Appendix:Varieties of Arabic Swadesh lists

This is a Swadesh list of Arabic languages, specifically Arabic, Najdi Arabic, Gulf Arabic, North Levantine Arabic, Iraqi Arabic, North Mesopotamian Arabic, Yemeni Arabic, Dhofari Arabic, Cypriot Arabic, Egyptian Arabic, Sudanese Arabic, Chadian Arabic, Tunisian Arabic, Moroccan Arabic, Hassaniya and Maltese, compared with that of English. In this case, the language of Arabic refers to Standard Arabic (MSA).


This list of words was devised by the linguist Morris Swadesh. He used it as a means of determining the closeness of any pair of languages. It is a useful list of the most common words that are essential to most languages (and may be used in learning basic communication in other languages—even multiple languages at once—since, for basic communication, vocabulary is generally more useful than a knowledge of the target language’s syntax [it is even possible to learn basic communication with no knowledge of the target language’s syntax]). For a basis to expand this list into other languages see Wiktionary:Swadesh template

For other Swadesh lists, see Appendix:Swadesh list.

Notes on choice of cognates:

Due to the unique situation of diglossia in the Arabic-speaking world, there is no written standard for any of the modern spoken varieties of Arabic (except Maltese). Due to this lack of regulation, the languages are prone to change relatively quickly in most cases. In addition to this, the line between formal vs. informal speech is blurred and more of a continuum, loanwords from the higher variety, i.e. MSA, are in and out of use depending on context, and many terms and expressions are viewed as part of the native speaker's lexicon even if they would never naturally use those terms in their everyday life.

All of this creates a difficult situation for creating accurate lists to reflect cognates in dialect families and so this approach was decided upon:

  • If a term for the cognate exists in this variety and is a commonly used "type" of the cognate in question, it is included: e.g. Dhofari "gūhara" is included because an "incisor" is a type of tooth; Iraqi "manxar" is not included because a "nostril" is not a type of nose.
  • If a synonym for a cognate is proved to be a classicism and/or borrowing from MSA and is not as common as a native/classically-derived term, it is not included: e.g. Egyptian "famm" meaning "mouth", Iraqi "θɑ̄ni" meaning "other", & Sanaani "laʔenn" meaning "because". These synonyms exist in each respective variety but they are usually associated with formal speech or set expressions and so are readily viewed as "fɑṣīħ" i.e. pure or "high" language.
  • If a term for a cognate in a special condition/situation could be described in one word if a native speaker is made to do so, then it is included: e.g. Dhofari "sargīga" meaning "large fire" vs Egyptian "ħarīˀa-gbīra" literally meaning "large" "fire".
  • The decision to include a term for a cognate is determined (1) by how common it is in the variety in question, (2) how characteristic it is for that variety, (3) and if there are any specific usages/terms particular to that variety that should be mentioned. There may be terms that exist in a variety that were not included due to this process. It is noteworthy to explain that due to the nature of Arabic, if all possible terms for cognates were included, barring foreign loanwords and pronunciation, all lists will be almost exactly the same.
  • This list compares Modern Standard Arabic with various Arabic varieties and not Classical or Quranic Arabic. This is important to note as this list is not meant to display a historical evolution from classical to dialect, but rather show a degree of diversity between Arabic varieties with their diglossic high variety beside them. Therefore, some terms which exist in Classical/Quranic Arabic that may very well exist in various varieties, were not included as these words would be considered just short of obsolete (or at the very least awkward, bookish and/or dated). Other terms have gained a specific meaning in MSA that was not necessarily there in Classical Arabic. For example, most Arabic dictionaries list حوت as a synonym for 'whale'; in Classical Arabic, it was mostly translated simply as 'fish' (albeit a large one). This is understandable as there was likely no taxonomic designation separating large fish from whales at the time, and so its definition referring strictly to a whale in almost all instances, is characteristic of the modern world, and therefore, characteristic of Modern Standard Arabic.


Notes on Romanization:

  • a, ɑ, e, i, o and u correspond respectively to [a] or [ä] or [æ], [ɑ], [ɪ] or [ɛ], [i], [ɔ] and [u].
  • â, é, ă correspond respectively to [ɒː], [e], and [ʌ]. Vowels with a breve are brought to a low-mid articulation.
  • ā, ɑ̄, ē, ī, ō and ū correspond to the aformentioned vowel sounds but with a long vowel length. [aː], [ɑː], [ɛː] or [eː], [iː], [ɔː], [uː]
  • b, d, f, h, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, y and z correspond to their phonological equivalents in English for the most part.
  • θ is used to transcribe a voiceless dental fricative. In at least one variety (i.e. Mauritanian), it can be partially voiced, resembling but still being distinct from [ð]. [θ] or [θ̬]
  • ð is used to transcribe a voiced dental fricative. [ð]
  • j is used to transcribe a voiced postalveolar affricate. [d͡ʒ]
  • g is used to transcribe a voiced velar stop. In some varieties, it is a voiced uvular stop (e.g. Sudanese). [ɡ] or [ɢ]
  • ğ corresponds to the Classical Arabic rendition of ج which is still preserved in a few varieties. It is somewhere between j and y. [ɟ] or [ɡʲ]
  • x is used to transcribe a voiceless uvular fricative. In some varieties, it is velar (e.g. Tunisian), others post-velar (e.g. Levantine), and others uvular (e.g. San'ani). [x] or [χ]
  • ġ is used to transcribe a voiced uvular fricative. In some varieties, it is velar (e.g. Tunisian), others post-velar (e.g. Levantine), and others uvular (e.g. San'ani). [ɣ] or [ʁ]
  • š is used to transcribe a voiceless postalveolar fricative. [ʃ]
  • č is used to transcribe a voiceless postalveolar affricate. [t͡ʃ]
  • ž is used to transcribe a voiced postalveolar fricative. [ʒ]
  • q is used to transcribe a voiceless uvular stop ق. [q]
  • ħ is used to transcribe a voiceless pharyngeal fricative ح. In some varieties, it is an epiglottal trill (e.g. Baghdad). [ħ] or [ʜ]
  • ʕ is used to transcribe the voiced pharyngeal fricative ع. In some varieties, it is an approximant (e.g. Cairo) while in others it is an epiglottal trill (e.g. Baghdad). [ʕ̞] or [ʕ] or [ʢ]
  • ʔ is used to transcribe a glottal stop. In some words in specific varieties, a glottal stop can be elided. [ʔ]
  • . underneath a letter indicates it is emphatic. e.g. [tˤ], [sˤ], [ðˤ], etc.
  • See Maltese alphabet for information on Maltese orthography used in this table.

In addition to the above-mentioned phonemes, most Arabic varieties have many allophonic phonemes. This list does not seek to distinguish between marginal phonemes if it does not change the meaning nor the Arabic spelling of a word. This transcription key was created to create an accurate picture of Arabic phonology as a whole in addition to still making it accessible to the average reader. Therefore, if you would like to make edits to this page, we ask that you use the transcription key/style above as to not confuse readers who may not know how to read pure IPA.

  • (do) - direct object
  • (m) - masculine
  • (f) - feminine
  • (abstract) -
  • (coarse) -
  • (pedantic) -


