a

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a U+0061, a
LATIN SMALL LETTER A
`
[U+0060]
Basic Latin b
[U+0062]
U+1D43, ᵃ
MODIFIER LETTER SMALL A

[U+1D42]
Phonetic Extensions
[U+1D44]
U+FF41, a
FULLWIDTH LATIN SMALL LETTER A

[U+FF40]
Halfwidth and Fullwidth Forms
[U+FF42]

Translingual

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Etymology 1

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  Modification of capital A.

Pronunciation

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  • (letter, most languages) IPA(key): /ɑː/, /a/
  • IPA:(file)

Letter

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a (upper case A)

  1. The first letter of the basic modern Latin alphabet.
    (superscript) See ª.

Symbol

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a

  1. (IPA, phonetics) an open front or central unrounded vowel.
  2. (IPA, superscript ⟨ᵃ⟩) [a]-coloring or a weak, fleeting, epenthetic or echo [a].
  3. (international standards) transliterates Indic (or equivalent).

See also

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Further reading

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Etymology 2

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Abbreviation of atto-, from Danish atten (eighteen).

Symbol

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a

  1. atto-, prefix for 10-18 in the International System of Units.

Etymology 3

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From Latin annum or annus.

Symbol

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a

  1. Year as a unit of time, specifically a Julian year or 365.25 days.

Etymology 4

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Abbreviation of are, from French are.

Symbol

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a

  1. An are, a unit of area one hundredth of a hectare; ares.

Etymology 5

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Abbreviation of English acceleration.

Symbol

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a

  1. (physics) acceleration

Etymology 6

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “from annuity?”)

Symbol

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a

  1. (actuarial notation) Annuity; (specifically) annuity-immediate.
    ax:n̅|n-year annuity-immediate to a person currently age x
    axlife annuity-immediate to a person currently age x

Other representations of A:

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English

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Etymology 1

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The letter name is from Middle English ā, from Old French, ultimately from Latin ā. Use of the Latin letter in (Old) English displaced the futhorc letter (a) beginning in the 7th century, and partially also (æ).

Pronunciation

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Letter

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a (lowercase, uppercase A, plural as or a's)

  1. The first letter of the English alphabet, written in the Latin script.
Usage notes
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Derived terms
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Numeral

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a (lower case, upper case A)

  1. The ordinal number first, derived from this letter of the English alphabet, called a and written in the Latin script.

Noun

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a (plural a's or (rare) aes)

  1. The name of the Latin script letter A / a.
    • 1816, William Young Ottley, An Inquiry Into the Origin and Early History of Engraving [], volume II, London: [...] John and Arthur Arch, [] by J. M'Creery, page 621:
      This piece somewhat resembles an a. On the left is a man seated on the ground, with a dog between his legs, and a large bird of prey in his hands, which appears to be biting his head.
    • 1842, Alfred Tennyson, “The Epic”, in Poems. [], volume II, London: Edward Moxon, [], →OCLC, page 2:
      But with some prelude of disparagement, / Read, mouthing out his hollow oes and aes, / Deep-chested music, and to this result.
    • [1906, Leigh H[adley] Irvine, “Abbreviations in General”, in The Magazine Style Code: A Manual For The Guidance Of Authors, Reporters And All Who Write, San Francisco, C.A.: Crown Publishing Company, pages 15–16:
      Letters should be spelled as follows; aes, bees, cees, dees, ees, efs, gees, aitches, ies, jays, kays, els, ems, ens, oes, pees, ques, ars, esses, tees, ues, vees, ws or dubleyuz, exes, wyes, zees.]
    • 1917, John Wesley Young, Frank Millett Morgan, Elementary Mathematical Analysis, New York, N.Y.: The Macmillan Company, page 487:
      This expression is zero, for we have replaced the column of a's by the column of b's and hence the determinant has two columns identical.
    • 1974, Ervin A. Dennis, John D. Jenkins, “A Font of Type”, in Comprehensive Graphic Arts, Indianapolis, I.N.: Howard W. Sams & Co., Inc., →ISBN, page 26, column 2:
      Note that with 18-point type, fifteen capital A's, twenty-five lowercase a's, and twelve 1's are obtained with one font. With this information, it is possible to refer to Table 10-1 which gives the number of characters for each letter, punctuation mark, or figure.
    • 1993, Frank Pagden, “Teaching”, in The Gospel According to St. Lynas, Tunbridge Wells: Mitre, →ISBN, unnumbered page:
      St Lynas was chatting with a group of rebellious young college students one day, who decried the moral standards of the past. ¶ So St Lynas drew an 'a' on some paper, and asked them what it was. ¶ 'A' they said.
    • 2013, Margaret McPhee, Mistress to the Marquis, Toronto, Ont.: Harlequin Historical, →ISBN, page 249:
      Across every sheet of paper were lines and lines of letters of the alphabet. A row of a's followed by a row of b's and so on, pages of them, like pages from a copy book, crudely formed as if from the hand of a young child.
    • 2014 February 23, Rivka Galchen, “What’s Become of the So-Called Literary Bad Boy?”, in The New York Times[3], New York, N.Y.: The New York Times Company, →ISSN, →OCLC, archived from the original on 2022-06-16:
      In the seventh grade I admired a charismatic, witty girl who had a particular way of writing her lowercase a's. After some practice, I took to writing my lowercase a's in the same fashion.
    • 2023, Amanda Stevens, Secret of Shutter Lake, Toronto, Ont.: Harlequin Intrigue, →ISBN, page 237:
      Compare Lydia's signature on some of the work orders with the warning notes. The loop through the lowercase a is similar. See what I mean?
Alternative forms
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Derived terms
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Translations
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See also
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Etymology 2

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    From Middle English a, an, from Old English ān (one; a; lone; sole). More at one. The "n" was gradually lost before consonants in almost all dialects by the 15th century. Cognate with Alemannic German a (a, an), East Franconian a (a, an).

