r

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Letter r.svg
r U+0072, r
LATIN SMALL LETTER R
q
[U+0071]
Basic Latin s
[U+0073]
U+FF52, r
FULLWIDTH LATIN SMALL LETTER R

[U+FF51]
Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms
[U+FF53]

TranslingualEdit

 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Etymology 1Edit

  Modification of capital letter R by not closing the bottom of the loop but continuing into the leg to save a pen stroke, later shortening the right leg into a simple arc.

Alternative formsEdit

LetterEdit

r (upper case R)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the basic modern Latin alphabet.
See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

PronunciationEdit

  • (file)

SymbolEdit

 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

r

  1. (engineering, geometry) radius
  2. (IPA) alveolar trill
  3. (phonetics) used in several romanization systems of non-Latin scripts to represent an various other rhotic sounds (/r/).
    1. Romanization of the Hebrew ר(reish”, “resh”, “rēš) in the Common Israeli, Hebrew Academy (1953 and 2006), and ISO 259 transliteration schemes
    2. Romanization of the Hebrew רּ(reish”, “resh”, “rēš ḥāzāq) in the Common Israeli transliteration scheme

SynonymsEdit

  • (Romanization of רּ, “reish”, “resh”, “rēš ḥāzāq”): rr (in the Hebrew Academy (1953 and 2006) and ISO 259 transliteration schemes)

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

Other representations of R:


EnglishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Old English lower case letter r, from 7th century replacement by Latin lower case r of the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc letter .

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

r (lower case, upper case R, plural r's)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the English alphabet, called ar and written in the Latin script.
See alsoEdit

NumberEdit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The ordinal number eighteenth, derived from this letter of the English alphabet, called ar and written in the Latin script.

Etymology 2Edit

From are, pronounced like the name of the letter r

VerbEdit

r

  1. (abbreviation, slang, text messaging, Internet) are (in text messaging and internet conversations)
    How r u — “How are you?”
TranslationsEdit

AzerbaijaniEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

r lower case (upper case R)

  1. The twenty-fourth letter of the Azerbaijani alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


BasqueEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The nineteenth letter of the Basque alphabet, called erre and written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


DutchEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Dutch alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit

  • Previous letter: q
  • Next letter: s

See alsoEdit


EgyptianEdit

Etymology 1Edit

The actual reading of this word is uncertain, as it is always written as an ideogram, but evidence from Coptic suggests the original was rꜣ. The extension in meaning to ‘part, piece, fraction’ might be either by way of a mouthful being used as a standard share in some distribution of food or goods,[1] or else extended from its meaning of ‘opening’ > ‘division’.

PronunciationEdit

 

NounEdit

r
Z1

 m

  1. opening, division
  2. mouth (of humans or animals)
    • Stela of Hekaib, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, AP 78:
      nw
      k
      n&D sA1iq
      r
      D&d mr
      Z1
      f
      jnk nḏs jqr ḏd m r(ꜣ).f
      I was an excellent individual, one who spoke with his own mouth.
  3. (figurative, chiefly in titles) speaker, mouthpiece
  4. utterance, statement
  5. (rare) language, manner of speech
  6. bodily orifice, opening of the human body in general, including eyes, ears, nostrils, the vulva, and open wounds
  7. entrance to a building, doorway
  8. entrance to a land or place in general
  9. mouth of a river
  10. a measure of volume equivalent to 132 of a hnw or 1320 of a ḥqꜣt (about 15 millilitres); mouthful
  11. part, piece, fraction
  12. (mathematics) used as a numerator of 1 in fractions, literally “piece of (the denominator)”.
    • 12th Dynasty, Siut Tomb I, 285, published in Griffith, Francis Llewellyn, The inscriptions of Siûṭ and Dêr Rîfeh:
      r
      V1 V1 V1
      V20 V20 V20
      V20 V20 V20
      r(ꜣ) ḫmtw-št sjsjw
      1360
Usage notesEdit
Following Sethe,[3] it has often been suggested that r should also be taken to mean ‘one third’ as a reading of the sign
 
(questionably attested in hieroglyphs proper), extrapolating backward from the dual form rwj (two thirds); however, such a usage remains uncertain, and the reading of the form ḫmt-rw (three fourths) argues against the interpretation of r in rwj as specifically meaning a third.
InflectionEdit

In the sense of ‘mouth’ the plural is rare, as the singular is usually used even in reference to the mouths of multiple people.

Derived termsEdit
DescendantsEdit
  • Demotic: rꜣ
    • Coptic: ⲣⲟ (ro) (Sahidic, Bohairic, Akhmimic), ⲗⲁ (la) (Fayyumic)

Etymology 2Edit

Possibly cognate to Hebrew אֶל(ʾel, to, at), Arabic إِلَى(ʾilā, to, until, near).[4]

PrepositionEdit

r
  1. regarding, with respect to, concerning, according to
  2. in order to, for (the purpose of)
  3. (with following infinitive) forms the periphrastic prospective of a verb
  4. (with verbs of motion, of places) to, towards
  5. (in adverbial sentences, of places, roles, or functions) headed for, destined for, bound for
  6. (of time) at, in, on
  7. against, in opposition to
  8. from, apart from (ablative)
  9. (after an adjective or adverb, forming the comparative) than, by comparison to
  10. (generally in sentence-initial form jr) introduces the protasis of a conditional sentence; if, when, as
  11. (with a verb in the terminative as object) until
InflectionEdit
Alternative formsEdit
Derived termsEdit
DescendantsEdit

ParticleEdit

r

 enclitic

  1. (with attached suffix pronoun) so, regarding (that, you, me, etc.), as for (that, you, me, etc.)
Usage notesEdit

This usage is distinguished from the preposition by the fact that it occurs as the enclitic second element in a clause instead of at the end of a clause, as is otherwise the case with prepositional phrases.

