Appendix:Chamorro Swadesh list

This is a Swadesh list of words in Chamorro, compared with definitions in English.

Introduction

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For further information, including the full final version of the list, read the Wikipedia article: Swadesh list.

American linguist Morris Swadesh believed that languages changed at measurable rates and that these could be determined even for languages without written precursors. Using vocabulary lists, he sought to understand not only change over time but also the relationships of extant languages. To be able to compare languages from different cultures, he based his lists on meanings he presumed would be available in as many cultures as possible. He then used the fraction of agreeing cognates between any two related languages to compute their divergence time by some (still debated) algorithms. Starting in 1950 with 165 meanings, his list grew to 215 in 1952, which was so expansive that many languages lacked native vocabulary for some terms. Subsequently, it was reduced to 207, and reduced much further to 100 meanings in 1955. A reformulated list was published posthumously in 1971.

List

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EnglishChamorro
Chamoru
edit (206)
1I (1sg)guaho
2you (2sg)hågo
3he, she, it (3sg)guiya
4we (1pl)hita (inclusive), håmi (exclusive)
5you (2pl)hamyo
6they (3pl)siha
7thisine
8thatåyo
9hereguine
10thereguihe (far from speaker but closer to person being spoken to), guenao (far from speaker and person being speaker to)
11whohåye
12whathåfa
13wheremanggi
14whenngai'an
15howtaimåno
16notahe
17alltodo
18many[[#Chamorro|]]
19some[[#Chamorro|]]
20few[[#Chamorro|]]
21other[[#Chamorro|]]
22oneuno
23twodos
24threetres
25fourkuatro
26fivesingku
27bigdångkulu
28long[[#Chamorro|]]
29wide[[#Chamorro|]]
30thick[[#Chamorro|]]
31heavy[[#Chamorro|]]
32small[[#Chamorro|]]
33short
34narrow[[#Chamorro|]]
35thin[[#Chamorro|]]
36woman[[#Chamorro|]]
37man (adult male)[[#Chamorro|]]
38man (human being)[[#Chamorro|]]
39childniño (Spanish-derived), påtgon
40wifeasågua
41husbandesposo
42mothernåna
43fathertåta
44animalgå'ga'
45fishguihan
46birdgegpo
47doggalågo
48lousehuto
49snakekuletba
50wormulu
51treehåyo
52foresthålum-tåno
53stickgaluti
54fruittinegchå
55seedfenso
56leafhagon, ohas (Spanish-derived)
57roothale
58bark (of a tree)[[#Chamorro|]]
59flower[[#Chamorro|]]
60grasschå'guan
61rope[[#Chamorro|]]
62skinlåsas
63meatsensen, kåtne
64bloodhagå
65boneto'lang, pierna (Spanish-derived)
66fat (noun)yomog
67eggchadå
68hornkanggelon
69taildådalag, kola
70featherplumåhe (Spanish-derived)
71hairpulo
72headulo
73eartalangå
74eyeåtadok
75noseguieng
76mouthpåchot
77toothnifen
78tongue (organ)hula'
79fingernail[[#Chamorro|]]
80foot[[#Chamorro|]]
81leg[[#Chamorro|]]
82kneeguaife
83hand[[#Chamorro|]]
84wing[[#Chamorro|]]
85belly[[#Chamorro|]]
86guts[[#Chamorro|]]
87neck[[#Chamorro|]]
88back[[#Chamorro|]]
89breast[[#Chamorro|]]
90heartkorason
91liverigado
92to drinkgimen
93to eatkåno'
94to biteåkka'
95to suckchopchop
96to spitto'la
97to vomitmuta'
98to blowguaife
99to breathehågong
100to laughchålek
101to see[[#Chamorro|]]
102to hear[[#Chamorro|]]
103to know[[#Chamorro|]]
104to thinkhaso
105to smellnginge'
106to fear[[#Chamorro|]]
107to sleepmaigo'
108to live[[#Chamorro|]]
109to die[[#Chamorro|]]
110to killpuno'
111to fight[[#Chamorro|]]
112to hunt[[#Chamorro|]]
113to hit[[#Chamorro|]]
114to cut[[#Chamorro|]]
115to split[[#Chamorro|]]
116to stab[[#Chamorro|]]
117to scratch[[#Chamorro|]]
118to dig[[#Chamorro|]]
119to swim[[#Chamorro|]]
120to flygupu
121to walk[[#Chamorro|]]
122to come[[#Chamorro|]]
123to lie (as in a bed)[[#Chamorro|]]
124to sit[[#Chamorro|]]
125to stand[[#Chamorro|]]
126to turn (intransitive)[[#Chamorro|]]
127to fall[[#Chamorro|]]
128to givenå'i
129to hold[[#Chamorro|]]
130to squeeze[[#Chamorro|]]
131to rub[[#Chamorro|]]
132to wash[[#Chamorro|]]
133to wipe[[#Chamorro|]]
134to pull[[#Chamorro|]]
135to push[[#Chamorro|]]
136to throw[[#Chamorro|]]
137to tie[[#Chamorro|]]
138to sew[[#Chamorro|]]
139to count[[#Chamorro|]]
140to say[[#Chamorro|]]
141to sing[[#Chamorro|]]
142to play[[#Chamorro|]]
143to float[[#Chamorro|]]
144to flow[[#Chamorro|]]
145to freeze[[#Chamorro|]]
146to swell[[#Chamorro|]]
147sunåtdao
148moonpulan
149starputi'on
150waterhånom
151rainuchan
152riversådog
153lake[[#Chamorro|]]
154seatasi
155saltasen
156stoneacho'
157sandunai
158dust[[#Chamorro|]]
159earth[[#Chamorro|]]
160cloud[[#Chamorro|]]
161fog[[#Chamorro|]]
162sky[[#Chamorro|]]
163wind[[#Chamorro|]]
164snowniebe
165iceyelo
166smoke[[#Chamorro|]]
167fireguafe
168ash[[#Chamorro|]]
169to burn[[#Chamorro|]]
170roadchålan
171mountain[[#Chamorro|]]
172redagaga'
173greenbetde (Spanish-derived)
174yellow[[#Chamorro|]]
175white[[#Chamorro|]]
176black[[#Chamorro|]]
177nightpuenge
178dayha'åni
179year[[#Chamorro|]]
180warmmåipe
181coldmañengheng
182fullbula
183newnuebo (Spanish-derived)
184oldåmko'
185good[[#Chamorro|]]
186bad[[#Chamorro|]]
187rotten[[#Chamorro|]]
188dirty[[#Chamorro|]]
189straight[[#Chamorro|]]
190round[[#Chamorro|]]
191sharp (as a knife)[[#Chamorro|]]
192dull (as a knife)[[#Chamorro|]]
193smooth[[#Chamorro|]]
194wet[[#Chamorro|]]
195dry[[#Chamorro|]]
196correct[[#Chamorro|]]
197near[[#Chamorro|]]
198far[[#Chamorro|]]
199right[[#Chamorro|]]
200left[[#Chamorro|]]
201at[[#Chamorro|]]
202in[[#Chamorro|]]
203with[[#Chamorro|]]
204and[[#Chamorro|]]
205if[[#Chamorro|]]
206becausesa'
207namenå'an
Swadesh lists
Individual languages
Language families, family branches, and geographic groupings
Constructed languages
Reconstructed proto-languages
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