    Pronunciation

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    Article

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    a

    1. An unspecified example of (something); the indefinite article. [from before 1150][1]
      There was a man here looking for you yesterday.
      • 1835, [Washington Irving], chapter XX, in A Tour on the Prairies (The Crayon Miscellany; no. 1), Philadelphia, Pa.: [Henry Charles] Carey, [Isaac] Lea, & Blanchard, →OCLC, page 151:
        He had another formidable difficulty in getting him across the river, where both horses stuck for a time in the mire, and Beatte was nearly unseated from his saddle by the force of the current and the struggles of his captive.
      • 1859 December 13, Charles Dickens, “The Mortals in the House”, in Charles Dickens, editor, The Haunted House. The Extra Christmas Number of All the Year Round [], volume II, London: [...] C[harles] Whiting, [], →OCLC, page 6, column 1:
        The young man thanked me, and took his leave with some little precipitation, after declining a glass of liquor.
      • 1868 January 4 – June 6, [William] Wilkie Collins, “(please specify the page) [Fourth Narrative. Extracted from the Journal of Ezra Jennings.]”, in The Moonstone. A Romance. [], volume III, London: Tinsley Brothers, [], published 1868, →OCLC, page 185:
        Speaking as a servant, I am deeply indebted to you. Speaking as a man, I consider you to be a person whose head is full of maggots, and I take up my testimony against your experiment as a delusion and a snare.
      • 1992, Rudolf M[athias] Schuster, “Preface”, in The Hepaticae and Anthocerotae of North America: East of the Hundredth Meridian, volume V, Chicago, Ill.: Field Museum of Natural History, →ISBN, page vii:
        With fresh material, taxonomic conclusions are leavened by recognition that the material examined reflects the site it occupied; a herbarium packet gives one only a small fraction of the data desirable for sound conclusions. Herbarium material does not, indeed, allow one to extrapolate safely: what you see is what you get [...]
      • 2005, Emily Kingsley (lyricist), Kevin Clash (voice actor), “A Cookie is a Sometime Food”, Sesame Street, season 36, Sesame Workshop:
        Hoots the Owl: Yes a, fruit, is a [sic], any, time, food!
      • 2016, VOA Learning English (public domain)
        Anna, do you have a pen? — Yes. I have a pen in my bag. I have a (stressed) …
        Audio (US):(file)
      • 2023 March 9, Moya Lothian-Mclean, “A nose ring, a bicycle, a Radiohead album: I’m becoming a total cliche – and I quite like it”, in Katharine Viner, editor, The Guardian[4], London: Guardian News & Media, →ISSN, →OCLC, archived from the original on 2024-05-11:
        In retrospect, I realise, I had been unconsciously devoting a large amount of energy to negative choice, a concept I'm borrowing and adapting from sociologist Eva Illouz's 2019 treatise, The End of Love (by way of a viral Paris Review essay).
      • 2024 May 21, Sarah Larson, “When the C.I.A. Turned Writers Into Operatives”, in The New Yorker[5], New York, N.Y.: Condé Nast Publications, →ISSN, →OCLC, archived from the original on 2024-05-21:
        The C.I.A. infiltrated not just magazines, radio, and movies but youth organizations and movements like Abstract Expressionism; all were meant to inspire a reverence for democracy and freedom, a project that, in Walker's telling, often tips into absurdity.
    2. One; used before score, dozen, hundred, thousand, million, etc.
      I've seen it happen a hundred times.
      • 1945, Peter Cheyney, Sinister Errand, London: Collins, published 1952, page 8:
        Everybody drinks a lot in wartime, but it seemed to me that I must have drunk enough to float a couple of battleships.
      • 1999, Sara Hylton, Separate Lives, London: Piatkus, →ISBN, page 93:
        You've seen it a dozen times already.
      • 2024 February 27, “The economics of skiing in America”, in The Economist[6], London: The Economist Group, →ISSN, →OCLC, archived from the original on 8 May 2024:
        By the time he gets onto a chair, the pristine powder snow below the lift has already been chopped up by a hundred tracks, and the line to get back up stretches the length of a football field.
    3. Used in some phrases denoting quantity, such as a few, a good many, a couple, a little, a bit, etc.
      He's a bit thick, isn't he?
      They asked me a few questions.
      • 1869, Louisa M[ay] Alcott, “My Lord and Lady”, in Little Women: [], part second, Boston, Mass.: Roberts Brothers, →OCLC, page 315:
        But I was going to say, that while I was dawdling about abroad, I saw a good many talented young fellows making all sorts of sacrifices, and enduring real hardships, that they might realize their dreams. Splendid fellows, some of them, working like heroes, poor and friendless, but so full of courage, patience and ambition, that I was ashamed of myself, and longed to give them a right good lift.
      • 1989, Robert T. Michael, Heidi I[rmgard] Hartmann, Brigid O'Farrell, editors, Pay Equity: Empirical Inquiries, Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, →ISBN, page 3, column 2:
        The main influence here is job tenure—the men had been at their specific jobs a good while longer than the women.
      • 2024 February 13, René M. van Westen, Henk A. Dijkstra, Michael Kliphuis, “If the Atlantic Ocean Loses Circulation, What Happens Next?”, in Scientific American[7], New York, N.Y.: Springer Nature America, Inc., →ISSN, →OCLC, archived from the original on 13 February 2024:
        Twenty years after the movie's release, we know a lot more about the Atlantic Ocean's circulation. Instruments deployed in the ocean starting in 2004 show that the Atlantic Ocean circulation has observably slowed over the past two decades, possibly to its weakest state in almost a millennium.
      1. Used before a numeral.
        There are a few hundred orders that need to be fulfilled by tomorrow.
        • 1934, Alan Villiers, Whalers of the Midnight Sun: [], New York, N.Y., London: Charles Scribner's Sons, page 154:
          The blues were eating leisurely, swimming about and opening their great mouths, spouting and filling their enormous stomachs with intense satisfaction. They had no idea of danger. There must have been about fifteen of them, peacefully feeding. One of them, its belly gorged probably with a few trillion plankton, seemed to be lying asleep on the surface.
        • 2020 July 31, Brian Friedberg, “The Dark Virality of a Hollywood Blood-Harvesting Conspiracy”, in Wired[8], San Francisco, C.A.: Condé Nast Publications, →ISSN, →OCLC, archived from the original on 2024-05-15:
          The impact of hidden virality can't be stopped by retroactively banning a few thousand Twitter accounts; it is an iterative, memetic phenomenon that outpaces terms of service.
        • 2023, Don Winslow, City of Dreams, London: HarperCollins Publishers, →ISBN, page 332:
          That was on the first day's walk. It took him until day three, after a good ten miles, to ask her out.
    4. Used in some adverbial phrases denoting the degree or extent of an action, such as a little, a bit, a lot, etc.
      The door was opened a little.
      • 1978, Deane H. Shapiro, Jr., Precision Nirvana, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, Inc., →ISBN, page 104:
        If, for example, you ask a child what he likes to do, he may say he doesn't know. However, if you watch him during free time, and note that he plays basketball a lot, you may infer that this is a high-probability behavior, and he finds it reinforcing.
      • 2009, James H. S. McGregor, Paris From the Ground Up, Cambridge, M.A., London: Belknap Press, →ISBN, page 163:
        The bridge was shifted a bit to the east and rebuilt, this time with the shops of money-changers along both sides.
      • 2023 January 13, Dana G. Smith, “Even a Little Alcohol Can Harm Your Health, Research Shows”, in The New York Times[9], New York, N.Y.: The New York Times Company, →ISSN, →OCLC, archived from the original on 2024-05-10:
        You don't need to go cold turkey to help your health. Even reducing a little bit can be beneficial, especially if you currently drink over the recommended limits.
    5. The same; one and the same. Used in phrases such as of a kind, birds of a feather, etc.
      We are of a mind on matters of morals.
      They're two of a kind.
    6. Any; every; used before a noun which has become modified to limit its scope.[2]
      A man who dies intestate leaves his children troubles and difficulties.
    7. Any; used with a negative to indicate not a single one.[3]
      It was so dark that we couldn't see a thing.
      He fell all that way, and hasn't a bump on his head?
      • 2001, Stephen Lawhead, The Mystic Rose Book (Celtic Crusades; III), London,  []: BCA, page 180:
        No, it is impossible. My conscience would give me not a moment's peace if I let you go. I would never forgive myself.
      • 2014, Sherry D. Ficklin, Queen of Someday: A Stolen Empire Novel, [Colony, T.X.]: Clean Teen Publishing, →ISBN, page 116:
        When had my own feelings become so muddled and complicated? Before I take a single step, he catches my arm, turning me to him.
      • 2016, Daphna Rabinovitch, “Fudge Truffle Tart”, in The Baker in Me, Vancouver, B.C.: Whitecap Books, →ISBN, page 204:
        My friend Cindy's husband, Michael Zahavi, a true chocoholic if there ever was one, adores this tart. In fact, when I visited their cottage up in Muskoka, Ontario one summer and brought this along as a treat, he got up in the middle of the night to nosh away at it, leaving us sleepyheads with nary a crumb the next day.
    8. Used before an adjective that modifies a noun (singular or plural) delimited by a numeral.
      The lottery jackpot is worth a staggering three hundred million dollars.
      The holidays are a mere one week away.
    9. One; someone named; used before a person's name, suggesting that the speaker knows little about the person other than the name.[4]
      We've received an interesting letter from a Mrs. Miggins of London.
    10. Used before an adjective modifying a person's name, typically used to emphasize that person's current condition or emotional state.
      • 1963, Robert Hancock, Ruth Ellis: The Last Woman To Be Hanged, London: Orion, published 1993, →ISBN, page 35:
        At Waterloo she asked George for £5 and said that she would go home by tube, and a relieved George watched her descend the Underground steps.
      • 2016, David J. Bailey, The Storm, London: Austin Macauley Publishers Ltd., →ISBN, page 147:
        "There, I think that's done it," declared a triumphant John, "we just need to try it with the bar now, where is it?"
      • 2018, “Rwandan court drops all charges against opposition figure”, in Associated Press:
        "I will continue my campaign to fight for the rights of all Rwandans," a surprised but happy Rwigara told reporters after celebrating.
    11. Someone or something like; similar to; used before a proper noun to create an example out of it.[3]
      The center of the village was becoming a Times Square.
      The man is a regular Romeo.
      • 1987, Frederic V. Grunfeld, Rodin: A Biography, New York, N.Y.: Henry Holt and Company, →ISBN, page 88:
        [Jules] Pécher actually sculpted a sort of Statue of Liberty for the centerpiece of the monument, but for the rest he thought it advisable to call in Van Rasbourgh, and Rodin thus became a ghost sculptor to a ghost sculptor.
      • 2009, Ed Macy, Hellfire, London: Harper Press, →ISBN, page 134:
        Billy fancied himself as a bit of a Han Solo, but he shook his head. 'Stop being a wuss.' He grinned. 'Your go.'
      • 2020, Laura Erickson, The Love Lives of Birds: Courting and Mating Rituals, North Adams, M.A.: Storey Publishing, →ISBN, page 81:
        For the first 5 or 6 days after the eggs hatch, the mother spends most of her time keeping the chicks warm while the father provides most of their meals. All that work may be what prompts the female to leave the family. They share feeding duties more equally during the next week or 10 days, until the young leave the nest. Producing a second batch is easier if she skips the last grueling week or two of provisioning fledglings. She can recharge her batteries by moseying off and, while on vacation, looking for a new Casanova.
    Usage notes
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    • In standard English, the article a is used before consonant sounds, while an is used before vowel sounds; for more, see the usage notes about an.
    Derived terms
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    Translations
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    Etymology 3

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    Pronunciation

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    Preposition

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    a

    1. To do with separation; In, into. [from before 1150][1]
      torn a pieces
    2. To do with time; Each, per, in, on, by. Often occurs between two nouns, where the first noun occurs at the end of a verbal phrase.[from before 1150][1]
      I brush my teeth twice a day.
    3. To do with status; In. [from before 1150][1]
    4. (archaic) To do with position or direction; In, on, at, by, towards, onto. [from before 1150][1]
      stand a tiptoe
    5. (archaic) To do with process, with a passive verb; In the course of, experiencing. [from before 1150][1]
    6. (archaic) To do with an action, an active verb; Engaged in. [16th c.][1]
    7. (archaic) To do with an action/movement; To, into. [16th c.][1]
    8. (obsolete) To do with method; In, with. [from before 1150][1]
    9. (obsolete) To do with role or capacity; In. [from before 1150][1]
    Usage notes
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    • (position, direction): Can also be attached without a hyphen, as aback, ahorse, afoot. See a-
    • (separation): Can also be attached without hyphen, as asunder. See a-
    • (status): Can also be attached without hyphen, as afloat, awake. See a-.
    • (process): Can also be attached with or without hyphen, as a-changing
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    Etymology 4

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    From Middle English a, ha contraction of have, or haven.