Alternative formsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Erman, Adolf; Grapow, Hermann (1928) Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache, volume 2, Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, →ISBN, page 386.6–388.10, 389.1–392.9
  • Faulkner, Raymond (1962) A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian, Oxford: Griffith Institute, →ISBN, page 145
  • James P[eter] Allen (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, 2nd edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN.
  • Gardiner, Alan (1957) Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs, third edition, Oxford: Griffith Institute, →ISBN, page 429
  • Hoch, James (1997) Middle Egyptian Grammar, Mississauga: Benben Publications, →ISBN, page 42
  1. ^ Palma, Helena Lopez (2015) “Egyptian Fractional Numerals: The grammar of Egyptian NPs and statements with fractional number expressions” in Lingua Aegyptia, volume 23, page 199
  2. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 58
  3. ^ Sethe, Kurt (1916) Von Zahlen und Zahlworten bei den alten Ägyptern, page 82–83
  4. ^ Hoch, James (1997) Middle Egyptian Grammar, Mississauga: Benben Publications, →ISBN, page 15

EsperantoEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The twenty-first letter of the Esperanto alphabet, called ro and written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


EstonianEdit

 
Estonian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia et

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Estonian alphabet, called err and written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


FaroeseEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

r (upper case R)

  1. The twentieth letter of the Faroese alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


FinnishEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Finnish alphabet, called är or er and written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


FulaEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. A letter of the Fula alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Usage notesEdit

See alsoEdit


GothicEdit

RomanizationEdit

r

  1. Romanization of 𐍂

HungarianEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • (phoneme): IPA(key): [ ˈr]
  • (letter name): IPA(key): [ ˈɛrː]

LetterEdit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The twenty-ninth letter of the Hungarian alphabet, called err and written in the Latin script.

DeclensionEdit

Inflection (stem in -e-, front unrounded harmony)
singular plural
nominative r r-ek
accusative r-et r-eket
dative r-nek r-eknek
instrumental r-rel r-ekkel
causal-final r-ért r-ekért
translative r-ré r-ekké
terminative r-ig r-ekig
essive-formal r-ként r-ekként
essive-modal
inessive r-ben r-ekben
superessive r-en r-eken
adessive r-nél r-eknél
illative r-be r-ekbe
sublative r-re r-ekre
allative r-hez r-ekhez
elative r-ből r-ekből
delative r-ről r-ekről
ablative r-től r-ektől
non-attributive
possessive - singular
r-é r-eké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
r-éi r-ekéi
Possessive forms of r
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. r-em r-jeim
2nd person sing. r-ed r-jeid
3rd person sing. r-je r-jei
1st person plural r-ünk r-jeink
2nd person plural r-etek r-jeitek
3rd person plural r-jük r-jeik

See alsoEdit


IdoEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • (context pronunciation) IPA(key): /ɾ/
  • (letter name) IPA(key): /ɾe/

LetterEdit

r (upper case R)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Ido alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


ItalianEdit

NounEdit

r m or f (invariable)

  1. See under R

LatvianEdit

 
Latvian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia lv

EtymologyEdit

Proposed in 1908 as part of the new Latvian spelling by the scientific commission headed by K. Mīlenbahs, which was accepted and began to be taught in schools in 1909. Prior to that, Latvian had been written in German Fraktur, and sporadically in Cyrillic.

PronunciationEdit

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LetterEdit

 
R

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The twenty-fifth letter of the Latvian alphabet, called er and written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


LivonianEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

r (upper case R)

  1. The twenty-ninth letter of the Livonian alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


MalayEdit

LetterEdit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Malay alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


MalteseEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The twenty-second letter of the Maltese alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


MandarinEdit

RomanizationEdit

r (Zhuyin ˙ㄖ)

  1. Pinyin transcription of ,

ReferencesEdit


NorwegianEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • (letter name): IPA(key): /ærː/, /æɾː/
  • (phoneme): IPA(key): /r/, /ɾ/, /ʁ/
  • (file)

LetterEdit

r

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Norwegian alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Usage notesEdit

  • /ʁ/ is the pronunciation of r usually found in southern and southeastern dialects of Norway. Bergen has the dialect best known for this sound. Said to come from Danish and/or German, originally from French.
  • Dialects with /ʁ/ do not have retroflex consonants.

PortugueseEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Portuguese alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


RomanianEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The twenty-first letter of the Romanian alphabet, called er, re, or and written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


Serbo-CroatianEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • (uppercase) R

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

r (Cyrillic spelling р)

  1. The 23rd letter of the Serbo-Croatian Latin alphabet (gajica), preceded by p and followed by s.

Skolt SamiEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

r (upper case R)

  1. The twenty-seventh letter of the Skolt Sami alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


SpanishEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The nineteenth letter of the Spanish alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit


TurkishEdit

LetterEdit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The twenty-first letter of the Turkish alphabet, called re and written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


TurkmenEdit

PronunciationEdit

LetterEdit

r (upper case R)

  1. The twenty-first letter of the Turkmen alphabet, called er and written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit


ZuluEdit

LetterEdit

r (lower case, upper case R)

  1. The eighteenth letter of the Zulu alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See alsoEdit