English Arabic (MSA) Najdi (Riyadh) Gulf (Emirati) North Levantine (Central/Beirut) Basra (Southern Iraq) Baghdadi (Central Iraq) Moslawi (Northern Iraq) Sanaani (Sana'a) Dhofari (Dhofar) Cypriot (Kormakitis) Egyptian (Delta) Sudanese (Khartoum) Chadian (Western Sudanic) Tunisian (Tunis) Moroccan (Casablanca) Moroccan (Northern pre-Hilalian) Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
1 I ʔanā ana ɑ̄na ʔɑnɑ, ʔana ʔānah ʔɑ̄nī anɑ̄ ʔane(h) ānā ana ana, dana (statements) ana ana ēne, āna anɑ, anayɑ āna āna jien
2 you
ʔanta (m), ʔant(i) ənta (m), ənti (f) entɑ (m), enti (f) entɑ (m), ente (f) atah (m), atī (f) ente (m), enti (f) ăntɑ (m), ăntē (f) ant (m), anti (f) intɑ (m), inti (f) int (m), inti (f) enta (m), enti (f) intɑ (m), inti (f) inta, inte (m), inti (f) inti ntɑ, ntayɑ (m), nti, ntiyɑ (f) ntina (ă)nta (m), (ă)ntiyya (f) int, inti
3 he huwa huww(a) (ə)hu huwwe hūh huwwɑ ōwe, -we uo howwɑ huwwā həwɑ́ huwwa huwwɑ, hūwɑ huwa
4 we naħnu, ʔinnā əħna, (ħ)ənnā neħen nɑħnɑ̄ aḥnh eħne niħnɑ̄ əħnə(h) naħana naxni eħna (n)eħna ʔanīna (a)ħənā ħnɑ, ħnayɑ ħna (n)ăħna (m), (n)ăħnāti (f) aħna
5 you
ʔantum (m), ʔantunna (f) əntum (m), ənten (f) entu (m), enten (f) ʔento antm (m), antn (f) entu (m), enten (f) ăntim anto intū (m), intēn (f) intu entu intu intu(m) ntūma ntumɑ ntūma (ă)ntūmɑ (m), ntūmāti (f) intom
6 they hum (m), hunna (f) humm (m), hənn (f) (ə)hum (m), (ə)hen (f) hennē hamh (m), hanh (f) huṃṃɑ (m), heṇṇ (f) hăyyəm, imme hom (m), hen (f) hum (m), hēn (f) innen homma hum (m), hun (f, rare) human (m/f), hinna (f, rare) hūma humɑ hūma hūṃɑ (m), hūmāti (f) huma
7 this hāðā (m), hāðihī (f) (hā)ða (m), (hā)ði (f) hɑ̄ða (m), hɑ̄ði (f) haydɑ (m), hayde (f) hʾāḏh (m), hʾāīh (f) hɑ̄ðɑ (m), hīātā (f) hāðā (m), hāðī (f) ð̣ɑyyɑ̄h (m), tayyih (f) hāðī aða (m), aðī (f) da(h) (m), di(h) (f) da (m), de(h) (f) dā (m), dī (f) hāða (m), hāði (f) hada (m), hadi (f) hāda (m), hādi (f) (hā)ðɑ (m), (hā)ði (f) dan (m), din (f)
8 that ðālika (m), tilka (f), tīka (f) (ha)ðāk (m), (ha)ðīk (f) haðɑ̄k (m), hāðīč (f) haydīk (m), hīdēk (f) hḏʾākh (m), hḏīčh (f) ðɑ̄kɑ (m), ðíeče (f) hăðēk (m), hăðīk (f) ð̣ɑyyik (m), tayyik (f) hāðāk (m), hāðīk (f) áðak (m), áðik (f) dawwat (m), dayyat (f), (variants) dawwan, dawwak, dawwa, etc. dāk (m), dēk (f) dāk (m), dīk (f) hāðāka (m), hāðīka (f) hadak, dak (m), hadik, dik (f) hadāk (m), hadīk (f) ðāk, ðowk-huwwa (m), ðīk, ðēk-hiyyɑ (f) dak (m), dik (f)
9 here hunā fiðā, həna əhni hown ~ hōn hnʾāh əhnɑ̄na, əhnɑ̄ hūnī, hăwn hāna hinnī ɑwnɑ, annaxula hena; aho, henaho(wwat) (m), ahe, henahe(yyat) (f) hina hine hūnī, hnē hnɑ, hnayɑ hna hūn, hūnāti(yya) hawn
10 there hunāka, θamma fiðāk, hənāk əhnɑ̄k honīk ġʾād ġɑ̄d ġādi hānāk hinnāk ɑwnké, axulla henāk, yahō (more yonder) hināk hināk ġādī təmmɑ tamma vamm, vammāti(yyɑ), lhēh, howk (yonder) hemm(hekk)
11 who man mən men mīn īʾāhū manū mənu man mīn men mīn minu yātu škūn škun škūn mən (verbal phrases), mǝnhu (nominal phrases) min
12 what mā, māða (before verbs), (bi) ʔayyi šayʔin (lit. (with) what thing) weš(u) (w)ēš, šū, šenu šu, ʔēš šinī šen(h)u, šə- ăšū meh, ʔayš, ʔayy (more which) ēš ʔē(h) šinu, ʔē(h) šunu, yātu (more who) šnuwwa (m), šneyya (f), šnūma (p) aš, ašnu šnu, šenni š(ə)- (verbs), -āš (prep., phrase-finally), šənhu (nominal phrases) x', x'inhu, (għal)xiex
13 where ʔayna wein wēn weyn ~ wēn wīn wíen wǎyṣɑb, wĭn (w)ayn fēn, ħēn ayn fēn wēn wēn wīn, fīn fin fīn mneyn, weyn fejn
14 when matā meta meta ēmtɑ līmt šwaket ăšwaqet (f)ayyəħīn, mata mta miten emta mitēn mata waqtāš, waqtē fuqaš, imta fuqtāš eynta meta
15 how kayfa keif ~ t͡sēf, (we)šlōn čēf kīf šwn šlōn ăšōn kayf kē(f) kif, aššikl ezzāy kēf(in), izzāy (ki)kēf kīfāš, kīfē ki, kifaš kifāš bism il-ħīla kif
16 not laysa (m), laysat (f), mā, lā (imperfect/verbs), lam (perfect/verbs), lan (future/verbs) mū(b), ma (verbs), la (imper.) mu, mōb, ma (verbs), lā (imper.) meš, mu, mɑ (verbs) maū mū, mɑ (verbs), lɑ̄ (imper.) māš, ma...š (verbs), lɑ̄ (imper.), ġayr (adjectives) mā, lōb, lɑ̄ (imper.) la, má-, máy meš (occasionally used as a modal verb), moš, ma...š (verbs) ma, muš (only adjectives) mūš (frequently used as a modal verb), ma...š (verbs, some adjectives and nouns) maši, ma...š (verbs) ma...šay , ma...ši mā, lā (imper.), māhu (nominal phrases) mhux, ma...x (verbs)
17 all kull(a/i), kāmil, jamīʕ(u) kell(e), jəmīʕ kell(e) kell kal kull kill, kāməl kull, ğāmiʕ(iyyih) kull kull koll(e) kull kulla (l)kul kul, geʕ kāmlin kāməl, kāmlīn kull
18 many kaθīr wājid, kəθīr wɑ̄yed ktīr hūʾāīh (ə)hwɑ̄ya ksīġ xɑyrɑ̄t, ziyādih wāgid, kiθīr, hazbīt xtīr ketīr katīr katīr barša bəzzaf bazzaf yāsər ħafna
19 some bɑʕḍ, kam min baʕð̣, t͡sam ~ čam, xaṭw bɑʕð̣ bɑʕɑḍ, šweyy šawyah šwayyɑ, bɑʕɑð̣ băʕð̣, šwăyyi zɑ̄rɑt, bɑʕð̣ baʕð xayč š(e)wayya, kemmeyya bɑʕd š(w)iyya šwayya, baˁð̣ ši, šwiyyɑ ši ši xi


English Arabic (MSA) Najdi (KSA/Riyadh) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (Southern Iraq/Baghdad) Moslawi (Northern Iraq) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian (Lower Egyptian) Sudanese Chadian (Western Sudanic) Tunisian Moroccan (Casablanca) Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
20 few qɑlīl (min) gəlīl, šwayya, ṭirf gelīl, šwayya ʔɑlīl, šwayy, natfe, əntūfe/nattūfe (diminutive) čam, šwayyɑ, qɑlīl šwiyyōni, pərčōni galīl, šwayyih šwī, bɑðɑʕ, qɑlīl fitté, šfé ʔolayyel galīl, šwiyya š(w)iyya, baˀed šwayya qlil, ši šweyy, gleyyǝl ftit
21 other ʔāxɑr, ġɑyr θāni, ġēr θɑ̄ni, xlɑ̄f tēne, ġēr lux, llāx əllāx šī, θāni, ġayr θānī axar tāni tāni lʔāxar lēxɑr axəṛ ăwxər ieħor
22 one wāħid(un) (m), wāħida(tun) (f) wāħid (m), weħde (f) wɑ̄ħed (m), weħde (f) wɑ̄ħɑd (m), wɑħde (f) wɑħed (m), weħde (f) wīħəd (m), wiħdi (f) wāħid (m), wāħidih (f) wāħad (m), wāħada (f) (v)exen (m), (v)exte (f) wāħed (m), waħda (f) wɑ̄ħed (m), weħde (f) wāhid (m), wahde (f) wāħid (m), wēħda (f) waħed (m), weħdɑ (f), weħdin (p) wāħid (m), waħda (f) wieħed (m), waħda (f), waħdiet (p)
23 two ʔiθnān(i) (m), ʔiθnatān (f); (oblique case) ʔiθnayn(i) (m), ʔiθnatayn(i) (f) əθnēn (m), θəntíen (f) θnēn (m), θəntēn (f) tⁿeyn ~ tⁿēn (m/f), tintēn (f) θníen (m), θəntíen (f) θnīn (m), θintīen (f) (ʔi)θnayn (m), θintayn (f) θnēn (m), θantēn (f) xnayn etnēn etnēn tinēn (m), tittēn (f) zūz, θnīn žuž, tnin (only for >10) iθ̬nayn (m), θ̬intayn (f) tnejn, żewġ (construct form)
24 three θalāθa(tun) θalāθ(a) θalɑ̄θa tlāte ~ t͡ɬāte, klāte tlɑ̄θa ~ t͡ɬɑ̄θa θāθi θalāθah θalāθa tlaθe talāta talɑ̄tɑ talāta θlāθa tlatɑ (ə)θ̬lāθ̬a tlieta
25 four ʔarbaʕa(tun) ʔarbaʕ(a) ʔɑrbɑʕa ʔɑrbʕɑ ɑrbʕɑ ūbaʕ ʔɑrbɑʕɑh arbaʕa árpăʕa ɑrbɑʕɑ ɑrbɑʕɑ arba (ʔă)rbʕā ṛəbʕa ărbʕa erbgħa
26 five xamsa(tun) xams(a) xamsɑ xɑmse xuṃsɑ xăms(ă)i xamsih xumsa xampse xamsa xamsɑ xamsa xamsa xəmsɑ xămsa ħamsa
27 big kabīr t͡səbīr ~ kəbīr č(e)bīr, ʕōd, k(a)bīr kbīr čebíeṛ kbīġ kabīr kibīr kpīr kebīr kabīr kabīr kbīr kbir əkbīr kbir
28 long ṭɑwīl ṭuwīl ṭɑwīl ṭɑwīl ṭɑwíel ṭăwīl ṭɑwīl ṭɑwīl tvīl twīl ṭɑwīel tɑwīl twīl ṭwil əṭwīl twil
29 wide wāsiʕ, raħīb, ʕɑrīḍ (more broad) wāseʕ, ʕarīð̣ wɑ̄seʕ, ʕarīð̣ ʕɑrīḍ, wēseʕ ʕɑṛīð̣, wɑ̄seʕ rāhi, wēsiʕ fsaħ, wāsiʕ wāseʕ, ʕɑrīð fsīʕi wāseʕ wɑ̄sɑʕ wasī wāseʕ waseʕ wāsəʕ wiesa'
30 thick ġɑlīð̣, θaxīn (more for materials), samīk (more stout) matíen metīn smīk, ətxīn θəxīn, mčabben θăxīn matīn, ġazīr matīn, ġlīð̣ ʕɑpi texīn tɑxīn samīn xšīn, ġlīð̣ ġliḍ ġlīð̣, qlīð̣ (also 'religious') oħxon
31 heavy θaqīl θagīl θagīl tʔīl θegīl θăqīl θagīl, jawr, razīn (more wise) θiqīl, ħarīr θkīl teʔīl tɑgīl tɑgīl θqīl tqil əθ̬gīl tqil
32 small ṣɑġīr ṣuġēr ~ ṣəġīr zɑġīr, ṣɑġīr ṣġīr ~ zġīr zġɑyyeṛ ɘṣġɑyyəġ zɑġīr, zuġayri ṣɑġīr zěʕīr soġɑnnɑn, soġɑyyɑr, soġɑntūt (more young) suġɑyyɑr saxayyar ṣġīr ṣġiṛ sqīr, sqayyǝr, sġīr, sġayyǝr żgħir, ċkejken
33 short qɑṣīr gəṣīr gaṣīr ʔsīr gṣɑyyeṛ qăṣiyyəġ gaṣīr qaṣʕūr, qaṣīr, kašīħ xmīn ʔosɑyyɑr guṣɑyyɑr gisɑyyɑr qṣīr qṣiṛ gṣayyǝr qasir
34 narrow ḍɑyyiq ð̣əyyid͡z ~ ð̣əyyig, ṣəxīf ṣexīf, ð̣ɑyyig dayyiʔ geṣīf, ð̣ɑyyig ð̣ɑyyiq ð̣ɑyyig, ħawīṣ ð̣iyyaq dayyeʔ, medayyaʔ (more tight) dɑyyig dayyig ð̣iyyiq ḍiyyəq ð̣eyyig dejjaq
35 thin rɑqīq, rafīʕ, naħīf (more fine) dəgīg, ð̣əʕīf (more weak) dejīj, ð̣ʕīf (more weak) mɑmṣūʕ, nɑħīf, rʔīʔ mɑṣwi, refīʕ ġăqīq naħīf, rafīʕ ħaṭīṭ, gašūf mǎʕaer, θkīk rofɑyyɑʕ, neħīf rigeyyig, naħīf bɑ̄til žwayyid, ð̣ʕīf nħif, rqiq rgīg, rgeyyǝg rqiq
36 woman imrɑʔa, al-mɑrʔa (the woman) ħŭrma, mɑre(h) ħurma mɑrɑ mɑrɑ, mrayya mɑġɑ, mɑġiyyi mɑrih, ħurma, maklaf mɑrɑ mɑrɑ sett, wleyya (coarse) mɑrɑ, zōlɑ (more female person) mara mra mṛɑ mṛɑ mara
37 man
(adult male)
rɑjul rajjāl rayyɑ̄l režžāl, zɑlɑme (inf) rejjɑ̄l ġijīl rağğāl riggīl, riggāl intsán rɑ̄gel zōl, rɑ̄ğil rajul, rājil rāžil ṛāžəl aragāž, rɑ̄žəl raġel
38 man
(human being)
ʔinsān, nafɑr, šɑxṣ (more person), bašɑr (humankind), nafs (more self), ʔibn ʔādam (literally Son of Adam) šaxes, ʔādmi, bašar, ʔensān ʔɑ̄dmi, nafs, ʔensɑ̄n, ʔeben ʔɑ̄dam šaxṣ, bɑšɑr, ʔensān, bənēdɑm (uncommon) ʔɑ̄dmi, bašɑr, ʔensɑ̄n, banyɑ̄dam ʔādmi, ənsān, bɑšɑr bašar, ʔādami, ʔinsān ādami, hūdār intsán baniʔādam, ʔensān, nɑfɑr (more person), šɑxṣ (more individual) zōl, nɑfɑr, ʔinsɑ̄n nādum ʕabəd, šɑxṣ, insān (ʔi)nsan, bnadem, rqaba, bɑšɑr aragāž, mnādǝm bniedem, uman
39 child
(a youth)
ṭifl (also infant), walad walad, bazer, ʕayyel yɑ̄hel, bazer, ʕayyel wɑlɑd, ṭefel (more infant) jɑ̄hel ʕijī, wɑlɑd ğāhil gāhal morós, vilt ʕayyel, ṭefl (more infant) šāfiʕ, ğanna, ṭefl (more infant) wlēd ṭful, fazġūl darri īššīr, ṭfeyl tifel