    Alternative forms

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    Verb

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    a

    1. (dialectal or slang) Have (auxiliary verb).
      I'd a come, if you'd a asked.
    2. (dialectal or slang, rare) had (auxiliary verb).
    Usage notes
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    • Now often attached to a preceding auxiliary verb. See -a.
    Derived terms
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    Etymology 5

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    From Middle English a, a reduced form of he (he)/ha (he), heo (she)/ha (she), ha (it), and hie, hie (they).

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    Pronoun

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    a

    1. (obsolete outside England and Scotland dialects) He, she, they: the third-person singular or plural nominative.[4]
      • 1855, Kingsley, W. Ho!, page 120 (edition of 1889):
        He've a got a great venture on hand, but what a [it] be he tell'th no man.
      • 1864, Tennyson, N. Farmer, Old Style, st. 2:
        Doctors, they knaws nowt, fur a [they] says what's nawways true.
      1. (obsolete outside England and Scotland dialects) He, the third-person singular nominative.
        • 1598–1599 (first performance), William Shakespeare, “Much Adoe about Nothing”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies [] (First Folio), London: [...] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, →OCLC, [Act III, scene ii]:
          a’ brushes his hat o’ mornings.
        • 1795, Peter Pindar, The Royal Visit to Exeter, a Political Epistle: by John Ploughshare ... published by Peter Pindar, Esq, page 5:
          Well! in a come [in he came]—KING GEORGE to town, / With doust and zweat az netmeg brown, / The hosses all in smoke;
        • 1860, Kite, Sng. Sol., ii, 16:
          A do veed amang th' lilies.
        • 1864, Tennyson, N. Farmer, Old Style, st. 7, version of 1917, Raymond Macdonald Alden, Alfred Tennyson, how to Know Him, page 226:
          "The amoighty's a taakin' o' you to 'issén, my friend," a said, [...]
      2. (obsolete outside England and Scotland dialects) She, the third-person singular nominative.
        • 1790, Grose, MS. add. (M.):
          A wanted me to go with her.
        • 1876, Bound, Prov.:
          Did a do it!
        • 1883, Hardy, Tover, page 124 (edition of 1895):
          A's getting wambling on her pins [shaky on her legs].

    Etymology 6

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      From Middle English of, with apocope of the final f and vowel reduction.

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      Pronunciation

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      Preposition

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      a

      1. (archaic or slang) Of.
        The name of John a Gaunt.
      Usage notes
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      • Often attached without a hyphen to preceding word.

      Etymology 7

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      From Northern Middle English aw, alteration of all.

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      Pronunciation

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      Adverb

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      a (not comparable)

      1. (chiefly Scotland) All. [from ca. 1350—1470]

      Adjective

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      a (not comparable)

      1. (chiefly Scotland) All. [from ca. 1350—1470]

      Etymology 8

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      Alternative forms

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      Particle

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      a

      1. Pronunciation spelling of to.
        • 1923 January, “The Sunshine of Childhood (Contributed)”, in Benedict Brown, editor, The Grail, volume 4, number 9, St. Meinrad, Ind.: The Abbey Press, page 284, column 2:
          James was going with his mother to attend the ceremonies at which his oldest sister in the convent would make perpetual vows. Being asked where he was going, he answered, “I’m goin’ a see my sister make percapital vowels.”
        • 2007, BK Loren, “Got Tape?”, in Barry Lopez, editor, The Future of Nature: Writing on a Human Ecology from Orion Magazine, Minneapolis, Minn.: Milkweed Editions, →ISBN, page 43:
          The man walks toward me. “I met that asshole. He’s tryin’ a sell us a bag a bullshit.”
        • 2012 October 23, Tom Wolfe, Back to Blood: A Novel, Large Print edition, New York, N.Y.: Little, Brown and Company, →ISBN, page 66:
          Don’tcha try deny it, / ’Cause Hose knows you dyin’ a try it— [...] Knows you out tryin’ a buy it, / But Hose only gives it free
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      Etymology 9

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      Contraction of gonna, itself a reduction of going to; see Etymology 8 above (“to”).

      Contraction

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      a

      1. (African-American Vernacular) Used to express a future action; going to.
        I'm a go see what's going on out there.
        • 2010, Todd Bridges, Killing Willis: From Diff'rent Strokes to the Mean Streets to the Life I Always Wanted, New York, N.Y.: Touchstone Books, →ISBN, page 146:
          "Sure, Billy, I'm a run downstairs to the machine and get me a pack of bigarettes," he said, taking off with his Melody.
        • 2012, Bertrand E. Brown, Sylvia's Dilemma: A Novel, →ISBN, page 95:
          Ain't nothin' in the house to eat and now that we has Mr. Alex staying with us a few days I'm a need to buy some groceries so yous two can have the house to yo'self 'til I get back.
        • 2018, Monica Jeremie, Married to a Dade County Bully 2, Urban Chapters Publications, →ISBN, page 85:
          I'm a head out there now and take a look.
        • 2021, Ioan Grillo, Blood Gun Money: How America Arms Gangs and Cartels, New York, N.Y. []: Bloomsbury Publishing, →ISBN, page 141:
          "The Glock 26 and the motherfucking, uh, the Hi-Point. I'm a try to get the both of them," another said.

      Usage notes

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      • Mainly used in the phrase I'm a, which is usually spelled Imma.
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      Etymology 10

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      Contraction of and.[5]

      Conjunction

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      a

      1. (obsolete, dialectal, rare) Contraction of and.
        • 1655, William Barton, Man's Monitor, or, the Free-school of Virtue; Holding Forth the Duties Required and Sins Forbidden in the Two Tables of the Law., London: W.D. for T. Underhill, unnumbered page; republished in Early English Books Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: Text Creation Partnership, p. 2011:
          By cock a pie and Mous-foot Dent bring's in, / Examples to express forbidden Sin:
        • 1746, “Exmoor Scolding: Or, a Devonſhire Dialogue:”, in The Gentleman's Magazine, and Historical Chronicle, volume XVI, London: Edw. Cave, →ISSN, →OCLC, page 353, column 2:
          Thee lace ma? Chem a laced well-a-fine aready.—Zey wone word more, and chell breſh tha, chell make thy boddize pilmee.
        • 1823, Edward Moor, Suffolk Words and Phrases: Or, An Attempt to Collect the Lingual Localisms of that County, London: J. Loder, page 2:
          4. as if. "I'll gi ye a dunt i' the hid 'a ye dew so no more." This is equivalent to the "an if" of some of our old writers.
      Usage notes
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      • The Oxford English Dictionary notes: "The form is not common in any period, and some of the earlier examples could instead show a transmission error for an in its abbreviated form (i.e. ā, with mark of suspension)."[5]

      Etymology 11

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      Symbol

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      a

      1. Distance from leading edge to aerodynamic center.
      2. specific absorption coefficient
      3. specific rotation
      4. allele (recessive)

      Etymology 12

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      Adverb

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      a

      1. (crosswords) across
        Do you have the answer for 23a?
      2. (chiefly US) Alternative spelling of a.m. (ante meridiem) or am

      Etymology 13

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      Particle

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      a

      1. Alternative form of -a (empty syllable added to songs, poetry, verse and other speech)
        • 2001, Louis F. Newcomb, Car Salesman: A Legacy, iUniverse (→ISBN), page 91:
          “I show a you right a here I can fuck a you.” “Is she crazy?” I asked Wyman.

      Etymology 14

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      Borrowed from Russian а (a).

      Noun

      edit

      a

      1. The name of the Cyrillic script letter А / а.

      Translations

      edit

      Etymology 15

      edit

      Interjection

      edit

      a

      1. ah; er (sound of hesitation)
        • 1847 January – 1848 July, William Makepeace Thackeray, Vanity Fair [], London: Bradbury and Evans [], published 1848, →OCLC:
          "We will resume yesterday's discourse, young ladies," said he, "and you shall each read a page by turns; so that Miss a—Miss Short may have an opportunity of hearing you"; and the poor girls began to spell a long dismal sermon delivered at Bethesda Chapel, Liverpool, on behalf of the mission for the Chickasaw Indians.

