Appendix:Finnish Swadesh list

This is a Swadesh list of words in Finnish, compared with that of English.

PresentationEdit

The Swadesh word list, developed by the linguist w:Morris Swadesh, is used as a tool to study the evolution of languages. It contains a set of basic words which can be found in every language. Various versions have been created, in particular:

  • a complete 207 words version, in which some of the words are not found in every environment (it contains for instance snake and snow)
  • a reduced 100 words version.

This word list should not be considered as an elementary lexicon to communicate with speakers of a given language; for such a purpose, the numerous existing Wikivoyage lexicons are more useful. Its only objective is to give a rough idea of the language, by showing its lexical and, when possible, phonetics basis.

ListEdit

No. English Finnish
suomi
IPA
pronunciation
1 I minä IPA(key): /ˈminæ/, [ˈminæ]
2 you (singular) sinä IPA(key): /ˈsinæ/, [ˈs̠inæ]
3 he hän, se IPA(key): /ˈhæn/, [ˈhæn], IPA(key): /ˈse/, [ˈs̠e̞]
4 we me IPA(key): /ˈme/, [ˈme̞]
5 you (plural) te IPA(key): /ˈte/, [ˈt̪e̞]
6 they he, ne IPA(key): /ˈhe/, [ˈhe̞], IPA(key): /ˈne/, [ˈne̞]
7 this tämä IPA(key): /ˈtæmæ/, [ˈt̪æmæ]
8 that tuo, se IPA(key): /ˈtuo̯/, [ˈt̪uo̞̯], IPA(key): /ˈse/, [ˈs̠e̞]
9 here täällä IPA(key): /ˈtæːlːæ/, [ˈt̪æːlːæ]
10 there tuolla, siellä IPA(key): /ˈtuo̯lːɑ/, [ˈt̪uo̞̯lːɑ], IPA(key): /ˈsie̯lːæ/, [ˈs̠ie̞̯lːæ]
11 who kuka, joka IPA(key): /ˈkukɑ/, [ˈkukɑ], IPA(key): /ˈjokɑ/, [ˈjo̞kɑ]
12 what mikä, mitä IPA(key): /ˈmikæ/, [ˈmikæ], IPA(key): /ˈmitæ/, [ˈmit̪æ]
13 where missä IPA(key): /ˈmisːæ/, [ˈmis̠ːæ]
14 when koska, milloin, kun IPA(key): /ˈkoskɑ/, [ˈko̞s̠kɑ], IPA(key): /ˈmilːoi̯n/, [ˈmilːo̞i̯n], IPA(key): /ˈkun/, [ˈkun]
15 how kuinka IPA(key): /ˈkui̯ŋkɑ/, [ˈkui̯ŋkɑ]
16 not ei IPA(key): /ˈei̯/, [ˈe̞i̯]
17 all kaikki IPA(key): /ˈkɑi̯kːi/, [ˈkɑi̯kːi]
18 many monta, paljon IPA(key): /ˈmontɑ/, [ˈmo̞n̪t̪ɑ], IPA(key): /ˈpɑljon/, [ˈpɑljo̞n]
