Appendix:Welsh Swadesh list

This is a Swadesh list of words in Welsh, compared with that of English.


For further information, including the full final version of the list, read the Wikipedia article: Swadesh list.

American linguist Morris Swadesh believed that languages changed at measurable rates and that these could be determined even for languages without written precursors. Using vocabulary lists, he sought to understand not only change over time but also the relationships of extant languages. To be able to compare languages from different cultures, he based his lists on meanings he presumed would be available in as many cultures as possible. He then used the fraction of agreeing cognates between any two related languages to compute their divergence time by some (still debated) algorithms. Starting in 1950 with 165 meanings, his list grew to 215 in 1952, which was so expansive that many languages lacked native vocabulary for some terms. Subsequently, it was reduced to 207, and reduced much further to 100 meanings in 1955. A reformulated list was published posthumously in 1971.


No. English Welsh
1 I i
2 you (singular) ti, chi (formal)
3 he e (South Wales), o (North Wales)
4 we ni
5 you (plural) chi
6 they nhw
7 this hwn m, hon f, hyn (neuter)
8 that hwnnw m, honno f, hynny (neuter)
9 here yma
10 there yna
11 who pwy
12 what beth
13 where ble
14 when pryd
15 how sut
16 not dim
17 all holl, i gyd
18 many llawer
19 some rhai
20 few ychydig
21 other arall
22 one un
23 two dau m, dwy f
24 three tri m, tair f
25 four pedwar m, pedair f
26 five pump
27 big mawr
28 long hir
29 wide llydan
30 thick tew
31 heavy trwm
32 small bach
33 short byr m, ber f, byrion m pl or f pl
34 narrow cul
35 thin tenau
36 woman benyw f, dynes f
37 man (adult male) dyn m, gŵr m
38 man (human being) dyn m
39 child plentyn m
40 wife gwraig f
41 husband gŵr m
42 mother mam f
43 father tad m
44 animal anifail m, mil m
45 fish pysgodyn m
46 bird aderyn m
47 dog ci m
48 louse lleuen f
49 snake neidr f
50 worm abwydyn m
51 tree coeden f
52 forest fforest f
53 stick ffon f
54 fruit ffrwyth m
55 seed had m
56 leaf deilen f
57 root gwraidd m
58 bark (of a tree) rhisgl m
59 flower blodyn m
60 grass glaswellt m
61 rope rhaff f
62 skin croen m
63 meat cig m
64 blood gwaed m
65 bone asgwrn f
66 fat (noun) braster m
67 egg wy m
68 horn corn m
69 tail cynffon f
70 feather pluen f, plufyn m
71 hair gwallt m
72 head pen m
73 ear clust f
74 eye llygad f
75 nose trwyn m
76 mouth ceg f
77 tooth dant m
78 tongue (organ) tafod m
79 fingernail ewin m or f
80 foot troed m or f
81 leg coes f
82 knee glin m, pen-glin m, pen-lin m
83 hand llaw f
84 wing adain f, asgell f
85 belly bol m (North Wales), bola m (South Wales)
86 guts perfedd m pl, perfeddion m pl
87 neck gwyddf m
88 back cefn m
89 breast bron f
90 heart calon f
91 liver afu m (South Wales), iafu m (Mid Wales), iau m (North Wales)
92 to drink yfed
93 to eat bwyta
94 to bite brathu (North Wales), cnoi (South Wales)
95 to suck sugno
96 to spit poeri
97 to vomit cyfogi, chwydu
98 to blow chwythu
99 to breathe anadlu
100 to laugh chwerthin
101 to see gweld
102 to hear clywed
103 to know gwybod
104 to think meddwl
105 to smell orgleuo, >oglau
106 to fear ofni
107 to sleep cysgu
108 to live byw
109 to die marw
110 to kill lladd
111 to fight brwydro
112 to hunt hela
113 to hit taro
114 to cut torri
115 to split hollti
116 to stab gwanu, trywanu
117 to scratch crafu
118 to dig cloddio, palu
119 to swim nofio
120 to fly hedfan
121 to walk cerdded
122 to come dod
123 to lie (as in a bed) gorwedd
124 to sit eistedd
125 to stand sefyll
126 to turn (intransitive) troi
127 to fall cwympo
128 to give rhoi
129 to hold dal
130 to squeeze gwasgu
131 to rub rhwbio, rhwtio
132 to wash golchi
133 to wipe sychu
134 to pull tynnu
135 to push gwthio
136 to throw taflu
137 to tie clymu
138 to sew gwnïo
139 to count cyfrif
140 to say dweud
141 to sing canu
142 to play chwarae
143 to float nofio
144 to flow llifo
145 to freeze rhewi
146 to swell chwyddo
147 sun haul m, huan m
148 moon lleuad f, lloer f (literary)
149 star seren f
150 water dŵr m
151 rain glaw m
152 river afon f
153 lake llyn m
154 sea môr m
155 salt halen m
156 stone carreg f
157 sand tywod m
158 dust llwch m
159 earth tir m
160 cloud cwmwl m
161 fog niwl m
162 sky awyr f
163 wind awel f, gwynt m
164 snow eira m
165 ice  m, rhew m
166 smoke mwg m
167 fire tân m
168 ash lludw m
169 to burn llosgi
170 road ffordd f heol
171 mountain mynydd m
172 red coch
173 green gwyrdd
174 yellow melen f, melyn m
175 white gwen f, gwyn m
176 black du
177 night nos f
178 day dydd m
179 year blwyddyn f
180 warm cynnes
181 cold oer
182 full llawn
183 new newydd
184 old hen
185 good da
186 bad drwg
187 rotten pwdr, braen
188 dirty budr
189 straight syth
190 round crwn
191 sharp (as a knife) miniog
192 dull (as a knife) pŵl
193 smooth llyfn m, llefn f, llyfnion m pl or f pl
194 wet gwlyb
195 dry sych
196 correct cywir
197 near agos
198 far pell
199 right de
200 left chwith
201 at yn
202 in yn (definite nouns), mewn (indefinite nouns)
203 with gyda, efo (North Wales), â
204 and a
205 if os, pe (subjunctive)
206 because achos, oherwydd (formal)
207 name enw m