English Arabic (MSA) Najdi (KSA/Riyadh) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (Southern Iraq/Baghdad) Moslawi (Northern Iraq) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian (Lower Egyptian) Sudanese Chadian (Western Sudanic) Tunisian Moroccan (Casablanca) Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
40 wife zawja, imrɑʔa (more woman), ħurma (more unit of harem) ħurma, ħermet-, mʕazzeba(h) mɑṛɑ, murt-, ħuṛma mɑrɑ, mɑrt-, zowži, ħormi (chiefly Muslim) mɑrɑ, mɑrt-, ʔahal ð̣iġɑ, mɑġɑ marih, zawğa, ṭɑbīnah (second wife), ð̣urrɑh (second wife) zōga mprɑt- merɑ̄t-, zōga mɑrɑ, zōğa mara, mart- mra, mart- mṛɑt- ʕyāl, mūlāt il-xayma, maṛt- mara
41 husband baʕl, zawj, rɑjul (more man) rɑ̄jil rɑjel, rəyl- žowz ~ žōz rɑjel, zōj zăwj zawğ zōg žɑwz, intsán gōz zōj, rɑ̄ğil rājil rāžil ṛɑžəl mūlā l-xayma, ṛāžǝl- żewġ, raġel
42 mother ʔumm umm ʔuṃṃ ʔemm (ə)ṃṃ, ʔuṃṃ ʔimm ʔumm umm umm mɑmt-, omm umm ʔum um ṃṃʷ-, umm uṃṃ, wālda omm
43 father ʔabb, ʔabā- ʔubō-, ʔabb ʔubū-, ʔɑbb bey- abū-, abb ăbō-, ˀabb ʔabb, ʔabū- ōb yapát- bɑbɑ̄-, abū-, ʔɑbb abū- ʔabba, ʔabu- bū- bu-, ḅḅʷɑ bu, wālǝd missier
44 animal ħaywān, dābba (beasts of burden), bahīma (beast) ħayawān ħayawɑ̄n, sɑ̄nya (beasts of burden) ħɑywān, dābbi ħaywɑ̄n ħăywān ħayawān, dābbih našara, ħēwān xeván ħayawān bahīma, ħayawɑ̄n (also pejorative), waħš (wild animal) hayawān ħayawān ħəywan ħăywān, baxnūs (wild animal) annimal, bhima
45 fish samaka, ħūt (any large fish, more whale), ṣɑyd (catch of fish) samakah smičɑ semke semča sămăki samakih, ṣɑyd, ħūtih (also whale) samaka, ṣēd, bābṭīni (small) samaka samaka hūt ħūta ħutɑ ħūt ħuta
46 bird ṭɑ̄ʔir, ʕaṣfūrɑ (sparrow) ʕaṣfūr (usu. small), ṭēṛ (zool.) ṭēr ṭɑyr, ʔɑṣfūr (usu. small) ṭēṛ, ʕaṣfūr (small only) ṭɑyġ ṭɑ̄yir ðʕār ʕɑsfūrɑ, ṭēr (zool., archaic) ṭēr, ʕasfūr (usu. small), zarzūr (small) tɑyrɑ̄y ˁaṣfūr bəṛṭɑl ṭăyr għasfur
47 dog kalb t͡salb ~ kalb čalb kalb čaleb kalib kalb kelb kilp, kyopek kalb kalib, garzan (hunting), šalag (non-hunting, lap-dog) kelib kalb kəlb kălb kelb
48 louse qamla gamlah gamla ʔamle gamḷa qămli deðrī, gummalih šnīt kample ʔamlāya gamla, ṣɑwɑ̄bɑ gemel qamla qəmlɑ dămla qamla
49 snake ħayya, θuʕbān (any serpent), ħanaš (viper, adder), ʔafʕa (poisonous) dābb, ħayyeh (poisonous) dāb, ħanaš (poisonous) ħayyi ħayya, ħyɑ̄yɑ, ṣeḷḷ (small), ʕerbīd (large) ħăyyi ħanaš ħanīš, ṣell (small) ʕɑfɑ teʕbān θuʕbɑ̄n, dɑbīb dābi, debīb ħnaš ħənš, lfʕa ħnaš, ṣăffɑ̄r (venomous) serp, lifgħa
50 worm dūda dūdah dūd dūdi, sūsi salbūħ, dūd ăġdɑ dūdah, wagzih, taʕālih, ħūt (more fish, whale) dūd tut (silkworm) dūda dūdɑ dūda dūda duda dūd dudu, ħanex (earthworm)
51 tree šajarɑ šejarɑ(h) šyɑṛɑ sižre šajarɑ, šejrɑ (more squash, bush, shrub) sijăġɑ šeğarih šagara ðentra šɑgɑrɑ šeğɑrɑ šɑdɑrɑ̄y šužra, sužra šəžṛa ṣadṛɑ̄ya siġra
52 forest ġāba, ħirš (more thicket) ġɑ̄bɑ ġɑ̄ba ħerš, ġābe ġɑ̄ba ġāba ġābah ġāba ġɑ̄bɑ (bakān) šeder ketīr fī ġāba ġaba ġābe, ʕŭgda (also thicket) foresta, masġar
53 stick
(of wood)
ʕaṣɑ̄, ʕūd (also piece of wood), ħaṭɑb (piece of firewood) ʕɑṣɑ, məd͡zlāb ~ mɘglāb ʕūd, ʕačwɑ ʕɑṣɑ̄(ye) ʕūda, ħɑṭbɑ (also firewood), līṭɑ (thin) ʕɑṣɑ̄yi, ʕŭdi ʕuṣyah, ʕūdih (also root) ʕōd, qubb, marqūṣ (large), bākūra (small) ʕɑssɑ ʕɑṣɑ̄yɑ ʕɑṣɑ hatab, ʔasāya ʕṣā qṭib, ʕṣɑ dəbbūs bastun, għasluġ, ħatar
54 fruit fākiha, fawākih (plural), θamarɑ fɑ̄kihɑ fɑ̄k(e)ha, mīwɑ fwāki mēwɑ, fɑ̄kehɑ fākihi, mīwi fākiha famara fekye (more dried fruit) fakha sɑmɑr, fɑ̄kha yalda, ʔiyāl (p) ġalla dessiġ, ġəllɑ, fakyɑ ləħdaž, θ̬ămra frott
55 seed zarʕ, ħabba, biðra, bizr ʕajmah bɑdɑr, bazir bezr bazra, bɑðrɑ, ħabba baziġ, ħăbb, ʕəjo (more pit) ħabbih, baðarih biðara pizr bezr, taʔāwi tirɑ̄b, tɑgɑ̄wi, bazr (pedantic) tērāb, bizre zurrīʕa zərriʕa, ʕḍəm (more pit) žǝgrāž żerriegħa
56 leaf waraqɑ waragah wruga, xōṣ (palm) wɑrʔɑ warga waġăqɑ waragih ħūṣɑ fíllo, varka waraʔet šɑgɑr waraga waršāl, warga warqa wəṛqɑ waṛga werqa
57 root jaðr, ʕirq (also artery) jaðer ʕirj, jaðer šerš ʕereg jăðiġ, ʕiriq ğiðr, ʕūdih (also stick) giðar gedr ğazr, ʕerg ʔirig ʕirq ždər, loħ ʕǐrg għerq
58 bark
(of tree)
liħāʔ, qilf jedeʕ, ħaṭɑb (more wood) ħeṭɑb (more wood), yedeʕ (more branch) ʔešri gešer qišiġ gišrih qišara gedʕ(a) gišrɑ, girf girf qišra qəšṛa gušra qoxra
59 flower zahrɑ, ward (rose) zahrah zahra zɑhrɑ wared, warda wăġdāyi zahrah zɑhɑrɑ, warada vɑrté warda zahra, nɑwwɑ̄r nuwār nawwāra nuwwɑ́ṛɑ nəwwɑ̄r fjura, nawra