19 some jokin IPA(key): /ˈjokin/, [ˈjo̞kin]
20 few vähän IPA(key): /ˈʋæhæn/, [ˈʋæɦæn]
21 other muu, toinen IPA(key): /ˈmuː/, [ˈmuː], IPA(key): /ˈtoi̯nen/, [ˈt̪o̞i̯ne̞n]
22 one yksi IPA(key): /ˈyksi/, [ˈyks̠i]
23 two kaksi IPA(key): /ˈkɑksi/, [ˈkɑks̠i]
24 three kolme IPA(key): /ˈkolme/, [ˈko̞lme̞]
25 four neljä IPA(key): /ˈneljæ/, [ˈne̞ljæ]
26 five viisi IPA(key): /ˈʋiːsi/, [ˈʋiːs̠i]
27 big iso, suuri IPA(key): /ˈiso/, [ˈis̠o̞], IPA(key): /ˈsuːri/, [ˈs̠uːri]
28 long pitkä IPA(key): /ˈpitkæ/, [ˈpit̪kæ]
29 wide leveä IPA(key): /ˈleʋeæ/, [ˈle̞ʋe̞æ]
30 thick paksu IPA(key): /ˈpɑksu/, [ˈpɑks̠u]
31 heavy raskas IPA(key): /ˈrɑskɑs/, [ˈrɑs̠kɑs̠]
32 small pieni IPA(key): /ˈpie̯ni/, [ˈpie̞̯ni]
33 short lyhyt IPA(key): /ˈlyhyt/, [ˈlyɦyt̪]
34 narrow kapea IPA(key): /ˈkɑpeɑ/, [ˈkɑpe̞ɑ]
35 thin ohut IPA(key): /ˈohut/, [ˈo̞ɦut̪]
36 woman nainen IPA(key): /ˈnɑi̯nen/, [ˈnɑi̯ne̞n]
37 man (male) mies IPA(key): /ˈmie̯s/, [ˈmie̞̯s̠]
38 man (human) ihminen IPA(key): /ˈihminen/, [ˈiçmine̞n]
39 child lapsi IPA(key): /ˈlɑpsi/, [ˈlɑps̠i]
40 wife vaimo IPA(key): /ˈʋɑi̯mo/, [ˈʋɑi̯mo̞]
41 husband mies, aviomies IPA(key): /ˈmie̯s/, [ˈmie̞̯s̠], IPA(key): /ˈɑʋioˌmie̯s/, [ˈɑʋio̞ˌmie̞̯s̠]
42 mother äiti, emä (archaic) IPA(key): /ˈæi̯ti/, [ˈæi̯t̪i], IPA(key): /ˈemæ/, [ˈe̞mæ] (archaic)
43 father isä IPA(key): /ˈisæ/, [ˈis̠æ]
44 animal eläin IPA(key): /ˈelæi̯n/, [ˈe̞læi̯n]
45 fish kala IPA(key): /ˈkɑlɑ/, [ˈkɑlɑ]
46 bird lintu IPA(key): /ˈlintu/, [ˈlin̪t̪u]
47 dog koira IPA(key): /ˈkoi̯rɑ/, [ˈko̞i̯rɑ]
48 louse täi IPA(key): /ˈtæi̯/, [ˈt̪æi̯]
49 snake käärme IPA(key): /ˈkæːrmeˣ/, [ˈkæːrme̞(ʔ)]
50 worm mato IPA(key): /ˈmɑto/, [ˈmɑt̪o̞]
51 tree puu IPA(key): /ˈpuː/, [ˈpuː]
52 forest metsä IPA(key): /ˈmetsæ/, [ˈme̞ts̠æ]
53 stick keppi IPA(key): /ˈkepːi/, [ˈke̞pːi]
54 fruit hedelmä IPA(key): /ˈhedelmæ/, [ˈhe̞de̞lmæ]
55 seed siemen IPA(key): /ˈsie̯men/, [ˈs̠ie̞̯me̞n]
56 leaf lehti IPA(key): /ˈlehti/, [ˈle̞ht̪i]
57 root juuri IPA(key): /ˈjuːri/, [ˈjuːri]
58 bark (of a tree) kuori IPA(key): /ˈkuo̯ri/, [ˈkuo̞̯ri]
59 flower kukka IPA(key): /ˈkukːɑ/, [ˈkukːɑ]
60 grass ruoho IPA(key): /ˈruo̯ho/, [ˈruo̞̯ɦo̞]
61 rope köysi IPA(key): /ˈkøy̯si/, [ˈkø̞y̯s̠i]
62 skin iho, nahka IPA(key): /ˈiho/, [ˈiɦo̞], IPA(key): /ˈnɑhkɑ/, [ˈnɑxkɑ]
63 meat liha IPA(key): /ˈlihɑ/, [ˈliɦɑ]
64 blood veri IPA(key): /ˈʋeri/, [ˈʋe̞ri]
65 bone luu IPA(key): /ˈluː/, [ˈluː]
66 fat (noun) rasva IPA(key): /ˈrɑsʋɑ/, [ˈrɑs̠ʋɑ]
67 egg muna IPA(key): /ˈmunɑ/, [ˈmunɑ]
68 horn sarvi IPA(key): /ˈsɑrʋi/, [ˈs̠ɑrʋi]
69 tail häntä IPA(key): /ˈhæntæ/, [ˈhæn̪t̪æ]
70 feather sulka IPA(key): /ˈsulkɑ/, [ˈs̠ulkɑ]
71 hair karva, hius IPA(key): /ˈkɑrʋɑ/, [ˈkɑrʋɑ], IPA(key): /ˈhiu̯s/, [ˈhiu̯s̠]
72 head pää IPA(key): /ˈpæː/, [ˈpæː]
73 ear korva IPA(key): /ˈkorʋɑ/, [ˈko̞rʋɑ]
74 eye silmä IPA(key): /ˈsilmæ/, [ˈs̠ilmæ]
75 nose nenä IPA(key): /ˈnenæ/, [ˈne̞næ]
76 mouth suu IPA(key): /ˈsuː/, [ˈs̠uː]
77 tooth hammas IPA(key): /ˈhɑmːɑs/, [ˈhɑmːɑs̠]
78 tongue kieli IPA(key): /ˈkie̯li/, [ˈkie̞̯li]
79 fingernail kynsi IPA(key): /ˈkynsi/, [ˈkyns̠i]
80 foot jalka IPA(key): /ˈjɑlkɑ/, [ˈjɑlkɑ]
81 leg sääri IPA(key): /ˈsæːri/, [ˈs̠æːri]
82 knee polvi IPA(key): /ˈpolʋi/, [ˈpo̞lʋi]
83 hand käsi IPA(key): /ˈkæsi/, [ˈkæs̠i]
84 wing siipi IPA(key): /ˈsiːpi/, [ˈs̠iːpi]
85 belly maha IPA(key): /ˈmɑhɑ/, [ˈmɑɦɑ]
86 guts suolisto IPA(key): /ˈsuo̯listo/, [ˈs̠uo̞̯lis̠t̪o̞]
87 neck kaula IPA(key): /ˈkɑu̯lɑ/, [ˈkɑu̯lɑ]
88 back selkä IPA(key): /ˈselkæ/, [ˈs̠e̞lkæ]
89 breast rinta IPA(key): /ˈrintɑ/, [ˈrin̪t̪ɑ]
90 heart sydän IPA(key): /ˈsydæn/, [ˈs̠ydæn]
91 liver maksa IPA(key): /ˈmɑksɑ/, [ˈmɑks̠ɑ]
92 to drink juoda IPA(key): /ˈjuo̯dɑˣ/, [ˈjuo̞̯dɑ(ʔ)]
93 to eat syödä IPA(key): /ˈsyø̯dæˣ/, [ˈs̠yø̞̯dæ(ʔ)]
94 to bite purra IPA(key): /ˈpurːɑˣ/, [ˈpurːɑ(ʔ)]
95 to suck imeä IPA(key): /ˈimeæˣ/, [ˈime̞æ(ʔ)]
96 to spit sylkeä IPA(key): /ˈsylkeæˣ/, [ˈs̠ylke̞æ(ʔ)]
97 to vomit oksentaa IPA(key): /ˈoksentɑːˣ/, [ˈo̞ks̠e̞n̪t̪ɑː(ʔ)]
98 to blow puhaltaa IPA(key): /ˈpuhɑltɑːˣ/, [ˈpuɦɑlt̪ɑː(ʔ)]
99 to breathe hengittää IPA(key): /ˈheŋːitːæːˣ/, [ˈhe̞ŋːit̪ːæː(ʔ)]