      Etymology 16

      edit

      Abbreviations.

      1. (stenoscript) a word-initial letter ⟨a⟩.
      2. (stenoscript) the long vowel /eɪ/ at the end of a word, or before a final consonant that is not /dʒ, v, z/. (Note: the final consonant is not written; [ɛə˞] counts as /eɪr/.)
        Thus the word a, plus its inflection an.
      3. (stenoscript) the word a.m.
      4. (stenoscript) the prefix ad-.

      Quotations

      edit

      Additional quotations for any terms on this page may be found at Citations:a.

      References

      edit
      1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 Brown, Lesley, (2003)
      2. ^ Gove, Philip Babcock, (1976)
      3. 3.0 3.1 Lindberg, Christine A. (2007)
      4. 4.0 4.1 Oxford University Press, (2023)
      5. 5.0 5.1 a, conj.”, in OED Online  , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, launched 2000.

      Further reading

      edit

      Abau

      edit

      Pronunciation

      edit

      IPA(key): /a/

      Noun

      edit

      a

      1. house

      Afar

      edit

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Determiner

      edit

      á

      1. this, these (masculine)

      Derived terms

      edit

      See also

      edit

      See Template:aa-demonstrative determiners.

      References

      edit
      • E. M. Parker, R. J. Hayward (1985) “a”, in An Afar-English-French dictionary (with Grammatical Notes in English), University of London, →ISBN
      • Mohamed Hassan Kamil (2015) L’afar: description grammaticale d’une langue couchitique (Djibouti, Erythrée et Ethiopie)[12], Paris: Université Sorbonne Paris Cité (doctoral thesis)

      Albanian

      edit

      Etymology 1

      edit

      Alternative forms

      edit

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Conjunction

      edit

      a

      1. or
      2. there

      Etymology 2

      edit

      From Proto-Albanian *(h)an, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂en (there). Cognate with Latin an (yes, perhaps). Interrogative particle, usually used proclitically in simple sentences.

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Particle

      edit

      a

      1. probably, perhaps
      2. whether

      Letter

      edit

      a (lower case, upper case A)

      1. The first letter of the Standard Albanian Latin-script alphabet.

      See also

      edit

      References

      edit
      1. ^ Orel, Vladimir E. (1998) “a part. ('whether'), conj. ('or')”, in Albanian Etymological Dictionary, Leiden, Boston, Köln: Brill, →ISBN, page 1
      2. ^ Mann, S. E. (1948) “a”, in An Historical Albanian–English Dictionary, London: Longmans, Green & Co., page 1

      Further reading

      edit
      • “a”, in FGJSSH: Fjalor i gjuhës së sotme shqipe [Dictionary of the modern Albanian language]‎[13] (in Albanian), 1980
      • a”, in FGJSH: Fjalor i gjuhës shqipe [Dictionary of the Albanian language] (in Albanian), 2006

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Noun

      edit

      a

      1. tree

      Anguthimri

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      Verb

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      a

      1. (transitive, Mpakwithi) to pull

      References

      edit
      • Terry Crowley, The Mpakwithi dialect of Anguthimri (1981), page 184

      Aragonese

      edit

      Etymology

      edit

      From Latin illa.

      Article

      edit

      a f sg

      1. the
        a luenga aragonesathe Aragonese language

      Asturian

      edit

      Etymology

      edit

      From Latin ad.

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Preposition

      edit

      a

      1. to, towards

      Derived terms

      edit

      Noun

      edit

      a f

      1. a (the name of the letter A, a)

      Azerbaijani

      edit

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Letter

      edit

      a (lower case, upper case A)

      1. The first letter of the Azerbaijani alphabet, written in the Latin script.

      See also

      edit

      Bambara

      edit

      Article

      edit

      a

      1. the (definite article).

      Interjection

      edit

      a

      1. ah (expression of surprise)
      2. eh (expression of reluctance)

      Pronoun

      edit

      a

      1. they, them (plural)
      2. he, she, they (singular)

      Synonyms

      edit
      • (they): u

      Basque

      edit

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Letter

      edit

      a (lower case, upper case A)

      1. The first letter of the Basque alphabet, written in the Latin script.

      See also

      edit

      Noun

      edit

      a (indeclinable)

      1. The name of the Latin-script letter A.

      See also

      edit

      Bavarian

      edit

      Etymology 1

      edit

      Cognate with German ein, eine, Yiddish אַ (a), אַן (an).

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Article

      edit

      a

      1. a
      See also
      edit
      • oa (one, determiner)

      Etymology 2

      edit

      Unstressed form of ea

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Pronoun

      edit

      a

      1. he
      See also
      edit

      Etymology 3

      edit

      Cognate with German auch.

      Adverb

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      a

      1. Alternative form of aa: also, too, as well

      Belizean Creole

      edit

      Preposition

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      a

      1. of

      References

      edit
      • Crosbie, Paul, ed. (2007), Kriol-Inglish Dikshineri: English-Kriol Dictionary. Belize City: Belize Kriol Project, p. 19.

      Big Nambas

      edit

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Preposition

      edit

      a

      1. in

      References

      edit

      Breton

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      Etymology 1

      edit

      From Proto-Brythonic *o, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂pó.

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Preposition

      edit

      a (triggers soft mutation)

      1. from (expresses origin)
        tud a Vrestpeople from Brest
      2. of (indicates an amount)
        un tamm brav a giga nice piece of meat
      3. of (expresses a quality)
        ur plac’h a enora girl of honour
      4. after certain adjectives or adverbs expressing quantity
        ur voutailh leun a sistra bottle full of cider
      5. after ordinal numbers with a plural noun
        tri a vugalethree children
      6. used in negative sentences with the grammatical object
        nʼem eus ket ken a vutunI donʼt have any more tobacco
      7. before the infinitive after certain verbs like paouez, mirout, diwall, c'hwitañ
        paouezet eo ar glav a gouezhañit has stopped raining [lit. the rain has stopped falling]
      8. after substantivized adjectives used as nouns
        ur vrav a blacʼha pretty girl
      9. combined with a personal pronoun
        gwelet em boa acʼhanoutI saw you
        an den a gomzan anezhañthe man Iʼm talking about
      Inflection
      edit

      Etymology 2

      edit

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Particle

      edit

      a (triggers soft mutation)

      1. preverbal particle used when
        1. the subject precedes the verb
          ar mor a zo glasthe sea is blue
        2. the object precedes the verb
          an den-se a glevanI hear that man

      Pronoun

      edit

      a (triggers soft mutation)

      1. (relative) that, which, who (used in 'direct' relative clauses, i.e. where the pronoun refers to the subject or the direct object of an inflected verb)
        an hini a garanthe one whom I love

      Cameroon Pidgin

      edit

      Pronoun

      edit

      a

      1. Alternative spelling of I (1st person singular subject personal pronoun)

      Catalan

      edit

      Etymology 1

      edit

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Letter

      edit

      a (lower case, upper case A)

      1. The first letter of the Catalan alphabet, written in the Latin script.
      Derived terms
      edit
      See also
      edit

      Etymology 2

      edit

      From Latin ad.

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Preposition

      edit

      a

      1. in, at; indicating a particular time or place
        Sóc a Barcelona.
        I am in Barcelona.
      2. to; indicating movement towards a particular place
        Vaig a Barcelona.
        I'm going to Barcelona.
      3. to; indicating a target or indirect object
        Escric una carta a la meva àvia.
        I'm writing my grandmother a letter.
      4. per
      5. by
        dia a dia.
        day by day.
      Usage notes
      edit
      • When the preposition a is followed by a masculine definite article, el or els, it is contracted with it to the forms al and als respectively. If el would be elided to the form l’ because it is before a word beginning with a vowel, the elision to a l’ takes precedence over contracting to al.

      The same occurs with the salat article es, to form as except where es would be elided to s’.

      Derived terms
      edit

      Chayuco Mixtec

      edit

      Etymology

      edit

      (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

      Conjunction

      edit

      a

      1. or

      References

      edit
      • Pensinger, Brenda J. (1974) Diccionario mixteco-español, español-mixteco (Serie de vocabularios y diccionarios indígenas “Mariano Silva y Aceves”; 18)‎[14] (in Spanish), México, D.F.: El Instituto Lingüístico de Verano en coordinación con la Secretaría de Educación Pública a través de la Dirección General de Educación Extraescolar en el Medio Indígena, pages 3, 110

      Chibcha

      edit

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Noun

      edit

      a

      1. open mouth
      2. smell, taste

      References

      edit
      • Gómez Aldana D. F., Análisis morfológico del Vocabulario 158 de la Biblioteca Nacional de Colombia. Grupo de Investigación Muysccubun. 2013.