English Arabic (MSA) Najdi (KSA/Riyadh) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (Southern Iraq/Baghdad) Moslawi (Northern Iraq) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian (Lower Egyptian) Sudanese Chadian (Western Sudanic) Tunisian Moroccan (Casablanca) Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
60 grass ʕušb, ħašīš (also Cannabis) ʕešb, nīda, rabīʕ (first grass in spring) ʕešeb, ħašīš, rɑbīʕ (more spring) ħašīš, ʕošb θayyel, ʕešeb (more pasture) ħăšīš ħašīš, ʕušb ħašīš, kutīl (common type) šxéx, tšeˁīr negīla gašš, umɑṣɑ̄biʕa (desert grass), tarba (water grass), najīla (water grass) geš ħšīš rbiʕ rbīʕa, ɑlɑmūz (more straw) ħaxix
61 rope ħabl ħabel ħabel ħabl ħabel ħabil salabih, ħabl bāra, ħbāl xɑpl ħabl ħabl habil ħbal ṭwɑl, ħbəl, kurdɑ (thin) ħbăl ħabel
62 skin
(of a person)
jild, bašarɑ (more complexion) jeld yeld, bašara (more complexion) bašara, želd (usually leather) jeled jilid ğild, bašarih (more complexion) gild geld ğeld jild, farwa žilda žəld žəll ġilda
63 meat
(as in flesh)
laħm laħam laħam lɑħm laħam laħim šerkih, laħm laħam láxm laħma laħm leham lħam lħam lħăm laħam
64 blood damm damm damm damm damm dămm dam damm timm damm damm damm dam dam dămm demm
65 bone ʕɑð̣m ʕeðəm ʕɑð̣ṃ(ɑ) ʕɑḍmi ʕɑð̣uṃ, čaʕab (also bottom, end; more for animals) ʕăð̣im ʕuð̣mih ʕɑð̣im ʕɑḍm(ɑ) ʕɑḍm ʔadem ʕð̣am ʕḍem ʕð̣ăm għadma
66 fat
samn, dahn, šaħm (also grease) dehen, šaħm dehen, šaħam šaħm, dahn dasam, šaħam šəħim šaħm, duhn qaṭmīm, mašaħ toxn šaħm, dehn, laħma bēḍɑ dihn, šaħm dihin, samen šħam šħem šħam xaħam, simna
67 egg bayḍɑ bíeð̣ah bēð̣a bɑyḍɑ bíeð̣ɑ bĭð̣a bayð̣ɑh bēð̣a peð bēḍɑ bēḍɑ bēda ʕað̣ma biḍɑ bayð̣ɑ bajda
68 horn qɑrn garn ~ d͡zarn gɑrn ʔɑrn geren qăġin garn qaran ʔɑrn gɑrn gurn garn qərn găṛn qarn
69 tail ðanab, ðayl ðanab ðēl daneb ðíel ðĭl sublih, ðayl ðēl tumpye dēl danab danab baʕbūṣ šwwal, zɑnṭiṭ sbīb, nəwwāša, āgilāl (horses) denb
70 feather
(rather not down)
rīša rīšah rīša rīše rīša ġīšāyi rīšah rīša rīša rīš rīša, sūf rīša riša rīša rixa
71 hair šaʕr šaʕar šaʕar šɑʕer šaʕar sɑʕeġ ṣūf, šaʕr šaʕar šaxvé, šaʕar (pubic) šɑʕr šɑʕr šaʔur šʕɑr šəʕrɑ zġab, zqab, šăʕra (pubic) xagħar
72 head rɑʔs ṛɑ̄s ṛɑ̄s rɑ̄s rɑ̄s, ṣmɑ̄x (somewhat coarse) ġɑ̄ṣ rɑʔs, rɑ̄s rās mox demāġ, rɑ̄s (more top of the head), nafūx (coarse) rɑ̄s ras rās rɑs ṛɑ̄ṣ, ṛɑ̄s ras
73 ear ʔuðun ʔeðen ʔeðen deyne, edn ʔīðɑ̄n, ʔeðen əðin ʔeðn, ʔuðn ðin iðn wedn ɑdɑ̄n uden wðin wdən ūðŭn widna
74 eye ʕayn ʕēn ʕēn ʕɑyn ʕēn ʕĭen ʕayn ʕēn ʕɑyn ʕēn ʕayn ʔēn ʕīn ʕin ʕăyn għajn
75 nose ʔanf xašim xašem manxɑr xašem xăšim nuxrih xušum mɑxúr maraxīr nɑxrɑ muxer xšam, mnēxer (abstract, coarse) nif xnāvĭr mnieħer
76 mouth famm θemm, ħalg, famm būz, θamm, ħalj (coarse) temm ħaleg θimm lugf, fumm θōm xank boʔʔ, ħanak (animals, coarse) xašm xašem žalġa, fum fumm ṿumm ħalq, fomm
77 tooth
(rather not molar)
sinna, ḍirs (molar) ð̣irs, sinn (not molars, pedantic) ð̣ers, senn (not molars, pedantic) senn senn sin, čāġōši (more molar) ð̣irs (most teeth, molars), sĕnnih (incisor) ðars, gūhara (incisors), mɑṭɑ̄ħɑn (molar) sinn senna senn senn sinna dərsɑ, sɘnnɑ (not molars, pedantic) sănn (incisor), ḍars (molar) sinna
78 tongue lisān lsān lesɑ̄n lsān əlsɑ̄n əlsūn lisān lisān san lesān lisɑ̄n lisān lsān lsan lsān lsien
79 fingernail ð̣ifr, ð̣ufr ð̣əfer ð̣ufer defr ʔeð̣fer ʔəð̣feġ ʔuð̣fur, ð̣ufr ð̣ɑ̄fūr ðufr dɑ̄fer, dofr ḍufur dufr ð̣far ḍfər ð̣fər difer


English Arabic (MSA) Najdi (KSA/Riyadh) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (Southern Iraq/Baghdad) Moslawi (Northern Iraq) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian (Lower Egyptian) Sudanese Chadian (Western Sudanic) Tunisian Moroccan (Casablanca) Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
80 foot qɑdam, rijl rijil jadam, rīl ežr rejel ġijil gadam, riğl qadam, kaff ižr regl kurɑ̄ʕ, reğl kurā, rijl sāq ržəl krāʕ, ržǝl sieq
81 leg sāq, rijl (more foot) rijil rīl, krɑ̄ʕ (esp. animals) ežr, režl rejel, krɑ̄ʕ (animals), pɑ̄yɑ (objects) ṣāq riğl, sāg sāq, rigl ižr regl kurɑ̄ʕ, reğl kurā, sag ržil ržəl ṣāg (lower), gāyma (upper), krāʕ (foot or the whole limb) riġel
82 knee rukba rikbah ričba, rukba rekbe rukbɑ ġəkbay rukbih rikba rokba rukba rukba rukba rukbɑ rŭkba rkoppa
83 hand yadd kaff, īd, yəd īd, yed ʔīd īd īd yad yadd it ʔīd yad, ʔīd- id yid yədd eyd id
84 wing janāħ janāħ janāħ žēneħ əjnɑ̄ħ əjnâħ ğanāħ genāħ ğɑnɑ̄ħ jenāh žnāħ žənħ žnāħ ġewnaħ
85 belly bɑṭɑn, miʕda (medical) bɑṭn karš, bɑṭen bɑṭn, meʕde bɑṭeṇ bɑṭin, kiriš bɑṭn, karš (more guts) bɑṭɑn, qɑrš pɑtn bɑṭn, meʕda bɑṭn, karš beten kirš meʕda, bṭen, kərš kirš (belly), žŏwf (stomach) żaqq
86 guts ʔamʕāʔ, ʔaħšāʔ, muṣrɑ̄n, mɑṣɑ̄rīn (plural) məṣrɑ̄n muṣrɑ̄n mɑṣɑrīn mṣɑ̄rīn, menbɑ̄ṛ (animals) măṣīġīn mɑṣɑ̄rīn, karš mɑ̄ṣūr psarín ħaša, mɑsɑrīn ʔamʕɑ̄ʔ, mɑṣɑrīn (more animals) musurān bzīz, mṣārīn məṣrɑn mṣɑ̄rīn msaren
87 neck ʕanq, raqaba ʕelba rguba rɑʔbe rugbɑ, ʕuneg ġăqqabi ragabih, rugbih raqba, ħalq raġbé raʔaba ragaba regaba raqbā, krūmā (more nape) ʕənq ragba għonq
88 back ð̣ahar, qufā ð̣ɑhɑr ð̣ɑher dɑhr, ʔɑfɑ (more nape) ð̣ɑhɑr, guf̣ɑ (abstract) ð̣ɑheġ gafā, ð̣ɑhr (more abstract) ð̣ɑhɑr ðɑxr dɑhr ḍɑhr dahr ð̣hɑr ḍhər, llur ð̣hər, gfa, llūrɑ (more behind) dahar
89 breast θadiy, nahad, ṣidr (more chest) nəhad, ṣɑdur (also chest) dēd, ṣɑder (also chest) ṣedr (also chest), bezz (coarse) dēs, θedɑ (more udder) ṣɑdeġ ð̣ɑrrih, ṣɑdr (more abstract), bizz (more udder) θawīd, dīdaʕ (lactating) ʔɑpp, pizz, suðr (more chest) bezz, nehd (usu. young women), sedr (more chest) ṣɑdr, nahad (young woman), šɑṭur (older woman) dēd bazzūla bəzzulɑ băzzūla sider, żejża
90 heart qɑlb, fuʔād (also liver; poetic) gaḷb gaḷb ʔalb gaḷuḅ, (ə)f̣f̣ɑ̄d, del (abstract) ffɑ̄d, qălib galb qɑlb (human), gōf (animal) kɑlp ʔalb galb gelb qalb qəlb gălb qalb
91 liver kabad, fuʔād (also heart; poetic) t͡sab(ə)d ~ kab(ə)d čab(ə)d kebed kabed, meʕlāg (more food) kabad, mĕʕlāq lăħmɑġ kabid kibda kaspé kebd, kebda (more food) kibdɑ kebd kibda kəbdɑ kăbda fwied
92 to drink šariba šereb šereb šereb šerab šiġib širib šrāb širep šereb šereb šereb šrab šrəb šrəb xorob
93 to eat ʔakala akal kal ʔɑkɑl īākūl ʔăkal (ʔa)kal kil kel kal ʔakal akel klā kla kāl (pr. tense yowkǝl) kiel
94 to bite ʕɑḍḍɑ ʕɑð̣ð̣ ʕɑð̣ð̣ ʕɑḍḍ ʕɑð̣ð̣ ʕăð̣ð̣ gaħaṣ, lɑgɑṣ (more from animals) ʕɑð̣ð̣ ʕɑðð ʕɑdd, ˀɑtɑm (more bite off) ʕɑḍḍ, lɑgɑm ʔadd gdim gdəm, ʕəḍḍ ʕăð̣ð̣ gidem
95 to suck mɑṣṣ, rɑḍiʕa (more suckle) mɑṣṣ mɑṣṣ mɑṣṣ, mɑʔʔ mɑṣmɑṣ, mɑṣṣ mɑṣ mɑṣmɑṣ, mɑṣṣ rð̣āʕ ðirʕé, mɑss mɑṣṣ mɑṣṣ mass, radī (more suckle) rð̣aʕ məṣṣ măṣṣ, rð̣aʕ (suckle) seff, reda'
96 to spit baṣɑqa tefal, bezag bɑzɑʔ tefal, taffal tafal dafal, bazag (for qat) bzāq pizek taff bazag bazaġ bzaq bzəq tfəl, dvǝl, băẓẓag (noisily) beżaq
97 to vomit qɑ̄ʔɑ, taqayyaʔa, istafrɑġa zɑ̄ʕ nɑṭɑʔ, ražʕɑ zɑwwɑʕ, tqɑyyɑ ˀəstənfăʕ, zɑwwɑʕ, tqɑyyɑ ṭɑrɑš, gað̣ɑf radd, zɑʕ ražžʕé, staffʕé raggaʕ, ṭɑrreš (coarse) gidif, istɑfrɑġ dafag rad gəll, rədd, ruwwəʕ gðǝf, rŭdd qala'
98 to blow
(as wind)
tanassama, habba, nafaxɑ habb, nufax nefax, haff ṭeleʕ, nɑfɑx habb, nufax nafax nafax nafax nafax nafax, nassem (breeze) nɑfɑx, habb nafax nfax ṣɑṭ nvăx nefaħ
99 to breathe tanaffasa, tanassama nafas, tnaffas tnaffas tnɑffɑs tnaffas tnăffas, jăġ năfăs tnaffas nīsam, tnaffas etnaffes tenaffas tenaffas tnaffis tnəffəs, ṭəllaʕ nnəfəs tnăffas ħa n-nifs


