Appendix:French Swadesh list

This is a Swadesh list of words in French, compared with that of English.

PresentationEdit

For further information, including the full final version of the list, read the Wikipedia article: Swadesh list.

American linguist Morris Swadesh believed that languages changed at measurable rates and that these could be determined even for languages without written precursors. Using vocabulary lists, he sought to understand not only change over time but also the relationships of extant languages. To be able to compare languages from different cultures, he based his lists on meanings he presumed would be available in as many cultures as possible. He then used the fraction of agreeing cognates between any two related languages to compute their divergence time by some (still debated) algorithms. Starting in 1950 with 165 meanings, his list grew to 215 in 1952, which was so expansive that many languages lacked native vocabulary for some terms. Subsequently, it was reduced to 207, and reduced much further to 100 meanings in 1955. A reformulated list was published posthumously in 1971.

ListEdit

No. English French
Français
IPA
pronunciation
1 I je ʒə
2 you (singular) tu, vous (formal) ty, vu
3 he il il
4 we nous nu
5 you (plural) vous vu
6 they ils / elles il
7 this ceci sə'si invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
8 that cela sə'la invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
9 here ici i'si invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
10 there la
11 who qui ki
12 what quoi kwa
13 where u
14 when quand
15 how comment kɔ'mã invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
16 not ne pas ...
17 all tout tu
18 many beaucoup bo'ku invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
19 some quelques kɛlk
20 few peu
21 other autre otʁ
22 one un œ̃
23 two deux
24 three trois tʁwɑ
25 four quatre katʁ
26 five cinq sɛ̃k
27 big grand ɡʁã
28 long long
29 wide large laʁʒ
30 thick épais e'pɛ invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
31 heavy lourd luʁ
32 small petit pə'ti invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
33 short court kuʁ
34 narrow étroit e'tʁwa invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
35 thin mince mɛ̃s
36 woman femme fam
37 man (male) homme ɔm
38 man (human) homme ɔm
39 child enfant ɑ̃fɑ̃
40 wife femme, épouse fam, e'puz invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
41 husband mari, époux ma'ʁi invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ, e'pu invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
42 mother mère mɛʁ
43 father père pɛʁ
44 animal animal ani'mal invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
45 fish poisson pwa'sõ invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
46 bird oiseau wa'zo invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
47 dog chien ʃjɛ̃
48 louse pou pu
49 snake serpent sɛʁ'pɑ̃ invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
50 worm ver vɛʁ
51 tree arbre aʁbʁ
52 forest forêt fɔ'ʁɛ invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
53 stick bâton bɑ'tɔ̃ invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
54 fruit fruit fʁɥi
55 seed graine ɡʁɛn
56 leaf feuille fœj
57 root racine ʁa'sin invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
58 bark (of a tree) écorce e'kɔʁs invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
59 flower fleur flœʁ
60 grass herbe ɛʁb
61 rope corde kɔʁd
62 skin peau po
63 meat viande vjɑ̃d
64 blood sang sɑ̃
65 bone os ɔs
66 fat (noun) graisse ɡʁɛs
67 egg œuf œf
68 horn corne kɔʁn
69 tail queue
70 feather plume plym
71 hair cheveux ʃə'vø invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
72 head tête tɛt
73 ear oreille ɔ'ʁɛj invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
74 eye œil œj
75 nose nez ne
76 mouth bouche buʃ
77 tooth dent dɑ̃
78 tongue langue lɑ̃ɡ
79 fingernail ongle ɔ̃ɡl
80 foot pied pje
81 leg jambe ʒɑ̃b
82 knee genou ʒə'nu invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
83 hand main mɛ̃
84 wing aile ɛl
85 belly ventre vɑ̃tʁ
86 guts entrailles, intestins ɑ̃'tʁɑj invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ, ɛ̃tɛs'tɛ̃ invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
87 neck cou ku
88 back dos do
89 breast sein, poitrine pwa'tʁin invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
90 heart cœur kœʁ
91 liver foie fwɑ
92 to drink boire bwɑʁ
93 to eat manger mɑ̃'ʒe invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
94 to bite mordre mɔʁdʁ
95 to suck sucer sy'se invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
96 to spit cracher kʁa'ʃe invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
97 to vomit vomir vɔ'miʁ invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
98 to blow souffler su'fle invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
99 to breathe respirer ʁɛspi'ʁe invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
100 to laugh rire ʁiʁ
101 to see voir vwaʁ
102 to hear entendre ɑ̃'tɑ̃dʁ invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
103 to know savoir sa'vwaʁ invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
104 to think penser pɑ̃'se invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
105 to smell sentir sɑ̃'tiʁ invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
106 to fear craindre kʁɛ̃dʁ
107 to sleep dormir dɔʁ'miʁ invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