      Choctaw

      edit

      Conjunction

      edit

      a

      1. yes

      Chuukese

      edit

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Pronoun

      edit

      a

      1. he
      2. she
      3. it

      Adjective

      edit

      a

      1. he is
      2. she is
      3. it is
      edit
      Present and past tense Negative tense Future Negative future Distant future Negative determinate
      Singular First person ua use upwe usap upwap ute
      Second person ka, ke kose, kese kopwe, kepwe kosap, kesap kopwap, kepwap kote, kete
      Third person a ese epwe esap epwap ete
      Plural First person aua (exclusive)
      sia (inclusive)
      ause (exclusive)
      sise (inclusive)
      aupwe (exclusive)
      sipwe (inclusive)
      ausap (exclusive)
      sisap (inclusive)
      aupwap (exclusive)
      sipwap (inclusive)
      aute (exclusive)
      site (inclusive)
      Second person oua ouse oupwe ousap oupwap oute
      Third person ra, re rese repwe resap repwap rete


      Cimbrian

      edit

      Alternative forms

      edit
      • an (Sette Comuni)

      Etymology

      edit

      From Middle High German ein, from Old High German ein, from Proto-West Germanic *ain.

      Article

      edit

      a (oblique masculine an)

      1. (Luserna) a, an
        Maria iz a lavròunaren.Maria is a Lavaronese.

      References

      edit

      Coatepec Nahuatl

      edit

      Noun

      edit

      a

      1. water

      Cora

      edit

      Particle

      edit

      a

      1. outside
      2. out of view (from the speaker)
      3. entering a shallow domain; entering a domain in a shallow or restricted manner
        atyásuuna káasu hece
        The water is pouring into the (shallow) pan.

      Antonyms

      edit
      • u (inside; within view)

      References

      edit
      • Eugene Casad, Ronald Langacker (1985) “'Inside' and 'outside' in Cora grammar”, in International Journal of American Linguistics

      Cornish

      edit

      Etymology 1

      edit

      Onomatopoeic

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Interjection

      edit

      a

      1. ah

      Etymology 2

      edit

      Compare Welsh a

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Particle

      edit

      a (triggers soft mutation)

      1. Inserted before the verb when a subject or direct object precedes the verb

      Etymology 3

      edit

      From Proto-Brythonic *o, from Proto-Celtic *ɸo, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂pó.

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Preposition

      edit

      a (triggers soft mutation)

      1. of (expressing separation, origin, composition/substance or a quality)
      2. of (between a preceding large number and a following plural noun to express quantity)
      3. from (indicating provenance)

      Inflection

      edit

      Corsican

      edit

      Etymology

      edit

      From the earlier la.

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Article

      edit

      a f (masculine u, masculine plural i, feminine plural e)

      1. the (feminine)

      Usage notes

      edit
      • Before a vowel, a turns into l'

      Pronoun

      edit

      a f

      1. her, it (direct object)

      Usage notes

      edit
      • Before a vowel, a turns into l'

      See also

      edit

      References

      edit
      • a” in INFCOR: Banca di dati di a lingua corsa

      Czech

      edit

      Etymology

      edit

      Inherited from Old Czech a, from Proto-Slavic *a, from Proto-Balto-Slavic .

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Conjunction

      edit

      a

      1. and

      Further reading

      edit
      • a”, in Příruční slovník jazyka českého (in Czech), 1935-1957
      • a”, in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého (in Czech), 1960–1971, 1989

      Dakota

      edit

      Pronunciation

      edit

      IPA(key): /a/

      Letter

      edit

      a (uppercase A)

      1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

      See also

      edit

      Dalmatian

      edit

      Etymology

      edit

      From Latin ad.

      Preposition

      edit

      a

      1. to
      2. at

      Danish

      edit

      Etymology 1

      edit

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Letter

      edit

      a (lower case, upper case A)

      1. The first letter of the Danish alphabet, written in the Latin script.
      See also
      edit

      Etymology 2

      edit

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Noun

      edit

      a n (singular definite a'et, plural indefinite a'er)

      1. The name of the letter A or a.
      Inflection
      edit

      Etymology 3

      edit

      Alternative forms

      edit
      • à (unofficial but common)

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Preposition

      edit

      a

      1. of, of...each, each containing
      2. at
      3. to, or

      Etymology 4

      edit

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Verb

      edit

      a

      1. imperative of ae

      Dutch

      edit

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Etymology 1

      edit

      Letter

      edit

      a (lower case, upper case A)

      1. The first letter of the Dutch alphabet, written in the Latin script.
      See also
      edit

      Etymology 2

      edit

      From Middle Dutch â, from Old Dutch ā, from Proto-Germanic *ahwō.

      Alternative forms

      edit
      • aa (especially in names)
      • ie

      Noun

      edit

      a f (plural a's, diminutive aatje)

      1. (archaic) a stream or water
      edit

      Further reading

      edit

      Etymology 3

      edit

      From Middle Dutch jou, from Old Dutch *jū, a northern (Frisian?) variant of *iu, from Proto-Germanic *iwwiz, a West Germanic variant of *izwiz. Doublet of u.

      Pronoun

      edit

      a

      1. (Brabant) you
      Synonyms
      edit

      Egyptian

      edit

      Romanization

      edit

      a

      1. Manuel de Codage transliteration of .

      Emilian

      edit

      Etymology

      edit

      From Latin ego (I).

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Pronoun

      edit

      a (personal, nominative case)

      1. I
      2. we
      3. you (plural)

      Alternative forms

      edit
      • Becomes aj- before a vowel (proclitic).
      • Becomes -ja when acting as an enclitic.
      edit

      Esperanto

      edit

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Letter

      edit

      a (lower case, upper case A)

      1. The first letter of the Esperanto alphabet, written in the Latin script.

      See also

      edit

      Noun

      edit

      a (accusative singular a-on, plural a-oj, accusative plural a-ojn)

      1. The name of the Latin-script letter A/a.

      See also

      edit

      Estonian

      edit

      Etymology 1

      edit
       a on Estonian Wikipedia

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Letter

      edit

      a (lower case, upper case A)

      1. The first letter of the Estonian alphabet, called aa and written in the Latin script.
      See also
      edit

      Noun

      edit

      a (genitive a or a', partitive a-d or a'd)

      1. The letter a (the first letter of the Estonian alphabet)
      2. (music) A (note)
        Synonym: la
      Declension
      edit
      Declension of a (ÕS type 26i/idee, no gradation)
      singular plural
      nominative a- a-d
      accusative nom.
      gen. a-
      genitive a-de
      partitive a-d a-id
      a-sid
      illative a-sse a-desse
      a-isse
      inessive a-s a-des
      a-is
      elative a-st a-dest
      a-ist
      allative a-le a-dele
      a-ile
      adessive a-l a-del
      a-il
      ablative a-lt a-delt
      a-ilt
      translative a-ks a-deks
      a-iks
      terminative a-ni a-deni
      essive a-na a-dena
      abessive a-ta a-deta
      comitative a-ga a-dega

      (music):

      Declension of a (ÕS type 26i/idee, no gradation)
      singular plural
      nominative a' a'd
      accusative nom.
      gen. a'
      genitive a'de
      partitive a'd a'id
      a'sid
      illative a'sse a'desse
      a'isse
      inessive a's a'des
      a'is
      elative a'st a'dest
      a'ist
      allative a'le a'dele
      a'ile
      adessive a'l a'del
      a'il
      ablative a'lt a'delt
      a'ilt
      translative a'ks a'deks
      a'iks
      terminative a'ni a'deni
      essive a'na a'dena
      abessive a'ta a'deta
      comitative a'ga a'dega

      Etymology 2

      edit

      Clipping of aga. Probably influenced by Russian а (a).

      Conjunction

      edit

      a

      1. (colloquial, in fast speech) but

      Etymology 3

      edit

      Noun

      edit

      a

      1. Abbreviation of aasta.
      2. Abbreviation of aar.

      References

      edit
      • a in Sõnaveeb (Eesti Keele Instituut)
      • a”, in [EKSS] Eesti keele seletav sõnaraamat [Descriptive Dictionary of the Estonian Language] (in Estonian) (online version), Tallinn: Eesti Keele Sihtasutus (Estonian Language Foundation), 2009

      Fala

      edit

      Etymology 1

      edit

      From Old Galician-Portuguese á, from Latin illa (that).

      Article

      edit

      a f sg (plural as, masculine u or o, masculine plural us or os)

      1. Feminine singular definite article; the
        • 2000, Domingo Frades Gaspar, Vamus a falal: Notas pâ coñocel y platical en nosa fala, Editora regional da Extremadura, Chapter 1: Lengua Española:
          A grandeda da lengua española é indiscotibli, i sei estudio, utilización defensa debin sel algo consostancial a nos, [...]
          The greatness of the Spanish language is unquestionable, and its study, use and defense must be something consubstantial to us, [...]

      Pronoun

      edit

      a

      1. Third person singular feminine accusative pronoun; her
      See also
      edit

      Etymology 2

      edit

      From Old Galician-Portuguese a, from Latin ad (to).