English Arabic (MSA) Najdi (KSA/Riyadh) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (Southern Iraq/Baghdad) Moslawi (Northern Iraq) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian (Lower Egyptian) Sudanese Chadian (Western Sudanic) Tunisian Moroccan (Casablanca) Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
100 to laugh ḍɑħika ð̣aħt͡s ~ ð̣aħak ð̣eħač ḍɑħɑk ð̣eħak, kɑrkɑr (noisily) ð̣iħik ð̣iħik, tikaʕkaʕ (nosily) ð̣ħāk, kɑrkɑr taxak daħak (also smile), karkaʕ (burst out laughing) daħik dehek ð̣ħak ḍħak, kakɑ ð̣ħăk daħaq, daħak
101 to see rɑʔā, bɑṣirɑ šāf čɑ̄f šāf šɑ̄f ġišiʕ ʔibsɑr šāf, ħāli kišʕé, ra šāf nɑẓɑr, šɑ̄f šāf šāf, rā šaf šāv, ṛāʕi v- ra
102 to hear samiʕa samiʕ semaʕ sɑmɑʕ semaʕ simiʕ simiʕ smāʕ simʕé semeʕ semeʕ semī smaʕ sməʕ smăʕ sema'
103 to know
(a fact)
darɑ (facts), ʕalima (aware), ʕarifa (people) dara (facts), xabar (aware), ʕarif (people) derɑ (facts), ʕerɑf (people, skills) ʕaref ~ ʕeref, deri (aware) derɑ (facts), šeʕɑr (events, aware; also feel), ʕerɑf (people, skills, events) ʕiġif deri (facts), ħafɑð̣ (languages, skills; also memorize, guard), ʕirif, ʕilim (people, events, facts) dirā (facts), ʕrɑ̄f (people) ʕiref ʕeref xeber (aware), ʕirif ʔaref ʕraf ʕrəf ʕrɑf jaf
104 to think ħasiba, ʔiʕtaqɑda (more suppose), fakkara, ð̣ɑnna (suppose) feker, haga (opinion), ð̣ɑnn (more presume) fakkir, ð̣ɑnn (more presume) fakker, ʕtɑʔɑd (more consider) ʕteqɑd (also presume), fakker, ṣufan, tfɑṭṭan (more recall), ð̣ɑnn (more presume) fakkar fakkar, ð̣ɑnn (more presume) gaʕan, fakkar, qatt (more presume) ftaen-, enómiza- fɑkkɑr, ẓɑnn (more presume) iftɑkɑr, ẓɑnn (more presume) dɑnn, feker xamməm, fakkir nuɑ, xəmməm, fbal- txămməm, stăʕql ħaseb
105 to smell
(sense odor)
šamma šamm šamm šamm š(t)amm š(t)amm š(t)amm šamm šamm šamm šamm, kɑrɑf šemm šam šamm šəmm xamm
106 to fear xāfa, rihaba, fazaʕa xɑ̄f, ðall (show fear) xɑ̄f xāf xɑ̄f, rtehab xɑ̄f xɑ̄f fizaʕ, ftaðar fizʕé xāf xɑ̄f xāf xāf xaf xāv beża'
107 to sleep nāma, raqɑda nām ragad, nɑ̄m nām nɑ̄m nɑ̄m ragad nām nam nām nɑ̄m reged, nām rqad nʕas rgǝd raqad
108 to live ʕāša, ħiya (come to life), sakana (reside) ʕāš ʕāš ʕāš ʕɑ̄š ʕɑ̄š ʕāš, ʕammir, sakan (more reside) ʕāš, bāt ʕaš ʕāš ʕɑ̄š ʔāš ʕāš ħyɑ, ʕaš ʕāš, ħya (survive) għex
109 to die māta māt mɑ̄t māt mɑ̄t mɑ̄t mɑ̄t māt, fhāṭ mat māt mɑ̄t māt māt mat māt, twăffa, rtħam miet
110 to kill qɑtala, ðabaħa (sacrificial kill) ketal, ðebaħ getal, ðebaħ, mawwat ʔɑtɑl ketal, qerɑð̣ qătal gatal qtāl maet ʔatal, mawwet katal katal qtal qtal ktǝl qatel
111 to fight ħāriba, qɑ̄tala tahāwɑš, ħɑ̄rab hɑ̄wɑš, ħɑ̄rab xēniʔ tḅɑ̄ṣaṭ, tmɑ̄lax, tʕɑ̄rek tqɑ̄tal lābağ, tgātal qɑ̄ṭaʕ, tqɑ̄tel starrˁé, ðarep etʕārek, etxāneˀ (more quarrel) ħārab, xānag dāwas, jāhad (more struggle) tʕārik ddabəz ddāyǝg, tʕārək iġġieled
112 to hunt
ṣɑ̄da, qinɑṣ (snipe) ganɑṣ, ṣɑyyəd genɑṣ ṣṭɑ̄ḍ ṣɑ̄d ṣɑ̄d gɑnɑṣ ṣɑ̄d esṭɑ̄d isṭɑ̄ḍ (with arms), ginɑṣ (with dogs) sɑ̄d, ganas ʔisṭād ṣiyyəd ṣɑyyɑd, drăs ('go' hunting) ikkaċċja
113 to hit ḍɑraba ṭɑgg, ðɑrɑb ṭɑgg, ðerɑb dɑrɑb ðurɑb, buṣɑṭ (also beat up), lečam, haff (quickly) ðăġăb labağ ð̣ɑrɑb takk dɑrɑb, xɑbɑt ṣɑ̄b, ḍɑrɑb degg, katal (more kill) ð̣rab ḍrəb xbaṭ, băṭṭ (beat up) laqat, darab, ta daqqa
114 to cut qɑṭaʕa (more cut off), qɑṣṣ (more clip) gɑṭaʕ geṭaʕ ʔɑṣṣ gaṣṣ qɑṣṣ gaṣṣ, falag (wood) qɑṣṣ, šxāṭ katʕā ʔɑtɑʕ gɑṭɑʕ gatā qaṣ qṭəʕ gṭăʕ qata'
115 to split qasama, šaqqa šeṭɑb, gassam gesam šaʔʔ fajj, felaq qaṣṣam, făššăq, fɑṣăl falaʕ, bakkaʕ šṭɑ̄r šakk šaʔʔ, ʔassem šagg, felax gesem, šagg šaqq qṣem, fəlləħ fgăs qasam
116 to stab
(or stick)
ṭɑʕana ṭɑʕən ṭeʕan dɑrɑb-sekkīn, ṭɑʕɑn ṭeʕan ṭɑʕan ṭɑʕɑn ṭɑʕɑn ṭɑʕɑn taʔan dġar tʕaz dăgg nifed, daqq b'sikkina
117 to scratch
(an itch)
xadaša, xamaša, ħakka (more scrape) ħakk ħačč, xammaš xadaš jelax, xarmaš ħăkk, xadaš ħakk, baxaš šarxam xakk xarbeš, hɑrɑš (only for itches) ħakk, xarmaš (coarse) naxaš xabbiš, ħakk xəbbəš, sərr xmŭš ħakk
118 to dig ħafarɑ ħafɑr ħefɑr ħɑfɑr ħufɑr, nebaš ħăfăġ ħafɑr ħfɑ̄r xiver ħɑfɑr ħɑfɑr hafer ħfar ħfer žhăr ħaffer
119 to swim sabaħa, ʕām (also float) sebeħ ʕām sebeħ sebaħ, fɑ̄j sibiħ sabaħ, ʕām (more float) sbāħ, ʕām tăʕássel, kalimpa ʕām ʕām ʔarrad fi l-alme ʕām ʕam ʕām għam