108 to live vivre vivʁ
109 to die mourir muʁiʁ
110 to kill tuer tɥe
111 to fight se battre sə'batʁ invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
112 to hunt chasser ʃa'se invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
113 to hit frapper fʁa'pe invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
114 to cut couper ku'pe invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
115 to split fendre fɑ̃dʁ
116 to stab poignarder pwaɲaʁ'de invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
117 to scratch gratter ɡʁa'te invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
118 to dig creuser kʁø'ze invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
119 to swim nager na'ʒe invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
120 to fly voler vɔ'le invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
121 to walk marcher maʁ'ʃe invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
122 to come venir və'niʁ invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
123 to lie (as in a bed) s'étendre (action), être étendu(state) sé'tɑ̃dʁ invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ, ɛtʁetɑ̃'dy invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
124 to sit s'asseoir (action), être assis (state) sa'swaʁ invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ, ɛtʁa'si invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
125 to stand se lever (action), se tenir debout (state) sələ've invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ, sətə'niʁdə'bu invalid IPA characters (), replace ' with ˈ, ' with ˈ
126 to turn (intransitive) tourner tuʁ'ne invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
127 to fall tomber tɔ̃'be invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
128 to give donner dɔ'ne invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
129 to hold tenir tə'niʁ invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
130 to squeeze serrer se'ʁe invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
131 to rub frotter fʁɔ'te invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
132 to wash laver la've invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
133 to wipe essuyer esɥi'je invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
134 to pull tirer ti'ʁe invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
135 to push pousser pu'se invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
136 to throw jeter, lancer ʒə'te invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ, lɑ̃'se invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
137 to tie lier lje
138 to sew coudre kudʁ
139 to count compter kɔ̃'te invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
140 to say dire diʁ
141 to sing chanter ʃɑ̃'te invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
142 to play jouer ʒwe
143 to float flotter flɔ'te invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
144 to flow couler ku'le invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
145 to freeze geler ʒə'le invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
146 to swell gonfler ɡɔ̃'fle invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
147 sun soleil sɔ'lɛj invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
148 moon lune lyn
149 star étoile e'twal invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
150 water eau o
151 rain pluie plɥi
152 river rivière ʁi'vjɛʁ invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
153 lake lac lak
154 sea mer mɛʁ
155 salt sel sɛl
156 stone pierre pjɛʁ
157 sand sable sabl
158 dust poussière pu'sjɛʁ invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
159 earth terre tɛʁ
160 cloud nuage nɥaʒ
161 fog brouillard bʁu'jaʁ invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
162 sky ciel sjɛl
163 wind vent vɑ̃
164 snow neige nɛʒ
165 ice glace ɡlas
166 smoke fumée fy'me invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
167 fire feu
168 ash cendre sɑ̃dʁ
169 to burn brûler bʁy'le invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
170 road route ʁut
171 mountain montagne mɔ̃'taɲ invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
172 red rouge ʁuʒ
173 green vert vɛʁ
174 yellow jaune ʒon
175 white blanc blɑ̃
176 black noir nwaʁ
177 night nuit nɥi
178 day jour ʒuʁ
179 year an, année ɑ̃, a'ne invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
180 warm chaud ʃo
181 cold froid fʁwa
182 full plein plɛ̃
183 new nouveau nu'vo invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
184 old vieux vjø
185 good bon bɔ̃
186 bad mauvais mo'vɛ invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
187 rotten pourri pu'ri invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
188 dirty sale sal
189 straight droit dʁwa
190 round rond ʁɔ̃
191 sharp (as a knife) tranchant tʁɑ̃'ʃɑ̃ invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
192 dull (as a knife) émoussé emu'se invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
193 smooth lisse lis
194 wet mouillé mu'je invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
195 dry sec sɛk
196 correct juste ʒyst
197 near près pʁɛ
198 far loin lwɛ̃
199 right droite dʁwat
200 left gauche ɡoʃ
201 at à a
202 in dans dɑ̃
203 with avec a'vɛk invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
204 and et e
205 if si si
206 because parce que paʁsə'kə invalid IPA characters ('), replace ' with ˈ
207 name nom nɔ̃
  • Orthography :