      Preposition

      edit

      a

      1. to
        • 2000, Domingo Frades Gaspar, Vamus a falal: Notas pâ coñocel y platical en nosa fala, Editora regional da Extremadura, Chapter 1: Lengua Española:
          A grandeda da lengua española é indiscotibli, i sei estudio, utilización defensa debin sel algo consostancial a nos, [...]
          The greatness of the Spanish language is unquestionable, and its study, use and defense must be something consubstantial to us, [...]

      References

      edit
      • Valeš, Miroslav (2021) Diccionariu de A Fala: lagarteiru, mañegu, valverdeñu (web)[15], 2nd edition, Minde, Portugal: CIDLeS, published 2022, →ISBN

      Faroese

      edit

      Etymology

      edit

      From Latin a.

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Letter

      edit

      a (upper case A)

      1. The first letter of the Faroese alphabet, written in the Latin script.

      See also

      edit

      Finnish

      edit

      Etymology 1

      edit

      The Finnish orthography using the Latin script was based on those of Swedish, German and Latin, and was first used in the mid-16th century. No earlier script is known. See the Wikipedia article on Finnish for more information, and a for information on the development of the glyph itself.

      Letter

      edit

      a (lower case, upper case A)

      1. The first letter of the Finnish alphabet, written in the Latin script.
      See also
      edit

      Etymology 2

      edit

      German musical notation.

      Noun

      edit

      a

      1. (music) A (note)
      Usage notes
      edit

      Capitalized for the great octave or any octave below that, or in names of major keys; not capitalized for the small octave or any octave above that, or in names of minor keys.

      Declension
      edit
      Derived terms
      edit
      compounds

      Franco-Provençal

      edit

      Etymology

      edit

      Inherited from Latin ad.

      Pronoun

      edit

      a (ORB, broad)

      1. to
      2. at

      Derived terms

      edit

      References

      edit
      • à in DicoFranPro: Dictionnaire Français/Francoprovençal – on dicofranpro.llm.umontreal.ca
      • a in Lo trèsor Arpitan – on arpitan.eu

      French

      edit

      Etymology 1

      edit

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Letter

      edit

      a (lower case, upper case A)

      1. The first letter of the French alphabet, written in the Latin script.

      Noun

      edit

      a m or f (plural as)

      1. a, the name of the Latin-script letter A

      Derived terms

      edit

      Etymology 2

      edit

      Quebec eye-dialect spelling of elle.

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Pronoun

      edit

      a f

      1. (Quebec, colloquial) alternative form of elle (she)
        C’te fille-là, a’a l’air cute.
        That girl, she looks cute.

      Etymology 3

      edit

      From Old French a, at from Vulgar Latin *at, from Latin habet.

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Verb

      edit

      a

      1. third-person singular present indicative of avoir
        Elle a un chat.
        She has a cat.

      See also

      edit

      Further reading

      edit

      Fula

      edit

      Etymology 1

      edit

      Letter

      edit

      a (lower case, upper case A)

      1. The first letter of the Fula alphabet, written in the Latin script.
      Usage notes
      edit
      See also
      edit

      Etymology 2

      edit

      Pronoun

      edit

      a

      1. you (second person singular subject pronoun; short form)
      Usage notes
      edit
      • Common to all varieties of Fula (Fulfulde / Pulaar / Pular).
      • Used in all conjugations except the affirmative non-accomplished, where the long form is used instead.
      See also
      edit
      • aɗa (second person singular subject pronoun; long form), hiɗa (variant used in the Pular dialect of Futa Jalon)
      • aan (emphatic form) (Maasina)
      • an (emphatic form) (Pular)
      • maaɗa (second person singular possessive pronoun (Adamawa))
      • -maa (second person singular dependent pronoun (Adamawa))

      Galician

      edit

      Etymology 1

      edit

      From Latin ad (to, toward).

      Pronunciation

      edit

      IPA(key): /a̝/

      Preposition

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      a

      1. to, toward; indicating direction of motion
      2. introducing an indirect object
      3. used to indicate the time of an action
      4. (with de) to, until; used to indicate the end of a range
        de cinco a oitofrom five to eight
      5. by, on, by means of; expresses a mode of action
        aon foot
      6. for; indicates price or cost
      Usage notes
      edit

      The preposition a regularly forms contractions when it precedes the definite article o, a, os, and as. For example, a o ("to the") contracts to ao or ó, and a a ("to the") contracts to á.

      Derived terms
      edit
      at/to + the table
      - Singular Plural
      Masculine ao (ó) aos (ós)
      Feminine á ás

      Etymology 2

      edit

      From Old Galician-Portuguese a, from Latin illa, feminine of ille (that).

      Pronunciation

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      IPA(key): /a̝/

      Article

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      a f (masculine singular o, feminine plural as, masculine plural os)

      1. (definite) the
      Usage notes
      edit

      The definite article o (in all its forms) regularly forms contractions when it follows the prepositions a (to), con (with), de (of, from), and en (in). For example, con a (with the) contracts to coa, and en a (in the) contracts to na.

      Also, the definite article presents a second form that could be represented as <-lo/-la/-los/-las>, or either lack any specific representation. Its origin is in the assimilation of the last consonant of words ended in -s or -r, due to sandhi, with the /l/ present in the article in pre-Galician-Portuguese period. So Vou comer o caldo or Vou come-lo caldo are representations of /ˈβowˈkomelo̝ˈkaldo̝/ ("I'm going to have my soup"). This phenomenon, rare in Portuguese, is already documented in 13th century Medieval Galician texts, as the Cantigas de Santa Maria.[1]

      Derived terms
      edit

      Etymology 3

      edit

      Pronunciation

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      IPA(key): /ˈa/

      Noun

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      a m (plural as)

      1. a (name of the letter A, a)

      Etymology 4

      edit

      See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

      Pronoun

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      a

      1. accusative of ela
      Usage notes
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      Due to sandhi, the accusative form o (in all its forms) regularly changes to -lo after verbal forms ended in r or s, and to -no after verbal forms ended in a semivowel:

      • Eu apagueina 'I quenched it' < apaguei‿a
      • Ti apagáchela 'You quenched it' < apagaches‿a
      • El apagouna 'He quenched it' < apagou‿a
      • Nós apagámola 'We quenched it' < apagamos‿a
      • Temos de apagala 'We must quench it' < apagar‿a

      References

      edit
      1. ^ Vaz Leão, Ângela (2000) “Questões de linguagem nas Cantigas de Santa Maria, de Afonso X”, in Scripta[1], volume 4, number 7, →DOI, retrieved 16 November 2017, pages 11-24

      German

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      Etymology 1

      edit

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Letter

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      a (lower case, upper case A)

      1. The first letter of the German alphabet, written in the Latin script.

      Noun

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      a n (strong, genitive a or as, plural a or as)

      1. Alternative form of A

      Etymology 2

      edit

      Noun

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      a

      1. Abbreviation of a-Moll.
      2. Abbreviation of Ar.

      Gilbertese

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      Etymology

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      From Proto-Oceanic *pat, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *əpat, from Proto-Austronesian *Səpat.

      Pronunciation

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      Numeral

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      a

      1. four

      Gothic

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      Romanization

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      a

      1. Romanization of 𐌰

      Grass Koiari

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      Pronoun

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      a

      1. you (singular)

      References

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      • 2010, Terry Crowley & Claire Bowern, An Introduction to Historical Linguistics, fourth edition, Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 142.

      Etymology

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      Cognates include Fon à.

      Pronunciation

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      Pronoun

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      à

      1. you (second-person singular subject pronoun)

      See also

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      Gungbe personal pronouns
      Number Person Emphatic Pronoun Subject Pronoun Object Pronoun Possessive Determiner
      Singular First nyɛ́, yẹ́n ùn, n mi , ṣié
      Second jɛ̀, jẹ̀, yẹ̀, hiẹ̀ à tòwè
      Third éɔ̀, úɔ̀, éwọ̀ é è étɔ̀n, étọ̀n
      Plural First mílɛ́, mílẹ́ mítɔ̀n, mítọ̀n
      Second mìlɛ́, mìlẹ́ mìtɔ̀n, mìtọ̀n
      Third yélɛ́, yélẹ́ yétɔ̀n, yétọ̀n

      Haitian Creole

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      Pronunciation

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      IPA(key): /a/

      Article

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      a

      1. the, definite article

      Usage notes

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      This term only follows words that end with an oral (non-nasal) consonant and an oral vowel in that order, and can only modify singular nouns.

      See also

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      Hawaiian

      edit

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Conjunction

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      a

      1. and (used between sentences)
      2. until, up to

      Preposition

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      a

      1. of, belonging to

      Usage notes

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      • Used for acquired possessions, while o is used for possessions that are inherited, out of personal control, and for things that can be got into (houses, clothes, cars).

      Hokkien

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      For pronunciation and definitions of a – see .
      (This term is the pe̍h-ōe-jī form of ).

      Hungarian

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      Etymology 1

      edit

      See az.

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Article

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      a (definite)

      1. the
        a hölgythe lady
      2. (before some time phrases) this
        a héten(during) this week
        a télen(in) this winter
      Usage notes
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      Used before words starting with a consonant.

      edit
      • az (for words starting with a vowel sound)

      Pronoun

      edit

      a (demonstrative)

      1. (in reduplicated constructions formed with postpositions) that
        A mellett a ház mellett vártam rá.I waited for him/her next to that house.

      Determiner

      edit

      a (demonstrative)

      1. (rare, only in consonant-initial fixed phrases, with zero article) Alternative form of az (that).
        Foglalja össze, miről szóltak az a heti beszédek és leckék.[1]Summarize what that week’s sermons and lessons were about.
        November 12-én, az a havi frissítőkedden jelenhet meg.It may be released on November 12th, on the Patch Tuesday of that month.
        Kérjük szíves tájékoztatásukat a tekintetben, hogy… (abban a tekintetben, see az)We kindly request your information in that [= the] aspect…
        amondó vagyok, hogy…I am of the opinion that…, what/all I can / want to say is that… (literally, “I am that-sayer/-saying…”)

      Etymology 2

      edit

      Pronunciation

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      • (letter or phoneme itself): IPA(key): [ˈɒː][2]
      • (identifier or musical note): IPA(key): [ˈaː] (in the names of minor scales; see also A)

      Letter

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      a (lower case, upper case A)

      1. The first letter of the Hungarian alphabet, written in the Latin script.
      2. (music) designation of the sixth note from C and the corresponding tone
      Derived terms
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      See also

      edit

      References

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      1. ^ a heti at e-nyelv.hu
      2. ^ Siptár, Péter and Miklós Törkenczy. The Phonology of Hungarian. The Phonology of the World’s Languages. Oxford University Press, 2007. →ISBN, p. 280

      Further reading

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      Icelandic

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      Pronunciation

      edit

      Letter

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      a (upper case A)

      1. The first letter of the Icelandic alphabet, written in the Latin script.

      Noun

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      a ?

      1. The name of the Latin-script letter A.

      See also

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      Pronunciation

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      • (context pronunciation, letter name) IPA(key): /a/

      Letter

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      a (lower case, upper case A)

      1. The first letter of the Ido alphabet, written in the Latin script.

      See also

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      Noun

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      a (plural a-i)

      1. The name of the Latin script letter A/a.

      See also

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      Preposition

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      a

      1. Apocopic form of ad
      edit
      • e (and)
      • o (or)

      Igbo

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      Letter

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      a (upper case A, lower case a)

      1. The first letter of the Igbo alphabet, written in the Latin script.

      Etymology 1

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      Alternative forms

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      • e (neutral tongue position)

      Pronunciation

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      Pronoun

      edit

      a

      1. (indefinite) somebody, one, they, people (an unspecified individual).
        A gwara ya ka ọ bịa.
        He/she was told to come.
      Usage notes
      edit
      • Often gets translated into English with the passive voice.
      See also
      edit

      Etymology 2

      edit

      Pronunciation

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      Determiner

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      a

      1. this.
      edit

      Indo-Portuguese

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      Etymology

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      From Portuguese a.

      Pronunciation

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      • (Sri Lankan Creole) IPA(key): /a/, /ə/

      Preposition

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      a

      1. to
        • 1883, Hugo Schuchardt, Kreolische Studien, volume 3 (overall work in German):
          [...] , que da-cá su quião que ta pertencê a êll.
          [...] , to give him his share which belongs to him.

      Indonesian

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      Pronunciation

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      • (letter name) IPA(key): /ˈa/ [ˈa]
      • (phoneme): IPA(key): /a/

      Letter

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      a (lower case, upper case A)

      1. The first letter of the Indonesian alphabet, called id and written in the Latin script.
      2. The name of the Latin-script letter A/a.

      See also

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      Further reading

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      Ingrian

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      Etymology

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      Borrowed from Russian а (a).

      Pronunciation

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      Conjunction

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      a

      1. and, but
        • 1936, N. A. Iljin and V. I. Junus, Bukvari iƶoroin șkouluja vart, Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 17:
          A siä Jaakko, kuhu määt?
          And you Jaakko, where are you going?
        • 1936, L. G. Terehova, V. G. Erdeli, translated by Mihailov and P. I. Maksimov, Geografia: oppikirja iƶoroin alkușkoulun kolmatta klaassaa vart (ensimäine osa), Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-Pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 7:
          keskipäivääl hää [päivyt] on kaikkiin ylemmääl, a siis alkaa laskiissa.
          on midday it [the Sun] is highest, and then it starts to descend.

      References

      edit
      • Ruben E. Nirvi (1971) Inkeroismurteiden Sanakirja, Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura, page 1
      • Arvo Laanest (1997) Isuri keele Hevaha murde sõnastik, Eesti Keele Instituut, page 15

      Interlingua

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      Pronunciation

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      Preposition

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      a

      1. to, at
      2. to, for (indicating purpose)
        sala a attenderwaiting room

      Derived terms

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      Inupiaq

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      Pronunciation

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      Interjection

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      a

      1. listen, hark
      2. oops (used to acknowledge an error)
      3. oh (used to express surprise)

      Irish

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      Pronunciation

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      Etymology 1

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      From Old Irish a, from Proto-Celtic *esyo (the final vowel triggering lenition), feminine Proto-Celtic *esyās (the final -s triggering h-prothesis), plural Proto-Celtic *ēsom (the final nasal triggering eclipsis), all from the genitive forms of Proto-Indo-European *éy. Cognate with Welsh ei.

      Determiner

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      a (triggers lenition)

      1. his, its
        a athair agus a mháthairhis father and mother
        Chaill an t-éan a chleití.
        The bird lost its feathers.

      Determiner

      edit

      a (triggers h-prothesis)

      1. her, its
        a hathair agus a máthairher father and mother
        Bhris an mheaig a heiteog.
        The magpie broke its wing.

      Determiner

      edit

      a (triggers eclipsis)

      1. their
        a n-athair agus a máthairtheir father and mother
        a dtithetheir houses
        a n-ainmneachatheir names
      2. (Connacht) our
      3. (Connacht) your (plural)
      See also
      edit

      Determiner

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      a (triggers lenition)

      1. how (used with an abstract noun)
        A ghéire a labhair sí!
        How sharply she spoke!
        A fheabhas atá sé!
        How good it is!

      Etymology 2

      edit

      A reduced form of older do (itself a reanalysis of do used in past tenses, and also present in early modern verbs like do-bheirim (I give), do-chím (I see)), or from the preverb a- in early modern verbs like a-tú (I am), a-deirim (I say) in relative clauses.

      Particle

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      a (triggers lenition except of d’ and of past autonomous forms)

      1. introduces a direct relative clause, takes the independent form of an irregular verb
        an fear a chuireann síolthe man who sows seed
        an síol a chuireann an fearthe seed that the man sows
        an síol a cuireadhthe seed that was sown
        nuair a bhí mé ógwhen I was young
        an cat a d'ól an bainnethe cat that drank the milk

      References

      edit
      • Gerald O’Nolan (1920) Studies in Modern Irish[16], volume 1, pages 89, 93–94

      Etymology 3

      edit

      From Old Irish a (that, which the relative particle used after prepositions), reanalyzed as an independent indirect relative particle from forms like ar a (on which, on whom), (to which, to whom), or early modern le a (with which, with whom), agá (at which, at whom) when prepositional pronouns started to be repeated in such clauses (eg. don té agá mbíon cloidheamh (…) aige, daoine agá mbíonn grádh aco do Dhia). Compare the forms used in Munster instead: go (from agá (at which)) and na (from i n-a (in which), go n-a (with which), ria n-a (before which) and later lena (with which), tréna (through which)).

      Particle

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      a (triggers eclipsis, takes the dependent form of an irregular verb; not used in the past tense except with some irregular verbs)

      1. introduces an indirect relative clause
        an bord a raibh leabhar airthe table on which there was a book
        an fear a bhfuil a mhac ag imeachtthe man whose son is going away
      edit
      • ar (used with the past tense of regular and some irregular verbs)

      Pronoun

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      a (triggers eclipsis, takes the dependent form of an irregular verb; not used in the past tense except with some irregular verbs)

      1. all that, whatever
        Sin a bhfuil ann.
        That's all that is there.
        An bhfuair tú a raibh uait?
        Did you get all that you wanted?
        Íocfaidh mé as a gceannóidh tú.
        I will pay for whatever you buy.
      edit
      • ar (used with the past tense of regular and some irregular verbs)

      References

      edit
      • Nicholas Williams (1994) “Na Canúintí a Theacht chun Solais”, in K. McCone, D. McManus, C. Ó Háinle, N. Williams, L. Breatnach, editors, Stair na Gaeilge: in ómós do P[h]ádraig Ó Fiannachta (in Irish), Maynooth: Roinn na Sean-Ghaeilge, Coláiste Phádraig, →ISBN, page 464:Tháinig nós chun cinn sa 17ú haois freisin an réamhfhocal a dhúbláil: don té agá mbíonn cloidheamh..aige; daoine agá mbíonn grádh aco do Dhia (Ó Cuív, 1952b, 177), an tí ag a bhfuil a bheag do chuntabhairt aige (Williams, 1986, 155).
      • Gerald O’Nolan (1934) The New Era Grammar of Modern Irish, The Educational Company of Ireland Ltd., page 56

      Etymology 4

      edit

      Particle

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      a (triggers lenition)

      1. introduces a vocative
        A Dhia!
        O God!
        A dhuine uasail!
        Sir!
        Tar isteach, a Sheáin.
        Come in, Seán.
        A amadáin!
        You fool!