English Arabic (MSA) Najdi (KSA/Riyadh) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (Southern Iraq/Baghdad) Moslawi (Northern Iraq) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian (Lower Egyptian) Sudanese Chadian (Western Sudanic) Tunisian Moroccan (Casablanca) Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
120 to fly ṭɑ̄ra ṭār ṭɑ̄r ṭɑ̄r ṭɑ̄r ṭɑġ ṭɑ̄r ṭār ṭɑ̄r ṭɑ̄r tār tɑ̄r ṭɑr ṭɑ̄r tar
121 to walk mašā meša mešɑ, ṣɑ̄r meši jɑ̄ pyɑ̄da, meša (more leave, move), geħaf məši xeṭi mšā, tmaxṭar miše(k) xadha maši, meši (more leave) maša sār, maša (more go) mšā ṣɑr, tməššɑ (more take a walk) twāṭa, gowṭaṛ mexa
122 to come ʔatā, jāʔa ja ežɑ ʔjɑ̄ ğēʔ ža ge(h) ğa žā ža ža ġie
123 to lie
(as on one's side)
istalqɑ̄, raqɑda, tamaddada (recline), atkaʔa (recline, lean) ənjedeʕ nṭerɑħ tṣɑṭṭɑħ, tlaʔʔaħ njeṭɑl, nbuṭɑħ (more sprawl) tmaddăd mtadd, tké mtadd, tkā nnaym etmadded, etsɑlṭɑħ rɑgɑd, inbɑṭɑħ reged, takka (also lean) tmad tmədd, təkkɑ (more lean) tkɑ, tmadda mtedd
124 to sit jalasa, qaʕada gaʕad yelas, geʕad ʔɑʕɑd geʕad nĕbĕṡ, bəčex (coarse) gambar, ğalas glās, stawqaʕ kaʕa aʕad gaʕad, kannab gaʔad qʕad gləs gʕăd qagħad (bilqiegħda), poġġa (bilqiegħda)
125 to stand qɑ̄ma, waqɑfa wagf, gām wugaf, fazz wɑʔɑf wugaf wiqif sannab, wigif wqāf ekef weʔef wagaf wigif wqif wqəf ūgəv qagħad bilwieqfa
126 to turn
(change direction)
dārɑ, ʔanāba dɑ̄r laff berem, dɑ̄r ʕekaf, (n)dɑ̄r ndɑ̄ġ ʕɑṣɑr, dawwɑr, laff liff tɑr laff dawwɑr, itlafat kanjar dār dɑr sădd, glăb dar
127 to fall
(as in drop)
saqɑta, waqɑʕa ṭɑ̄ħ ṭɑ̄ħ, wugaʕ wɑʔɑʕ, ʔɑšɑṭ wugaʕ šăqləb nikiʕ, nɑṭɑl, ṭɑ̄ħ ṭɑ̄ħ, sqɑ̄ṭ vɑkʕɑ weʔeʕ wagaʕ wagā, daffag ṭāħ ṭɑħ ṭɑ̄ħ waqa'
128 to give ʔaʕṭɑ̄ ʕəṭɑ ʕeṭɑ ʕɑṭɑ̄ neṭɑ ʕăṭɑ̄ ʔidda ʕṭɑ̄ edda adda ʔanta ʕṭā ʕṭɑ, (m)əddɑ ʕṭɑ ta
129 to hold
(in one's hand)
ʔaxaða, masika gabɑð̣, mesak jawwad, lezam kamaš lezam misik šibiħ, lazam masak, qbāð̣ (more catch) pisék mesek misik karab šad rfəd krǝd, ħkam żamm, ħa (more to take)
130 to squeeze ʕaṣɑrɑ, ḍɑġaṭɑ (compress) ʕeṣɑr ʕɑṣɑr, šadd ʕeṣɑr, jeʕaṣ ʕăṣăġ falħaṣ, ð̣ɑġɑṭ palas, ˁiser ʕɑṣɑr ʕɑṣɑr hakk ʕṣar ʕṣɑr ʕṣər għafas, rass, għasar
131 to rub ħaffa, faraka, dalaka (more massage), ħakka (more scrape) ħakkak ʕerak, ferak fɑrɑk furɑk, delak ħăkk, făġăk farak ʕrāk, dukk xaff, maˁak daʕak, farak ʕɑṣṣɑr farak, hakk (more squeeze) ħak frək ħăkk, ʕrăk għorok
132 to wash ġasala ġasəl ġesal ġassel ġesal ġasal ġasal ġsāl ʕássel ġasal ġassal xasal ġsal ġsal ġsǝl, qsǝl, ṣgǝl ħasel
133 to wipe maħā, masaħa mašš mɑsɑħ mesaħ, mašš misiħ (ə)mħi massex masaħ masaħ gašš msaħ msəħ, zuwwəl (with cloth) zăyyɑf (with cloth), msăħ (also rub out) mesaħ
134 to pull jarra, saħaba, jabaða (more draw i.e. a weapon) jarr, saħab tall, seħab sadd, saħab jaṛṛ šəħšăṭ šadd sadd, saħab žarr šadd ğɑrr, šadd jarr žbid žbad ănṭăr ġibed
135 to push dafaʕa dazz defaʕ dafaš defaʕ, darfaʕ, deʕač dăfăʕ dahaf kadaš, zafar tafaš zaʔʔ dɑfɑr, lezz lazza, gamma daz dfəʕ, dərr rvaʕ, ʕžǝn, dăkmɑr imbotta, deffes
136 to throw ramā, ʔalqɑ̄ ħaðaf, ṭɑšš (more throw away) ðabb, ħeðaf šalaħ, zatt, kabb (more throw away) šemɑr, ðabb (also throw away) ħəšăl, ṭerr, zett ramā, ðabal, rāğam (more for stones) ramā, ʕqār, lwāħ šalax, rma (more throw away) ħedef, rama (more throw away) ğadaʕ, rama rama, xatt (more throw in) šayyaʕ, lwaħ laħ, siyyəb lāħ, zrăg (more throw away) tefa', xeħet, rema (to throw away)
137 to tie rɑbɑṭɑ rabṭ ribɑṭ, šebač rɑbɑt ʕegad, šadd rəbɑṭ, ʕăqăd rɑbɑṭ, šadd rawaṭ, ħzām rɑpɑt rɑbɑṭ ṛɑbɑṭ rebet, šadd rbɑṭ rbɑṭ, ʕqɑd ħzǝm, ʕgad rabat
138 to sew qɑṭɑba, xɑ̄ṭa xɑ̄ṭ šall, xɑ̄ṭ xɑyyet xɑyyɑṭ xăyyiṭ xɑyyɑṭ, šall xēṭ šall xɑyyɑṭ xɑyyɑṭ xayyat xɑyyiṭ xəyyəṭ šəll, xăyyɑṭ (more make clothes) ħiet
139 to count ʕadda, ħasiba (more think), ʔaħṣɑ̄ (compute) ʕadd, ħasab ʕadd, ħeṣɑ ʕadd ħesab, ʕadd (more reckon) ħasab, ʕădd ʕadd, ħasab ħsāb ʕadd ʕadd ʕadd, ħasab hasab ħsib ħsəb ħsǝb, ʕədd għadd


English Arabic (MSA) Najdi (KSA/Riyadh) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (Southern Iraq/Baghdad) Moslawi (Northern Iraq) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian (Lower Egyptian) Sudanese Chadian (Western Sudanic) Tunisian Moroccan (Casablanca) Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
140 to say qɑ̄la gāl gāl ʔēl gɑ̄l qɑ̄l gāl qāl kal ʔāl gɑ̄l gāl qāl gal, duɑ gāl qal
141 to sing ġanna, našada (sing praise) ġanna qanna ~ ġanna ġanna ġanna ġannɑ ġanna, šadɑ, našad ġinnā ʕanna ġanna ġanna xanna ġannā ġənnɑ ġănna, škur (also praise) għanna, kanta
142 to play laʕiba leʕeb leʕab leʕeb leʕab liʕib liʕib lʕāb, zarr leʕep leʕeb laʕab leʔeb lʕab lʕab nzǝl, lʕǝb lagħab
143 to float ṭɑfā, ʕām (also swim) ṭɑ̄f, ʕām fēš ṭufɑ, sɑyyɑs (moving) ṭăfā ʕām ʕām ʕām ʕām ʔām, ʔarrad fi rās l-alme ʕām ʕam ʕām għam fil-wiċċ, żamm fil-wiċċ
144 to flow sāla, jarɑ̄ jərɑ, sāl jerɑ, sāl žɑrɑ̄, sēl sāħ, jerɑ jăġā ğɑrɑ, sāl (ə)šʕi geri ğara jara žrā sal, nəbbaʕ sāl ġera
145 to freeze ajlada, jammada, θallaja jemad, θallaj, fɑrraz sɑʔɑʕ, žallad jemad, θelaj jimid θallağ, ğimid, farrɑz fɑrrɑz, talleg ğamad, fɑrrɑz jamad žmid žməd, ttəlləž glaṣ, žmăd għaqad, inġazza, iffriża
146 to swell intafaxa, warima ntefax warem gabgab, wurɑm wiġim šabağ, ntefax ntafax virem werem, taffax wirim, innafax nnafax tinfax ttənfəx ntfax, ūrăm ntefaħ
147 sun šams šams šams šams šames šamis šams šims šimps šams šams šams, harrāya samš, šams šəmš šams xemx
148 moon qɑmɑr gumɑr ~ gemar gumɑr ʔɑmɑr gumɑr qămăġ gamɑr qmār kamar ʔɑmɑr gɑmɑr gamar, šahar gamra qəmr qămăṛ, gamṛa (bright enough to give light) qamar
149 star najm, kawkab (more planet) najem nī(y)ma nažme najma, najem năjmi kawkab, nağm nigma nažmé negma nağma nejma nižma nəžmɑ năžma kewkba, stilla
150 water māʔ, miyāh mā, mōya mɑ̄y mɑyy ṃɑ̄y mɑ̄y mēʔ māy, mī moe mɑyyɑ mōya, elmī alme, mōya ma ălma ilma
151 rain mɑṭɑr muṭɑr muṭɑr šeti, šitē muṭɑr mɑṭɑġ maṭɑr mɑṭɑr, raħma, rɑðɑ̄ð (heavy), naff (light) šité mɑtɑr, šeta mɑṭɑr matar, alme štā štɑ ăsħāb xita
152 river nahr šɑṭṭ nɑhɑr, sɑ̄b (small) nɑhr šɑṭṭ, nahar šɑṭṭ nahr nɑhɑ̄r, sāqiya (more brook) paθpun nɑhr baħr, gēf bahar, batah (temporary/small river) wād wad bħɑr (also sea), năhăr xmara
153 lake buħayra, birka (more pond), ġadīr (more pool) birka, ġadīr (more pond) berča (also pond) bħeyrɑ buħayṛɑ bŭħăyṛɑ ġadīr (more pond), buħayreh gābiya (also trough, pond) ʕɑyn-purke berka, boħēra mōya, berka bahar sabxa ḍayɑ bħayrɑ għadira
154 sea
(as in ocean)
yamm, baħr baħar baħar bɑħr bɑħɑr bɑħiġ baħr baħr, ðarbe (stormy), kazzī (rough), qɑlħɑ (calm, flat) paxr bɑħr baħr (elmāliħ) bahar el māleh bħar bħɑr bħɑr baħar
155 salt milħ melħ melħ malħ meleħ miliħ milħ milħ milx malħ milħ melh milħ məlħ məlħ melħ
156 stone ħajɑrɑ, ṣɑxɑr ħajɑr, ṣəḷbūx (more pebble), rð̣umah ħiyɑr ħɑžrɑ ħjɑ̄ṛa, ṣaḷbūx (more pebbe), ṣɑxrɑ ħăjɑġ ħiğɑ̄rɑh, miğʕār, ṣɑxr dilf, ħagāra xažra ṭūbɑ, ħɑgɑrɑ ħɑğɑr hajarāy ħɑžrɑ ħəžra, kurd ħăžra ġebla, ħaġra
157 sand raml ṛɑməl ṛɑmel rɑml rɑmuḷ ġɑməl nays, rɑml bɑṭɑħ, rɑmɑl rɑmlɑ rɑmlɑ ramla rmal rəmlɑ trāb, ləħaṣ ramel
158 dust ġubɑ̄r, turɑ̄b ʕɑjɑ̄j, ġbɑ̄r ʕɑỵɑ̄y, ġbɑ̄r, ṭōz (also dust storm) ġɑbrɑ ʕɑjɑ̄j, ṭōz ṭăwz ʕağāğ, ġbɑ̄r ġubār, ṣqārīt trap ʕofɑ̄rɑ, torɑ̄b ʕağāğ, turɑ̄b, ġobār turāb, ʔojāj ġabra ġobrɑ qăbṛa, ġabṛa trab, għabra
159 earth
(as in soil)
ʔarḍ, θarɑ̄, ṭīn (more clay) ɑrð̣ ɑrð̣, ʕɑ̄fūr (also dust) trɑ̄b, ʔɑreḍ trɑ̄b, gāʕ (more ground) ṭəġāb turbah, ğirbah (unfertile), gāʕ (more ground) ṭīn, lqāʕ (more ground) ɑrt ʔɑrd, ratš (stony soil), torɑ̄b (more dust) wɑṭɑ, ɑrḍ, turɑ̄b ard, turāb ʔɑrð̣, trɑ̄b arəḍ ătrāb (also sand), ṭīn (clay) art, ħamrija


English Arabic (MSA) Najdi (KSA/Riyadh) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (Southern Iraq/Baghdad) Moslawi (Northern Iraq) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian (Lower Egyptian) Sudanese Chadian (Western Sudanic) Tunisian Moroccan (Casablanca) Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
160 cloud saħāba, ġamāma, ġɑym (more rain cloud) saħābah, ġēm (usu. rain clouds) saħāb, ġēm (usu. rain clouds) ġeyme ~ ġēma ġìema ġīm saħāb, ġamām ġēm, natal (more rain cloud) ʕayára saħāba, ġēma (usu. rain cloud) ġēm, ġamām sahābāy sħāb sħaba, ġmama (usu. rain cloud) məzna, noww (rain clouds) sħaba
161 fog ḍɑbāb ġammah, ð̣ɑbāb ṭɑḷḷ, ð̣ɑbɑ̄b ġṭayṭɑ, ḍɑbɑ̄b ð̣uḅɑ̄ḅ ð̣bāb ð̣ɑbāb, ħiğāb ġɑllēt, ð̣bāb šɑbbūrɑ, ḍɑbɑ̄bɑ ḍɑbɑ̄b xamām, dubāb ḍbāb ḍbab teleṃayt, (l)ġmām ċpar
162 sky samāʔ sema sama samɑ, žow (more weather) sema, denyɑ (more atmosphere) sama samēʔ smā sama sama, denya (more world) sama sama smā smɑ sma sema
163 wind
(as in breeze)
rīħ, hawāʔ (air) rīħ hbūb, rīħ (wind gust), šɑmɑ̄l (northerly), šɑ̄mi (from the northwest), tɑ̄res (strong) hɑwɑ hɑwɑ, nesīm (more breeze) ġīħ rīħ, hawa habu xava hawa rīħ rīh rīḥ riħ rīħ, aryāħ riħ
164 snow θalj θalj talž, žlīd θalej θalij θalğ talg telğ talj θilž təlž (dgīg) glāṣ borra
165 ice jalīd, θalj (more snow) θalj θalj talž θalej θalij, jălīd, māy jīməd θalğ falg talg, galīd telğ, ğamad jamad, alme jamad θilž təlž glāṣ silġ
166 smoke duxxān dəxxɑ̄n dexxɑ̄n doxxān duxxɑ̄n dixxān duxxān duxxān, duxxīn, ħaylūq tixxán doxxān duxxān duxxān duxxān duxxan dəxxān duħħan
167 fire nār, ħarīq (blaze) ð̣ɑẉ, nār ð̣ɑẉ (also light), ħarīja (blaze), nār nɑ̄r, ħarīʔ (blaze) ṇār, ħarīq, ħarīg (blaze) nɑ̄ġ nār, ħarīg (blaze) nār, ħarīq (blaze), sargīga (large), mahgīga, madhīra (very large) okít nɑ̄r, ħarīʔa (blaze) nɑ̄r nār nɑ̄r ʕafyɑ, ħriqɑ (blaze) nɑ̄r nar
168 ash rɑmād remɑ̄d rmɑ̄d rimēd rṃɑ̄d ġɑmɑ̄d rɑmād rīd rmat rɑmɑ̄d ṛɑmɑ̄ḍ rumād rmād rmɑḍ rmɑ̄d rmied
169 to burn
šaʕala, ħarɑqa ənħarag ħarag ħɑrɑʔ čuwɑ, ħ(t)erag, šeʕal ħaġăq ħarag, dazz ħrāq, šaħšaħ xɑrɑk ħaraʔ ħarag harag ħraq ħrəq ħrăg, ħma ħaraq
170 road ṭɑrīq, darb (more path) darəb, ṭɑrīg dareb, ṭɑrīg tɑrīʔ, darb dareb ṭrīq, daġib darb ṭɑrīq tɑrp, trīk sekka, tɑrīʔ (more way) ṭɑrīg, sikka dirib, tarīg (more way) ṭriq, kayyās ṭriq, karrətēra ṭrīg triq
171 mountain jabal jebal, ð̣ilāʕ yebal žabal jebal jabal ğabal, ṣabir ʕaqaba, gabīl žipel gabal ğabal (ras) hajar žbal žbal kǝdya muntanja, għolja
172 red ʔaħmɑr ħɑmɑṛ ħɑmɑṛ ʔɑħmɑr ʔɑħmɑr, damawi ăħmɑġ, qĕrmĕziyy ʔaħmɑr ħmār, xumrī (deep) ɑxmɑr ɑħmɑr aħmɑr ah(a)mar aħmar ħmər ăħmɑr aħmar
173 green ʔaxḍɑr xɑð̣ɑṛ xɑð̣ɑṛ ʔɑxḍɑr ʔɑxð̣ɑr ăxð̣ɑġ ʔaxð̣ɑr xðɑ̄r prásino, xoðer ɑġdɑr gɑrɑmɑ̄nī, ɑxḍɑr (dark green to dark grey) ʔaxadar axḍir xḍər ăxð̣ɑr neʕnāʕ aħdar
174 yellow ʔaṣfar ɑṣfɑr ɑṣfɑr ʔɑṣfɑr ʔɑṣfɑr ăṣfɑġ ʔaṣfɑr ħɑnṭī, ṣfɑ̄r sítrino, asfar ɑsfɑr asfɑr ʔasfar aṣfir ṣfər ăṣvɑr isfar
175 white ʔabyɑḍ ɑbyɑð̣ ɑbyɑð̣ ʔɑbyɑḍ ʔɑbyɑð̣, šakari (creamy) ăbyɑð̣ ʔabyɑð̣ byɑ̄ð̣ ápkyað ɑbyɑd ɑbyɑḍ ʔabyet abyiḍ byəḍ ăbyɑð̣ abjad
176 black ʔaswad aswad aswad, abrag (usu. for animals, black and blue) ʔɑswɑd ʔaswad, hendes (pitch black) ăswad ʔaswad swād ísvet eswed azrag, aswɑd (more pitch black) ʔazrag akħil kħɘl ăkħal iswed
177 night layla lēl lēl leyle ~ lēla lìel lĭl laylih lēl layl lēla lēla llēl līl lil leyl lejl
178 day
yawm, nahār (daytime) yōṃ yōṃ yowm ~ yōm, nhɑ̄r yōṃ nəhɑ̄ġ yawm yōm xar yōm, nɑhɑ̄r (daytime) yōm, nɑhɑ̄r (daytime) yōm nhār nhɑr ănhār jum, ġurnata, nhar (daytime)
179 year ʕām, sana sanah sana sene sana sani sanah sana, ʕām sine sana sana, ʕām, ħōl sana ʕām ʕam ʕām, sna (this year) sena


