʔ) is not attested until the Warring States period in the bamboo script.

EtymologyEdit

“and; also; almost; be going to”
Cognate with (OC *ʔsaŋ, *ʔsaŋs) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • 2qia - vernacular;
  • 2qi - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (14)
Final () (100)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡sʰiaX/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡sʰiaX/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡sʰiaX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡sʰiaX/
Li
Rong
/t͡sʰiaX/
Wang
Li
/t͡sʰĭaX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡sʰi̯aX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
qiě
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
qiě
Middle
Chinese
‹ tshjæX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[tsʰ]Aʔ/
English moreover

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 10379
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sʰjaːʔ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. this
  2. almost; nearly
  3. be going to; will; shall
  4. just; for the time being
  5. even (placed after a hypothetical extreme scenario for emphasis)
  6. (dialectal Mandarin) for a long time
    會兒 [dialectal Mandarin, trad.]
    会儿 [dialectal Mandarin, simp.]
    Zhè shuǐ tài tàng, qiě děi liàng huǐr ne. [Pinyin]
    This water is so hot; [it] need to be left alone to cool down for a long time.
    活兒 [dialectal Mandarin, trad.]
    活儿 [dialectal Mandarin, simp.]
    Zhèi huór qiě gàn bu wán ne. [Pinyin]
    (please add an English translation of this example)
  7. and; also (for juxtaposition)
      ―  érqiě  ―  and; but also
  8. both ... and ...
  9. or (to list alternatives)
  10. moreover (to indicate progression)
  11. if; assuming (to indicate hypotheticality)
  12. sentence-initial or sentence-medial modal particle
  13. A surname​.

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 2Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (13)
Final () (22)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡sɨʌ/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡siɔ/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡siɔ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡sɨə̆/
Li
Rong
/t͡siɔ/
Wang
Li
/t͡sĭo/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡si̯wo/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsjo ›
Old
Chinese
/*tsa/
English [final particle]

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 10413
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ʔsa/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Alternative form of (, “chopping board”).
  2. many; numerous; flourishing
  3. sixth month in the lunar calendar
  4. sentence-final modal particle
  5. Alternative form of (zǎng, “steed”).

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 3Edit


DefinitionsEdit

  1. Alternative form of (, “to go to”).

Pronunciation 4Edit


DefinitionsEdit

  1. Only used in 次且 (“hesitant in walking”).

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. moreover
  2. also
  3. furthermore

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Related termsEdit


KoreanEdit

Etymology 1Edit

HanjaEdit

(eumhun (tto cha))

  1. Hanja form? of (moreover; also).

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

HanjaEdit

(eumhun 도마 (doma jo))

  1. Alternative form of (Hanja form? of (a sacrificial altar; a cutting board, a chopping board).)

Etymology 3Edit

HanjaEdit

(eumhun 공경할 (gonggyeonghal jeo))

  1. (obsolete) Hanja form? of (respect).

ReferencesEdit


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Nôm readings: thả, vả,

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReferencesEdit