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Appendix:Modern Hebrew Swadesh list

This is a Swadesh list of words in Hebrew, compared with that of English.

IntroductionEdit

This is a Swadesh list of 207 words in English and w:Modern Hebrew. The Swadesh word list, developed by the linguist w:Morris Swadesh, is used as a tool to study the evolution of languages. It contains a set of basic words which can be found in every language. Various versions have been created, in particular:

  • a complete 207 words version, in which some of the words are not found in every environment (it contains for instance snake and snow)
  • a reduced 100 words version.

This word list should not be considered as an elementary lexicon to communicate with speakers of a given language; for such a purpose, the numerous existing Wikivoyage lexicons are more useful. Its only objective is to give a rough idea of the language, by showing its lexical and, when possible, phonetics basis.

ListEdit

No. English Hebrew
עברית, IPA(key): /ivˈʁit/
IPA
pronunciation
1 I אני IPA(key): /aˈni/
2 you (singular) אתה, את IPA(key): /aˈta/ (m), IPA(key): /ˈat/ (f)
3 he הוא IPA(key): /ˈhu/
4 we אנחנו IPA(key): /aˈnaχnu/
5 you (plural) אתם IPA(key): /aˈtɛm/
6 they הם IPA(key): /ˈhɛm/
7 this זה ,זאת, אלה IPA(key): /ˈzɛ/ (m), IPA(key): /ˈzɔt/ (f) IPA(key): /ˈɛlɛ/ (pl)
8 that הוא, היא, הם IPA(key): /ˈhu/ (m), IPA(key): /ˈhi/ (f) IPA(key): /ˈhɛm/ (pl)
9 here פה, כאן IPA(key): /ˈpɔ/, IPA(key): /ˈkan/
10 there שם IPA(key): /ˈʃam/
11 who מי IPA(key): /ˈmi/
12 what מה IPA(key): /ˈma/
13 where איפה IPA(key): /ˈɛfɔ/
14 when מתי IPA(key): /maˈtaj/
15 how איך IPA(key): /ˈɛχ/
16 not לא, אין IPA(key): /ˈlɔ/, IPA(key): /ˈɛjn/
17 all כל IPA(key): /ˈkɔl/
18 many הרבה IPA(key): /haʁˈbɛ/
19 some כמה, קצת IPA(key): /ˈkama/, IPA(key): /ˈkt͡sat/
20 few מעט IPA(key): /mɛˈʔat/
21 other אחר IPA(key): /aχˈaʁ/
22 one אחת IPA(key): /aχˈat/
23 two שתיים IPA(key): /ˈʃtajm/
24 three שלוש IPA(key): /ʃaˈlɔʃ/
25 four ארבע IPA(key): /aʁˈba/
26 five חמש IPA(key): /χaˈmɛʃ/
27 big גדול IPA(key): /ɡaˈdɔl/
28 long ארוך IPA(key): /aʁˈɔχ invalid IPA characters (/)
29 wide רחב IPA(key): /ʁaˈχav/
30 thick עבה IPA(key): /avˈɛ/
31 heavy כבד IPA(key): /kaˈvɛd/
32 small קטן IPA(key): /kaˈtan/
33 short קצר IPA(key): /kaˈt͡saʁ/
34 narrow צר IPA(key): /ˈt͡saʁ/
35 thin דק IPA(key): /ˈdak/
36 woman אישה IPA(key): /iʃˈa/
37 man (male) גבר, איש IPA(key): /ˈgɛvɛʁ/ invalid IPA characters (g), replace g with ɡ, IPA(key): /ˈiʃ/
38 man (human) אדם, בן אדם IPA(key): /aˈdam/, IPA(key): /ˈbɛn aˈdam/
39 child ילד IPA(key): /ˈjɛlɛd/
40 wife אישה IPA(key): /iʃˈa/
41 husband בעל IPA(key): /ˈbaʔal/
42 mother אם IPA(key): /ˈɛm/
43 father אב IPA(key): /ˈav/
44 animal חיה IPA(key): /χaˈja/
45 fish דג IPA(key): /ˈdag/ invalid IPA characters (g), replace g with ɡ
46 bird ציפור IPA(key): /t͡siˈpɔʁ/
47 dog כלב IPA(key): /ˈkɛlɛv/
48 louse כינה IPA(key): /kiˈna/
49 snake נחש IPA(key): /ˈnaχaʃ/
50 worm תולעת IPA(key): /tɔˈlaʔat/
51 tree עץ IPA(key): /ˈɛt͡s/
52 forest יער IPA(key): /ˈjaʔaʁ/
53 stick מקל IPA(key): /maˈkɛl/
54 fruit פרי IPA(key): /ˈpʁi/
55 seed זרע IPA(key): /ˈzɛʁa/
56 leaf עלה IPA(key): /aˈlɛ/
57 root שורש IPA(key): /ˈʃoʁɛʃ/
58 bark (of a tree) קליפה IPA(key): /kliˈpa/
59 flower פרח IPA(key): /ˈpɛʁaχ/
60 grass דשא, עשב IPA(key): /ˈdɛʃɛ/, IPA(key): /ˈɛsɛv/
61 rope חבל IPA(key): /ˈχɛvɛl/
62 skin עור IPA(key): /ˈɔʁ/
63 meat בשר IPA(key): /baˈsaʁ/
64 blood דם IPA(key): /ˈdam/
65 bone עצם IPA(key): /ˈɛt͡sɛm/
66 fat (noun) שומן IPA(key): /ʃuˈman/
67 egg ביצה IPA(key): /bɛˈt͡sa/
68 horn קרן IPA(key): /ˈkɛʁɛn/
69 tail זנב IPA(key): /zaˈnav/
70 feather נוצה IPA(key): /nɔˈt͡sa/
71 hair שערה IPA(key): /sɛʔaˈʁa/
72 head ראש IPA(key): /ˈʁɔʃ/
73 ear אוזן IPA(key): /ˈɔzɛn/
74 eye עין IPA(key): /ˈajn/
75 nose אף IPA(key): /ˈaf/
76 mouth פה IPA(key): /ˈpɛ/
77 tooth שן IPA(key): /ˈʃɛn/
78 tongue לשון IPA(key): /laˈʃɔn/
79 fingernail ציפורן IPA(key): /t͡siˈpɔʁɛn/
80 foot רגל IPA(key): /ˈʁɛɡɛl/
81 leg רגל IPA(key): /ˈʁɛɡɛl/
82 knee ברך IPA(key): /ˈbɛʁɛχ/
83 hand יד IPA(key): /ˈjad/
84 wing כנף IPA(key): /kaˈnaf/
85 belly בטן IPA(key): /ˈbɛtɛn/
86 guts מעיים IPA(key): /ˈmɛʔajm/
87 neck צוואר IPA(key): /t͡saˈvaʁ/
88 back גב IPA(key): /ˈgav/ invalid IPA characters (g), replace g with ɡ
89 breast שד IPA(key): /ˈʃad/
90 heart לב IPA(key): /ˈlɛv/
91 liver כבד IPA(key): /kaˈvɛd/
92 to drink שתה IPA(key): /ʃaˈta/
93 to eat אכל IPA(key): /aˈχal/
94 to bite נשך IPA(key): /naˈʃaχ/
95 to suck מצץ IPA(key): /maˈt͡sat͡s/
96 to spit ירק IPA(key): /jaˈʁak/
97 to vomit הקיא IPA(key): /ˈhɛˈki/
98 to blow נפח IPA(key): /naˈpaχ/
99 to breathe נשם IPA(key): /naˈʃam/
100 to laugh צחק IPA(key): /t͡saˈχak/
101 to see ראה IPA(key): /ʁaˈʔa/
102 to hear שמע IPA(key): /ʃaˈma/
103 to know ידע IPA(key): /jaˈda/
104 to think חשב IPA(key): /χaˈʃav/
105 to smell הריח IPA(key): /hɛʁˈiaχ/
106 to fear פחד IPA(key): /paˈχad/
107 to sleep ישן IPA(key): /jaˈʃan/
108 to live חי IPA(key): /ˈχaj/
109 to die מת IPA(key): /ˈmɛt/
110 to kill הרג IPA(key): /haˈʁag/ invalid IPA characters (g), replace g with ɡ
111 to fight נאבק IPA(key): /nɛʔɛˈvak/
112 to hunt צד IPA(key): /ˈt͡sad/
113 to hit הכה IPA(key): /hiˈka/
114 to cut חתך IPA(key): /χaˈtaχ/
115 to split [Term?] IPA(key): //
116 to stab דקר IPA(key): /daˈkaʁ/
117 to scratch שרט IPA(key): /saˈʁat/
118 to dig חפר IPA(key): /χaˈfaʁ/
119 to swim שחה IPA(key): /saˈχa/
120 to fly עף IPA(key): /ˈaf/
121 to walk הלך IPA(key): /haˈlaχ/
122 to come בא IPA(key): /ˈba/
123 to lie (as in a bed) שכב IPA(key): /ʃaˈχav/
124 to sit ישב IPA(key): /jaˈʃav/
125 to stand עמד IPA(key): /aˈmad/
126 to turn (intransitive) [Term?] IPA(key): //
127 to fall נפל IPA(key): /naˈfal/
128 to give נתן IPA(key): /naˈtan/
129 to hold החזיק IPA(key): /hɛχˈzik/