English Arabic (MSA) Najdi (KSA/Riyadh) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (Southern Iraq/Baghdad) Moslawi (Northern Iraq) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian (Lower Egyptian) Sudanese Chadian (Western Sudanic) Tunisian Moroccan (Casablanca) Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
180 warm
(as in weather)
dāfiʔ dāfi dɑ̄fi defyēn (bodies), soxn (food) ħɑ̄mi, dɑ̄fi dīfi dāfi, ħāmi (more hot) xɑrr, sxun dāfi dāfi hāmi dāfi, sxūn (more hot) dafi ħāmi, dāfi (more lukewarm) sħun
181 cold
(as in weather)
bārid bāred bɑ̄ṛed bēred bɑ̄ṛed ṣqīʕ bārid bārid, karaʕ peret sāʔeʕ bārid bārid bārid bared bārəd kiesaħ, biered
182 full malān, mumtaliʔ, kāmil mənteli matrūs, mamzūr malyān, metlēn, mʕabbē matrūs, mqɑppaṭ kāməl malyān, matrūs, kāmil mʕabbī, matrūs mplan malyān malyɑ̄n melān mʕebbi ʕamər mlān mimli
183 new jadīd jədīd yadīd ždīd jedīd jdīd ğadīd gadīd žtīt gedīd ğadīd jedīd ždīd ždid ždīd ġdid
184 old qɑdīm, ʕatīq (ancient), šayb (old age), šayx (old age), ʕajūz (unable; by ext. elderly) gədīm, šāyeb (people) qɑdīm, kabīṛ (people), ʕōd (usu. big but also old; objects & people) ʔadīm (objects), xetyɑ̄r, šeyb (people, more attributive noun), ʕatīʔ (more ancient) ʕatīg, qɑdīm, šāyeb (only people) qădīm, ʕătīq, šīb (only people) gadīm, kabīr (more big), ʕağūz (people) qɑdīm (objects), dawīl (objects, people), šēb (people, abstract), dāθir (ancient) ʕɑtīk ʔadīm (objects), ʕagūz (people) gadīm (objects), ʕaṭīg (ancient), ʕağūz (people) gedīm, šēb (people) qdīm (objects), kbīr (people) qdim, kbir (people) adras, akhal (people), kbīr (people) xiħ (people), qadim (objects), antik (objects)
185 good jayyid, ħasan, ṭɑyyib (more well) zíen zēn, xōš mnīħ, ṭɑyyɪb (more well) zíen, xōš mlīħ, xōš nāhi, kwayyis, ʕīs (very good) zēn, ħašama kaes, taep k(u)wayyes, ħelʷ (more sweet, beautiful) samiħ, kuwayyis, šadīd (more well) sēme, zēn bāhi mɘzyan, ḍrif zayn, măʕlūm tajjeb
186 bad sayyiʔ, radīʔ šēn, rədiyy šēn ʕɑ̄ṭel mu zíen, čuruk mâ mlīħ, čirik, mâ xōš šūʕ, bɑṭṭɑ̄l xɑ̄yis, bɑ̄ṭil vešex waħeš bɑṭṭɑ̄l, waħiš hawān, mā sēme xāyib, dūni xayb, qbiħ māhu zayn, šayn, rāx, mmăhli (more for people), ffɑnṭi (also noun) ħażin
187 rotten
(as a log)
fāsid, ʕafn (putrid), musawwas (decayed) xɑ̄yes, maħawħaw mɑnzūʕ, msowwes (wood) xɑ̄yes məxănbaq, xăyyiṣ xɑ̄yis, mnattin, sawwas (wood) dhent, zaham ʕefen meʕaffen maxawrɑn, ʕafen ʕafin xāmiž xaməž, msuwwəs (wood) xāmǝr, mŭxnəz immuffat, mħassar
188 dirty wasix, najas (unclean) waṣəx wesex (dirt), mižwē (unclean regardless of material) waṣix, nages, zafer wiṣix wasix, ṭeṣel ħatak, šaxal măʕaθθi wesex wasxān, wasix wasix mmassix mmʷssəx ṃṃʷassəx maħmuġ
189 straight mustaqīm, ʕala ṭūl (more straight away) ṭawwālī, bajd sīdɑ doġri ʕadel, guḅɑḷ ṭăwlāni, ʕadil sāni sīdɑ, (ʕala) ṭūl iša ʕedel, ʕɑlɑṭūl (also straight away) ʕadīl, ṭɑwwɑ̄lī ʔadīl ṭūl mʕewweṭ, nišan msaggam dritt
190 round mustadīr mdawwɑr mdawwɑr mdowwer mdawwar, mdaʕbal (ə)mdawwiġ mdawwɑr, mukawwɑr strondžilí medɑwwɑr muḍawwɑr, mudardam mudawwar, girgīt (more stout) mdawwir mḍuwwər mzăgnən tond
191 sharp
(as a knife)
ħādd ħādd ħādd ħādd ħādd ħādd ħāmi ħādd tarīn, mutarrag mɑ̄ḍi mɑḍi mṭaṛṛag, ħādd, māð̣i, mtīn (also severe) qawwi, penetranti
192 dull
(as a knife)
kalīl, muθlim aʕma mtallam, miš ħadd aʕmi məθlūm bāred, telem mayyit kalla, mayyit ħāfi ħafi dāvər, dəkăm ċatt, matt, spuntat
193 smooth ʔamlas, nāʕem ʔamlas ʔamlas nēʕem, meles nāʕem, amlas ămlas, nīʕim tāsi, rāxī (also thin) sabṭ nāʕem amlas, mārin mārin arṭib mləs, rṭəb ămlas mieles, lixx
194 wet rɑṭb, muballal mablūl, raṭub mablūl, rɑṭəb (more humid) mbɑllɑl nɑ̄geʕ, mballal (ə)mnɑqqɑʕ ɑxð̣ɑr, mablūl xð̣ɑr, rɑṭb maplúl mablūl mablūl layyen, mablūl mablūl fazəg măblūl mxarrab
195 dry
jāff, yābis yābis, nāšef ħāff, nɑ̄šef nēšef yɑ̄bis, nɑ̄šef nīšif yābis, nāšif yābis yepes nāšef yābis, nɑ̄šif yābis šāyɑħ yabəs yābəs niexef, xott
196 right
ṣɑħīħ, tamāma(n) (more completely), ṣɑ̄ˀib, mɑḍbūṭ (also exactly), ħaqqɑ(n) (also truthfully), ʕādil (also even, just(ly)) ṣəħīħ, mɑð̣būt ʕadel, ṣɑħīħ mɑẓbūt, tamēm, sɑħ(ī)ħ ṣɑ̄yeb, ṣɑħħ ṣɑħīħ ṣɑħ(ī)ħ ħaqq, ṣɑħħ ṣɑħħ, mɑẓbūt ʕadil, ṣɑħ(ī)ħ sehī, ʔadīl ṣħīħ ṣħiħ, hadak (m), hadik (f) ṣħīħ, ṣɑ̄ləħ tajjeb, sewwa
197 near qɑrīb, bi-qurb, bi-jānib (more beside) d͡zərīb, wzān (beside), ʕənd (beside) gaṛīb, dūni, yamm (more beside) ʔarīb, ħadd (more beside) qɑṛīb, yamm (more beside) qăġīb, yămm (more beside) garīb, ğamb qurb, qɑrīb žump ʔorɑyyeb (men), gamb (more beside) garīb garīb qrīb, ħðē (more beside) qrib, ħdɑ (more beside) grăyyəb, ħða (more beside) qrib, ħdejn
198 far baʕīd baʕīd baʕīd beʕīd bʕīd bʕīd biʕīd baʕūd, natara pĕʕīt beʕīd baʕīd, ġɑ̄di (very far) beʔīd bʕīd bʕid bʕīd bgħid
199 right
yamīn yəmīn yemīn yemīn ʔayman (m), yimna (f) (ɘ)ymīn yimān yamīn yemīn yamīn (ʔīdak) azzenāy līmīn əmin (l-eyd) lʕarbiyya lemin


English Arabic (MSA) Najdi (KSA/Riyadh) Gulf (Emirati) Levantine (Central/Syro-Lebanese) Iraqi (Southern Iraq/Baghdad) Moslawi (Northern Iraq) Sanaani (Sana'a/Yemeni) Dhofari (Oman) Cypriot Egyptian (Lower Egyptian) Sudanese Chadian (Western Sudanic) Tunisian Moroccan (Casablanca) Hassaniya (Mauritanian) Maltese
200 left
yasār, šimāl (also north) yesār yesɑ̄r šmēl ʔaysɑr (m), yisra (f) yăṣɑ̄ġ yɑsɑ̄r, šimāl šɑdɑf, yɑsɑ̄r zărvá šemāl šimɑ̄l (ʔīdak) alʔisrāy līsār šmal, əṣri (l-eyd) lʕaṣriyya xellug
201 at bi, ʕind, ʔilā (more towards) ʕənd ʕend ʕind, eb, bi ʕe(n)d, eb- ʕidd ʕind, fī ʕind ʕint ʕand ʕind fī (place), fōg (people) ʕand ʕənd ʕand għand, fi, sa
202 in fī, bi fī, əb- fi bi, eb, fi (fig. only) əb- əb- wɑṣṭ, fī fi fe fi fi v fi, ġo, ġewwa
203 with
maʕ, bi maʕ(ɑ̄), ʕənd- wiyya, b- mɑʕɑ, bi, wiyye (only accompanying; somewhat adverbial) wiyyɑ, eb- mɑʕɑ miʕ maʕ, bi maʕ- maʕa, be, wayya (poetic) maʕa, bi maʔa, be mʕā mʕa mʕa, bə ma', miegħ-
204 and wa w-, wɑ w-, wɑ u we, w- u, w- wa, w- wa u wo, w- wa, u wa ū u- u, w u
205 if ʔið(ā), law (conditional), ʔin (conditional) iðā, ən lo, iðɑ, (ən)čɑ̄n ʔizɑ, law, enkēn lō, eðɑ̄ ăðā lɑ̄, ʔiðɑ̄ iðā, lō, bā (conditional) an, kan law, en (conditional) in, lɑw (conditional) kān ʔīðā ilɑ ilā, lu (irrealis) jekk
206 because liʔanna, kayy, min ajali (in order that), ʕala šaʔn (as a consequence), bisababi (with that reason) le(ʔa)nn, ʕašān, lajel (in order that), bəlā- (on account of) lenn, aʕšɑ̄n, lajel (on account of, so as to) laʔinno, ʕašēn (more for), kermēl (on account of, so as to) ʕalamōd, číef ămbūr, bəjġān (more Christian) ʕa(la)sibb, min mayd (on account of) ʕašān ta, ðyotī ʕa(la)šān ʔaʕšɑ̄n fīšān ʕlā xāṭer ħit, ʕla ħqqaš (on account of), ʕla qbal (on account of) bīh(əlli) għax
207 name ʔism es(ə)m asem ʔesem esm isim ʔism ism ism esm ism, sammu ʔus(u)m ism səm, smiyyɑ ism isem

See alsoEdit

Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Amharic – Antillean Creole – Arabic:  (Standard Arabic, Cypriot, Egyptian, Moroccan, Palestinian, Tunisian) – Armenian – Aromanian – Assamese – Avar – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Bengali – Berber:  (Tashelhit) – Breton – Buginese – Bulgarian – Burmese – Burushaski – Cape Verdean – Catalan – Cebuano – Chechen – Chinese:  (Mandarin, Cantonese, Gan, Min Nan, Min Dong, Old Chinese) – Cornish – Czech – Dalmatian – Danish – Dutch  (Limburgish, Zealandic) – Egyptian – English (Old, Middle) – Elamite – Estonian – Faroese – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – Finnish – Fongbe – French  (Old French) – Frisian – Friulian – Galician – Garo – Gelao – Georgian – German – Gothic – Greek (Ancient Greek) – Guaraní – Guinea-Bissau Creole – Gujarati – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hawaiian – Hebrew – Hindi – Hittite – Hmong – Hungarian – Icelandic – Ilocano – Indonesian – Irish – Italian  (Neapolitan, Sicilian) – Japanese – Javanese – Jeju – Jizhao - Kashubian – Khmer – Konkani – Korean  (Middle Korean) – Latin (Vulgar Latin) - Latvian – Lingala – Lithuanian – Lojban – Low Saxon  (Sallaands) – Macedonian – Makasar – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Manx – Marathi  (Old Marathi) – Mauritian Creole – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian – Norwegian:  (Bokmål, Nynorsk) – Northern Kurdish – Ojibwe – Okinawan – Ossetian – Papiamento – Polish – Portuguese  (Old Portuguese) – Punjabi – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani  (Caló) - Romanian – Russian – Sanskrit – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Siberian Tatar – Slovak – Slovene – Somali – Spanish – Sranan – Sumerian – Sundanese – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tahitian – Tajik – Telugu – Temiar – Thai – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Tuvaluan – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Welsh – West Coast Bajau – Wutunhua – Yiddish – Zazaki – Zulu

Language families, family branches, and geographic groupings

Afroasiatic – Algonquian and Iroquoian – Arabic – Austroasiatic – Austronesian – Baltic – Bantu – Celtic – Chumashan and Hokan – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Finnic – Formosan – Frisian – Germanic – Hmong-Mien – Indo-Aryan:  (Middle, Early New) – Indo-Iranian – Italian – Japonic – Kra–Dai – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Pama-Nyungan – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan:  (Raji-Raute, Tibeto-Burman, Tibeto-Burman (Nepal)) – Kho-BwaKuki-Chin – Slavic – Siouan and Pawnee – South American – Tungusic – Tupian – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

Constructed auxiliary languages

Esperanto – Ido – Interlingua – Interlingue – Lingua Franca Nova – Toki Pona – Volapük

Reconstructed proto-languages

Proto-Austronesian – Proto-Balto-Slavic – Proto-Bantu – Proto-Basque – Proto-Germanic – Proto-Indo-European – Proto-Indo-Iranian – Proto-Italic – Proto-Japanese – Proto-Mayan – Proto-Slavic