When the words have various forms (verbs conjugation, gender and number agreement, declensions), the orthography is the following :

  • verbs : infinitive
  • other words : masculine, singular, nominative (subject)

For specific cases (no infinitive, feminine name, plural name for instance), the simplest form is used.

  • Pronunciation :

The pronunciation shown is the standard pronunciation in France. Depending on the speakers and the area, the actual pronunciation may differ, more or less significantly, from the shown pronunciation.

ReferencesEdit

  • Français-Anglais/English-French Dictionary, Robert & Collins, Glasgow, Paris - ISBN 0-00-433478-7

External linksEdit

Swadesh lists
Individual languages

Afrikaans – Albanian – Antillean Creole – Arabic (standard) (p), Egyptian Arabic (p), Palestinian Arabic (p), Tunisian Arabic (t) Cypriot Maronite Arabic – Armenian (t,p) – Aromanian – Bangala – Bashkir – Basque – Belarusian – Breton – Bulgarian (t) – Burmese (t,p) – Catalan – Chechen – Chinese: Cantonese, Gan (p), Mandarin (t,p), Min Nan (Amoy) (p), Min Dong (p), Sichuanese;(t,p) – , Old Chinese (p) – Czech – Danish – Dutch (p) – Egyptian (Middle)  – Esperanto (p) – Estonian – Finnish – Fiji Hindi – Fijian – French (p) – French (old) – Frisian (West) – Friulian – Georgian (t,p) – German (p) – Greek (modern) (p), Greek (ancient) – Guaraní – Haida – Haitian Creole – Hausa – Hawaiian – Hindi (t) – Hittite – Hmong (White) (p) – Hungarian – Icelandic – Ido (p) – Indonesian – Interlingue – Irish (p) – Istro-Romanian – Italian (p) – Japanese (t) – Kashubian – Khmer (p) – Korean (t) – Kurdish – Latin – Latvian – Lingala – Lingua Franca Nova – Lithuanian – Lojban – Luwian – Macedonian (t) – Malagasy – Malay – Maltese – Megleno-Romanian – Mongolian (t) – Mycenaean Greek (t) – Old Portuguese (p) – Ossetian (p) – Polish (p) – Portuguese (p) – Proto-Balto-Slavic – Proto-Indo-European – Proto-Indo-Iranian – Proto-Slavic – Punjabi (t) – Purepecha – Quechua – Romani – Romanian – Russian (p) – Sanskrit (t) – Scottish Gaelic – Serbo-Croatian – Sinhalese – Slovenian – Spanish (p) – Sranan – Sundanese – Swahili – Swedish – Tagalog – Tajik (t) – Tahitian – Thai (t) – Tocharian B – Tok Pisin – Turkish – Ukrainian – Vietnamese – Walloon – Zulu

Language families and family branches

Afro-Asiatic – Algonquian – Altaic – Araucanian – Austro-Asiatic – Australian – Austronesian – Baltic – Baltic-Finnic – Bantu – Celtic – Dené–Yeniseian – Dravidian – Formosan – Frisian – Germanic – Hmong-Mien – Hokan – Iberian – Indo-Aryan – Indo-Iranian – Italian – Mayan – Muskogean – Niger–Congo – Oto-Manguean – Paleosiberian – Penutian – Romance – Sino-Tibetan – Slavic – Siouan – Tai–Kadai – Tibeto-Burman – Tupi–Guarani – Turkic – Uralic – Uto-Aztecan

The list may also include: (t) the transcription in Latin characters; (p) the phonetic transcription