130 to squeeze לחץ IPA(key): /laχˈat͡s/
131 to rub שפשף IPA(key): /ˈʃifˈʃɛf/
132 to wash שטף IPA(key): /ʃaˈtaf/
133 to wipe ניגב IPA(key): /niˈgɛv/ invalid IPA characters (g), replace g with ɡ
134 to pull משך IPA(key): /maˈʃaχ/
135 to push דחף IPA(key): /daˈχaf/
136 to throw זרק IPA(key): /zaˈʁak/
137 to tie קשר IPA(key): /kaˈʃaʁ/
138 to sew תפר IPA(key): /taˈfaʁ/
139 to count ספר IPA(key): /saˈfaʁ/
140 to say אמר IPA(key): /aˈmaʁ/
141 to sing שר IPA(key): /ˈʃaʁ/
142 to play שחק IPA(key): /ʃaˈχak/
143 to float צף IPA(key): /ˈt͡saf/
144 to flow [Term?] IPA(key): //
145 to freeze קפא IPA(key): /kaˈfa/
146 to swell [Term?] IPA(key): //
147 sun שמש IPA(key): /ˈʃɛmɛʃ/
148 moon ירח IPA(key): /ˈjaˈʁɛaχ/
149 star כוכב IPA(key): /kɔˈχav/
150 water מים IPA(key): /ˈmajm/
151 rain גשם IPA(key): /ˈgɛʃɛm/ invalid IPA characters (g), replace g with ɡ
152 river נהר IPA(key): /naˈhaʁ/
153 lake אגם IPA(key): /aˈgam/ invalid IPA characters (g), replace g with ɡ
154 sea ים IPA(key): /ˈjam/
155 salt מלח IPA(key): /ˈmɛlaχ/
156 stone אבן IPA(key): /ˈɛvɛn/
157 sand חול IPA(key): /ˈχɔl invalid IPA characters (/)
158 dust אבק IPA(key): /aˈvak/
159 earth ארץ IPA(key): /ˈɛʁɛt͡s/
160 cloud ענן IPA(key): /aˈnan/
161 fog ערפל IPA(key): /aʁaˈfɛl/
162 sky שמים IPA(key): /ʃaˈmajm/
163 wind רוח IPA(key): /ˈʁuaχ/
164 snow שלג IPA(key): /ˈʃɛlɛɡ/
165 ice קרח IPA(key): /ˈkɛʁaχ/
166 smoke עשן IPA(key): /aˈʃan/
167 fire אש IPA(key): /ˈɛʃ/
168 ash אפר IPA(key): /ˈɛfɛʁ/
169 to burn שרף IPA(key): /saˈʁaf / invalid IPA characters ( )
170 road דרך IPA(key): /ˈdɛʁɛχ/
171 mountain הר IPA(key): /haʁ/
172 red אדום IPA(key): /aˈdɔm/
173 green ירוק IPA(key): /ˈjaˈʁɔk/
174 yellow צהוב IPA(key): /t͡saˈhɔv/
175 white לבן IPA(key): /laˈvan/
176 black שחור IPA(key): /ʃaˈχɔʁ/
177 night לילה IPA(key): /ˈlajla/
178 day יום IPA(key): /ˈjɔm/
179 year שנה IPA(key): /ʃaˈna/
180 warm חם IPA(key): /ˈχam/
181 cold קר IPA(key): /ˈkaʁ/
182 full מלא IPA(key): /maˈlɛ/
183 new חדש IPA(key): /χaˈdaʃ/
184 old ישן IPA(key): /jaˈʃan/
185 good טוב IPA(key): /ˈtɔv/
186 bad רע IPA(key): /ˈʁa/
187 rotten רקוב IPA(key): /ʁaˈkuv/
188 dirty מלוכלך IPA(key): /mluχˈlaχ/
189 straight ישר IPA(key): /jaˈʃaʁ/
190 round עגול IPA(key): /aˈgɔl/ invalid IPA characters (g), replace g with ɡ
191 sharp (as a knife) חד IPA(key): /ˈχad/
192 dull (as a knife) קהה IPA(key): /kɛˈhɛ/
193 smooth חלק IPA(key): /χaˈlak/
194 wet רטוב IPA(key): /ʁaˈtɔv/
195 dry יבש IPA(key): /jaˈvɛʃ/
196 correct נכון IPA(key): /naˈχɔn/
197 near קרוב IPA(key): /kaˈʁɔv/
198 far רחוק IPA(key): /ʁaˈχɔk/
199 right ימין IPA(key): /ˈjamin/
200 left שמאל IPA(key): /ˈsmɔl/
201 at ב־ IPA(key): /ˈbə-/
202 in ב־ IPA(key): /ˈbə-/
203 with עם IPA(key): /ˈim/
204 and ו־ IPA(key): /və-/
205 if אם IPA(key): /ˈim/
206 because כי, בגלל IPA(key): /ˈki/, IPA(key): /biˈglal/ invalid IPA characters (g), replace g with ɡ
207 name שם IPA(key): /ˈʃɛm/