100 to laugh nauraa IPA(key): /ˈnɑu̯rɑːˣ/, [ˈnɑu̯rɑː(ʔ)]
101 to see nähdä IPA(key): /ˈnæhdæˣ/, [ˈnæhdæ(ʔ)]
102 to hear kuulla IPA(key): /ˈkuːlːɑˣ/, [ˈkuːlːɑ(ʔ)]
103 to know tietää IPA(key): /ˈtie̯tæːˣ/, [ˈt̪ie̞̯t̪æː(ʔ)]
104 to think ajatella IPA(key): /ˈɑjɑtelːɑˣ/, [ˈɑjɑˌt̪e̞lːɑ(ʔ)]
105 to smell haistaa IPA(key): /ˈhɑi̯stɑːˣ/, [ˈhɑi̯s̠t̪ɑː(ʔ)]
106 to fear pelätä IPA(key): /ˈpelætæˣ/, [ˈpe̞læt̪æ(ʔ)]
107 to sleep nukkua IPA(key): /ˈnukːuɑˣ/, [ˈnukːuɑ(ʔ)]
108 to live elää IPA(key): /ˈelæˣæ/, [ˈe̞læʔæ]
109 to die kuolla IPA(key): /ˈkuo̯lːɑˣ/, [ˈkuo̞̯lːɑ(ʔ)]
110 to kill tappaa IPA(key): /ˈtɑpːɑːˣ/, [ˈt̪ɑpːɑː(ʔ)]
111 to fight tapella, taistella IPA(key): /ˈtɑpelːɑˣ/, [ˈt̪ɑpe̞lːɑ(ʔ)], IPA(key): /ˈtɑi̯stelːɑˣ/, [ˈt̪ɑi̯s̠t̪e̞lːɑ(ʔ)]
112 to hunt metsästää, jahdata IPA(key): /ˈmetsæstæːˣ/, [ˈme̞ts̠æs̠t̪æː(ʔ)], IPA(key): /ˈjɑhdɑtɑˣ/, [ˈjɑxdɑt̪ɑ(ʔ)]
113 to hit lyödä IPA(key): /ˈlyø̯dæˣ/, [ˈlyø̞̯dæ(ʔ)]
114 to cut leikata IPA(key): /ˈlei̯kɑtɑˣ/, [ˈle̞i̯kɑt̪ɑ(ʔ)]
115 to split halkaista IPA(key): /ˈhɑlkɑi̯stɑˣ/, [ˈhɑlkɑi̯s̠t̪ɑ(ʔ)]
116 to stab pistää IPA(key): /ˈpistæːˣ/, [ˈpis̠t̪æː(ʔ)]
117 to scratch raapia IPA(key): /ˈrɑːpiɑˣ/, [ˈrɑːpiɑ(ʔ)]
118 to dig kaivaa IPA(key): /ˈkɑi̯ʋɑːˣ/, [ˈkɑi̯ʋɑː(ʔ)]
119 to swim uida IPA(key): /ˈui̯dɑˣ/, [ˈui̯dɑ(ʔ)]
120 to fly lentää IPA(key): /ˈlentæːˣ/, [ˈle̞n̪t̪æː(ʔ)]
121 to walk kävellä IPA(key): /ˈkæʋelːæˣ/, [ˈkæʋe̞lːæ(ʔ)]
122 to come tulla IPA(key): /ˈtulːɑˣ/, [ˈt̪ulːɑ(ʔ)]
123 to lie (as in a bed) maata IPA(key): /ˈmɑːtɑˣ/, [ˈmɑːt̪ɑ(ʔ)]
124 to sit istua IPA(key): /ˈistuɑˣ/, [ˈis̠t̪uɑ(ʔ)]
125 to stand seistä IPA(key): /ˈsei̯stæˣ/, [ˈs̠e̞i̯s̠t̪æ(ʔ)]
126 to turn (intransitive) kääntyä IPA(key): /ˈkæːntyæˣ/, [ˈkæːn̪t̪yæ(ʔ)]
127 to fall pudota IPA(key): /ˈpudotɑˣ/, [ˈpudo̞t̪ɑ(ʔ)]
128 to give antaa IPA(key): /ˈɑntɑːˣ/, [ˈɑn̪t̪ɑː(ʔ)]
129 to hold pitää IPA(key): /ˈpitæːˣ/, [ˈpit̪æː(ʔ)]
130 to squeeze puristaa IPA(key): /ˈpuristɑːˣ/, [ˈpuris̠t̪ɑː(ʔ)]
131 to rub hieroa IPA(key): /ˈhie̯roɑˣ/, [ˈhie̞̯ro̞ɑ(ʔ)]
132 to wash pestä IPA(key): /ˈpestæˣ/, [ˈpe̞s̠t̪æ(ʔ)]
133 to wipe pyyhkiä IPA(key): /ˈpyːhkiæˣ/, [ˈpyːçkiæ(ʔ)]
134 to pull vetää, kiskoa IPA(key): /ˈʋetæːˣ/, [ˈʋe̞t̪æː(ʔ)], IPA(key): /ˈkiskoɑˣ/, [ˈkis̠ko̞ɑ(ʔ)]
135 to push työntää IPA(key): /ˈtyø̯ntæːˣ/, [ˈt̪yø̞̯n̪t̪æː(ʔ)]
136 to throw heittää IPA(key): /ˈhei̯tːæːˣ/, [ˈhe̞i̯t̪ːæː(ʔ)]
137 to tie sitoa IPA(key): /ˈsitoɑˣ/, [ˈs̠it̪o̞ɑ(ʔ)]
138 to sew ommella IPA(key): /ˈomːelːɑˣ/, [ˈo̞mːe̞lːɑ(ʔ)]
139 to count laskea IPA(key): /ˈlɑskeɑˣ/, [ˈlɑs̠ke̞ɑ(ʔ)]
140 to say sanoa IPA(key): /ˈsɑnoɑˣ/, [ˈs̠ɑno̞ɑ(ʔ)]
141 to sing laulaa IPA(key): /ˈlɑu̯lɑːˣ/, [ˈlɑu̯lɑː(ʔ)]
142 to play leikkiä IPA(key): /ˈlei̯kːiæˣ/, [ˈle̞i̯kːiæ(ʔ)]
143 to float kellua IPA(key): /ˈkelːuɑˣ/, [ˈke̞lːuɑ(ʔ)]
144 to flow virrata IPA(key): /ˈʋirːɑtɑˣ/, [ˈʋirːɑt̪ɑ(ʔ)]
145 to freeze jäätyä IPA(key): /ˈjæːtyæˣ/, [ˈjæːt̪yæ(ʔ)]
146 to swell paisua IPA(key): /ˈpɑi̯suɑˣ/, [ˈpɑi̯s̠uɑ(ʔ)]
147 sun aurinko, päivä (archaic) IPA(key): /ˈɑuriŋko/, [ˈɑuriŋko̞], IPA(key): /ˈpæi̯ʋæ/, [ˈpæi̯ʋæ] (archaic)
148 moon kuu IPA(key): /ˈkuː/, [ˈkuː]
149 star tähti IPA(key): /ˈtæhti/, [ˈt̪æht̪i]
150 water vesi IPA(key): /ˈʋesi/, [ˈʋe̞s̠i]
151 rain sade IPA(key): /ˈsɑdeˣ/, [ˈs̠ɑde̞(ʔ)]
152 river joki IPA(key): /ˈjoki/, [ˈjo̞ki]
153 lake järvi IPA(key): /ˈjærʋi/, [ˈjærʋi]
154 sea meri IPA(key): /ˈmeri/, [ˈme̞ri]
155 salt suola IPA(key): /ˈsuo̯lɑ/, [ˈs̠uo̞̯lɑ]
156 stone kivi IPA(key): /ˈkiʋi/, [ˈkiʋi]
157 sand hiekka IPA(key): /ˈhie̯kːɑ/, [ˈhie̞̯kːɑ]
158 dust pöly IPA(key): /ˈpøly/, [ˈpø̞ly]
159 earth maa, multa IPA(key): /ˈmɑː/, [ˈmɑː], IPA(key): /ˈmultɑ/, [ˈmult̪ɑ]
160 cloud pilvi IPA(key): /ˈpilʋi/, [ˈpilʋi]
161 fog sumu IPA(key): /ˈsumu/, [ˈs̠umu]
162 sky taivas IPA(key): /ˈtɑi̯ʋɑs/, [ˈt̪ɑi̯ʋɑs̠]
163 wind tuuli IPA(key): /ˈtuːli/, [ˈt̪uːli]
164 snow lumi IPA(key): /ˈlumi/, [ˈlumi]
165 ice jää IPA(key): /ˈjæː/, [ˈjæː]
166 smoke savu IPA(key): /ˈsɑʋu/, [ˈs̠ɑʋu]
167 fire tuli IPA(key): /ˈtuli/, [ˈt̪uli]
168 ash tuhka IPA(key): /ˈtuhkɑ/, [ˈt̪uxkɑ]
169 to burn palaa IPA(key): /ˈpɑlɑːˣ/, [ˈpɑlɑː(ʔ)]
170 road tie IPA(key): /ˈtie̯/, [ˈt̪ie̞̯]
171 mountain vuori IPA(key): /ˈʋuo̯ri/, [ˈʋuo̞̯ri]
172 red punainen IPA(key): /ˈpunɑi̯nen/, [ˈpunɑi̯ne̞n]
173 green vihreä IPA(key): /ˈʋihreæ/, [ˈʋiçre̞æ]
174 yellow keltainen IPA(key): /ˈkeltɑi̯nen/, [ˈke̞lt̪ɑi̯ne̞n]
175 white valkoinen IPA(key): /ˈʋɑlkoi̯nen/, [ˈʋɑlko̞i̯ne̞n]
176 black musta IPA(key): /ˈmustɑ/, [ˈmus̠t̪ɑ]
177 night IPA(key): /ˈyø/, [ˈyø̞]
178 day päivä IPA(key): /ˈpæi̯ʋæ/, [ˈpæi̯ʋæ]
179 year vuosi IPA(key): /ˈʋuo̯si/, [ˈʋuo̞̯s̠i]
180 warm lämmin IPA(key): /ˈlæmːin/, [ˈlæmːin]
181 cold kylmä IPA(key): /ˈkylmæ/, [ˈkylmæ]
182 full täysi IPA(key): /ˈtæy̯si/, [ˈt̪æy̯s̠i]
183 new uusi IPA(key): /ˈuːsi/, [ˈuːs̠i]
184 old vanha IPA(key): /ˈʋɑnhɑ/, [ˈʋɑnhɑ]
185 good hyvä IPA(key): /ˈhyʋæ/, [ˈhyʋæ]
186 bad paha, huono IPA(key): /ˈpɑhɑ/, [ˈpɑɦɑ], IPA(key): /ˈhuo̯no/, [ˈhuo̞̯no̞]
187 rotten mätä IPA(key): /ˈmætæ/, [ˈmæt̪æ]
188 dirty likainen IPA(key): /ˈlikɑi̯nen/, [ˈlikɑi̯ne̞n]
189 straight suora IPA(key): /ˈsuo̯rɑ/, [ˈs̠uo̞̯rɑ]
190 round pyöreä IPA(key): /ˈpyø̯reæ/, [ˈpyø̞̯re̞æ]
191 sharp (as a knife) terävä IPA(key): /ˈteræʋæ/, [ˈt̪e̞ræʋæ]
192 dull (as a knife) tylsä IPA(key): /ˈtylsæ/, [ˈt̪yls̠æ]
193 smooth sileä IPA(key): /ˈsileæ/, [ˈs̠ile̞æ]
194 wet märkä IPA(key): /ˈmærkæ/, [ˈmærkæ]
195 dry kuiva IPA(key): /ˈkui̯ʋɑ/, [ˈkui̯ʋɑ]
196 correct oikea IPA(key): /ˈoi̯keɑ/, [ˈo̞i̯ke̞ɑ]
197 near lähellä IPA(key): /ˈlæhelːæ/, [ˈlæɦe̞lːæ]
198 far kaukana IPA(key): /ˈkɑu̯kɑnɑ/, [ˈkɑu̯kɑnɑ]
199 right oikea IPA(key): /ˈoi̯keɑ/, [ˈo̞i̯ke̞ɑ]
200 left vasen IPA(key): /ˈʋɑsen/, [ˈʋɑs̠e̞n]
201 at -ssa, -lla IPA(key): /ˈsːɑ/, [ˈs̠ːɑ], IPA(key): /ˈlːɑ/, [ˈlːɑ]
202 in -ssa, -lla, -Vn, -lle IPA(key): /ˈsːɑ/, [ˈs̠ːɑ], IPA(key): /ˈlːɑ/, [ˈlːɑ], IPA(key): /ːn/, IPA(key): /ˈlːeˣ/, [ˈlːe̞(ʔ)]
203 with kanssa IPA(key): /ˈkɑnsːɑ/, [ˈkɑns̠ːɑ]
204 and ja IPA(key): /ˈjɑ/, [ˈjɑ]
205 if jos IPA(key): /ˈjos/, [ˈjo̞s̠]
206 because koska IPA(key): /ˈkoskɑ/, [ˈko̞s̠kɑ]
207 name nimi IPA(key): /ˈnimi/, [ˈnimi]

See alsoEdit

BibliographyEdit

  • Les langages de l'humanité (Michel Malherbe), Robert Laffont, Paris 1995 - →ISBN

Further readingEdit

Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Amharic – Antillean Creole – Arabic: (Standard Arabic,n Cypriot, Egyptian, Moroccan, Palestinian, Tunisian) – Armenian – Aromanian – Assamese – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Bengali – Berber: (Tashelhit) – Breton – Buginese – Bulgarian – Burmese – Burushaski – Cape Verdean – Catalan – Cebuano – Chechen – Chinese: (Mandarin, Cantonese, Gan, Min Nan, Min Dong, Old Chinese) – Cornish – Czech – Dalmatian – Danish – Dutch (Limburgish, Low Saxon) – Egyptian – English: (Old, Middle) – Elamite – Estonian – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – Finnish – Fongbe – French (Old French) – Frisian – Friulian – Galician – Georgian – German – Greek: (Modern Greek, Ancient Greek) – Guaraní – Guinea-Bissau Creole – Gujarati – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hebrew – Hindi – Hittite – Hmong – Hungarian – Icelandic – Ilocano – Indonesian – Irish – Italian (Neapolitan, Sicilian) – Japanese – Javanese – Jeju - Jizhao - Kashubian – Khmer – Korean – Kurdish – Latin - Latvian – Lingala – Lithuanian – Lojban – Macedonian – Makasar – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Manx – Marathi – Mauritian Creole – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian – Norwegian: (Bokmål, Nynorsk) – Ojibwe – Okinawan – Ossetian – Papiamento – Polish – Portuguese (Old Portuguese) – Punjabi – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani – Romanian – Russian – Sanskrit – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Slovak – Slovene – Somali – Spanish – Sranan – Sumerian – Sundanese – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tahitian – Tajik – Temiar – Thai – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Tuvaluan – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Welsh – West Coast Bajau – Zazaki – Zulu

Language families, family branches, and geographic groupings

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian and Iroquoian – Arabic – Austroasiatic – Austronesian – Baltic – Bantu – Celtic – Chumashan and Hokan – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Finnic – Formosan – Frisian – Germanic – Hmong-Mien – Indo-Aryan – Indo-Iranian – Italian – Japonic – Kra–Dai – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan: (Raji-Raute, Tibeto-Burman, Tibeto-Burman (Nepal)) – Kho-BwaKuki-Chin – Slavic – Siouan and Pawnee – South American – Tungusic – Tupian – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

Constructed auxiliary languages

Esperanto – Ido – Interlingua – Interlingue – Lingua Franca Nova – Toki Pona – Volapük

Reconstructed Proto languages

Proto-Austronesian – Proto-Balto-Slavic – Proto-Basque – Proto-Germanic – Proto-Indo-European – Proto-Indo-Iranian – Proto-Italic – Proto-Japanese – Proto-Slavic – Vulgar Latin