      Etymology 5

      edit

      Particle

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      a (triggers h-prothesis)

      1. introduces a numeral
        a haon, a dó, a trí...one, two, three...
        Séamas aJames the Second
        bus a seachtbus seven

      Etymology 6

      edit

      Originally a reduced form of do.

      Preposition

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      a (plus dative, triggers lenition)

      1. to (used with verbal nouns)
        síol a churto sow seed
        uisce a ólto drink water
        an rud atá sé a scríobhwhat he is writing
        D’éirigh sé a chaint.
        He rose to speak.
        Téigh a chodladh.
        Go to sleep.

      Mutation

      edit
      Irish mutation
      Radical Eclipsis with h-prothesis with t-prothesis
      a n-a ha not applicable
      Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

      Further reading

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      Istriot

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      Etymology

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      From Latin ad.

      Preposition

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      a

      1. at
        • 1877, Antonio Ive, Canti popolari istriani: raccolti a Rovigno, volume 5, Ermanno Loescher, page 99:
          A poûpa, a prùa a xì doûto bandere,
          At the stern, at the bow everything is flags,

      Particle

      edit

      a

      1. emphasises a verb; mandatory with impersonal verbs
        • 1877, Antonio Ive, Canti popolari istriani: raccolti a Rovigno, volume 5, Ermanno Loescher, page 99:
          A poûpa, a prùa a xì doûto bandere,
          At the stern, at the bow everything is flags,

      Italian

      edit

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Etymology 1

      edit

      From Latin ā (the name of the letter A).

      Letter

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      a f or m (invariable, lower case, upper case A)

      1. The first letter of the Italian alphabet, called a and written in the Latin script.

      Noun

      edit

      a f (invariable)

      1. The name of the Latin-script letter A/a.; a
      See also
      edit

      Etymology 2

      edit

      From Latin ad. In a few phrases, a stems from Latin ā, ab.

      Preposition

      edit

      a

      1. Indicates the indirect object. to
        Porta questo cesto alla nonna.
        Bring this basket to grandma.
        Ai gatti piacciono i pesci.
        Cats like fish.
        (literally, “Fish are pleasable to cats.”)
        E lo chiedi a me?
        You're asking that to me?
      2. Indicates the place, used in some contexts, in others in is used. in, to
        Andiamo a casa?
        Can we go home?
        (literally, “Can we go to home?”)
        Ora sto a Palermo, a Roma ci torno domani.
        I'm in Palermo now, I'll go back to Rome tomorrow.
      3. Denotes the manner. with
        appena, a nuoto, a piedi, a casoalmost, swimming, by foot, randomly
      4. Forms adverbs meaning in a manner related or resembling ~.
        a cappella, a bestia, a braccio, a pennello, etc.(please add an English translation of this usage example)
      5. Forms goodbye formulas from the time the persons will meet again. see you...
        A domani!See you tomorrow!
        A dopo!See you later!
        Al prossimo Natale!See you next Christmas!
      6. Introduces the ingredients of a dish, perfume, etc. with
        pasta all'uovopasta with eggs
        cornetto al cioccolatochocolate croissant
        shampoo al limonelemon shampoo
        patatine alla pizzapizza-flavoured crisps
      7. (central-southern Italy) Denotes the direct object, but only if it's not preceded by articles
        Chiama a Paolo.
        Call Paolo.
        E non ci avevi visto a noi?
        And you didn't see us?
        the "us" here is repeated twice for emphasis
        Ascolti a me, signó!
        Listen to me, ma'am!
      8. (followed by the definite article) Forms an interjection that gives an instruction or calls attention to something.
        Al ladro!Thief!
        Al fuoco!Fire!
        Al lupo!Wolf!
        All'attacco!Attack!
        All'arrembaggio!Assault! (yelled by pirates)
      9. (regional) Forms continuous tense when preceded by stare and followed by verb infinitives. -ing. The standard language for this scope uses gerunds.
        che stai a di'?what are you saying?
        stavo a dormi'I was sleeping
      10. Repeated indicates the amount by which something grows. by
        a due a duetwo by two; in pairs
        a poco a pocolittle by little
      11. Indicates the agent of a verb in some contexts. by. Sometimes interchangable with da.
        L'ho sentito dire a Livia.
        I heard Livia say it.
        (literally, “I heard it said by Livia.”)
        • c. 1909, Luigi Pirandello, chapter 2.3, in I vecchi e i giovani:
          Mi duole, creda, sinceramente, veder fare a un uomo come lei, per cui ho tanta stima, una figura... non bella, via! non bella.
          (please add an English translation of this quotation)
      Usage notes
      edit
      • When followed by a word that begins with a vowel sound, the form ad is used instead.
      • When followed by the definite article, a combines with the article to produce the following combined forms:
      a + article Combined form
      a + il al
      a + lo allo
      a + l' all'
      a + i ai
      a + gli agli
      a + la alla
      a + le alle
      Descendants
      edit
      • Norwegian Bokmål: a (learned)

      Etymology 3

      edit

      Verb

      edit

      a

      1. Misspelling of ha.

      References

      edit


      Further reading

      edit

      Jamaican Creole

      edit

      Preposition

      edit

      a

      1. Indicates location: at, in, on.
        a mi yaad
        at my home
      2. of
        Yunaitid Stiet a Amoerka
        United States of America
      3. to
        Dem go a maakit. Mi a-go a skuul.
        They go to the market. I'm going to school.

      Verb

      edit

      a

      1. be
        1. is, it's
          Jumieka a wahn ailan konchri.
          Jamaica is an island country.
        2. are, am
          Wi a api.
          We are happy.
          Mi a di tiicha.
          I am the teacher.
        3. there is, there are
          A tuu apruoch tu Ort sayans.
          There are two approaches to Earth science.

      Particle

      edit

      a

      1. Habitual present tense marker.
        wan plies we dem a plie haki mach
        a place where they play hockey matches
      2. Precedes a verb to mark the -ing form.
        a laaf, a ron, a iit
        laughing, running, eating

      See also

      edit

      Further reading

      edit

      Japanese

      edit

      Romanization

      edit

      a

      1. The hiragana syllable (a) or the katakana syllable (a) in Hepburn romanization.

      Jersey Dutch

      edit

      Pronunciation

      edit
      • (phoneme): IPA(key): /ʊ/, /ɑ/

      Letter

      edit

      a

      1. A letter of the Jersey Dutch alphabet, written in the Latin script.

      Kabuverdianu

      edit

      Letter

      edit

      a (uppercase A)

      1. The first letter of the Kabuverdianu alphabet, written in the Latin script.

      Kabyle

      edit

      Alternative forms

      edit

      Determiner

      edit

      a

      1. this
        a rgaz a
        this man

      Kalasha

      edit

      Etymology

      edit

      From Sanskrit अहम् (ahám).

      Pronoun

      edit

      a (Arabic آ)

      1. I (1st-person personal pronoun)

      See also

      edit

      Kapampangan

      edit

      Ligature

      edit

      a

      1. connects adjectives to nouns
        Romantiku a bengi.
        A romantic night.
        Pinakapalsintan a tau.
        The person I love the most.
        Mayap a abak.
        Good morning.
        Mayap a bengi.
        Good night.
        Dakal a salamat.
        Thank you very much.

      See also

      edit

      Kari'na

      edit

      Pronunciation

      edit

      Interjection

      edit

      a

      1. ah, aah

      References

      edit
      • Courtz, Hendrik (2008) A Carib grammar and dictionary[17], Toronto: Magoria Books, →ISBN, page 213
      • Yamada, Racquel-María (2010) “a”, in Speech community-based documentation, description, and revitalization: Kari’nja in Konomerume[18], University of Oregon, page 707

      Kashubian

      edit

      Pronunciation

      edit
      • IPA(key): /ˈa/
      • Rhymes: -a
      • Syllabification: a

      Etymology 1

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      The Kashubian orthography is based on the Latin alphabet. No earlier script is known. See the Kashubian alphabet article on Wikipedia for more, and a for development of the glyph itself.

      Letter

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      a (lowercase, uppercase A)

      1. The first letter of the Kashubian alphabet, called a and written in the Latin script.

      See also

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      Etymology 2

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      Inherited from Proto-Slavic *a.

      Conjunction

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      a

      1. and (used to continue a previous statement or to add to it)

      Noun

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      a n (indeclinable)

      1. (music) a (note)

      Etymology 3