See alsoEdit

Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Amharic – Antillean Creole – Arabic: Standard ArabicEgyptian ArabicPalestinian ArabicTunisian ArabicCypriot Arabic – Armenian – Aromanian – Assamese – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Bengali – Breton – Bukitan – Bulgarian – Burmese – Burushaski – Catalan – Chechen – Chinese: CantoneseGanMandarinMin Nan (Amoy)Min DongSichuaneseOld Chinese – Czech – Dalmatian – Danish – Dutch – Egyptian – English: OldMiddle – Esperanto – Estonian – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – FrenchOld French – Frisian (West) – Friulian – Galician – Georgian – German – Greek: Modern GreekAncient Greek – Guaraní – Gujarati – Haida – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hawaiian – Hebrew – Hindi – Hittite – Hmong (White) – Hungarian – Hunsrik – Icelandic – Ido – Ilocano – Indonesian – Interlingue – Irish – Italian – Japanese – Kashubian – Khmer – Konkani – Korean – Kurdish – LatinVulgar Latin – Latvian – Lingala – Lingua Franca Nova – Lingwa de Planeta – Lithuanian – Lojban – Luwian – Macedonian – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Marathi – Mauritian Creole – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian – Neapolitan – Nepali – Ojibwe – Ossetian – Pali – Papiamento – Polish – PortugueseOld Portuguese – Punjabi – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani – Romanian – Russian – Sanskrit – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Sicilian – Sinhalese – Slovak – Slovene – Somali – Spanish – Sranan – Sundanese – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tahitian – Tajik – Temiar – Thai – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Tuvaluan – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Welsh – Zazaki – Zulu

Reconstructed languages

Proto-Balto-Slavic – Proto-Indo-European – Proto-Indo-Iranian – Proto-Slavic

Language families, family branches, and geographic groupings

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian – Altaic – Austro-Asiatic – Australian – Austronesian – Baltic – Bantu – Celtic – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Finnic – Formosan – Frisian – Germanic – Hmong-Mien – Hokan – Indo-Aryan – Indo-Iranian – Italian – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan – Slavic – Siouan – South American – Tai–Kadai – Tibeto-Burman – Tupi–Guarani – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan