Appendix:English collective nouns

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Here is a list of collective nouns by subject.

A collective noun is a special kind of noun that refers to a collection of objects—often animals—such as a flock of birds, or a pride of lions.

In the lists which follow, terms marked with a + belong to the 15th-century list of "proper terms" contained in the Book of St Albans. Many of these are fanciful or humorous terms which have never had any real currency, but have been taken up by various antiquarian writers.[1]

information Don't trust this list; many of these entries are fanciful and never found outside of word lists.
Subject Collective term
aardvarks An armoury of aardvarks
academics A faculty of academics
acrobats A troupe of acrobats
actors A cast, company, condescension, cry, queue, stage, troupe of actors
actresses An entrance of actresses
adders A sum of adders
admirals A bridge of admirals
aircraft A flight, squadron (aeroplanes), wing of aircraft
aircraft, fighter A circus, or wing of fighter aircraft
albatrosses A rookery, weight of albatrosses
alligators A congregation, raft of alligators
altar boys A fidget of altar boys
alpha computers A cluster of alpha computers
ammunition A cache of ammunition
angel fish A company of angel fish
angels A choir, chorus, flight, host, or pinhead of angels
anglers A catch of anglers
animals A menagerie of animals
antelope A herd, cluster, tribe of antelope
ants An army, bike, colony, nest, soviet, swarm of ants
apes A shrewdness,[2] or troop of apes
apples A bushel, orchard of apples
archer fish A company of archer fish
architects An argument, confusion of architects
archivists A fonds of archivists
arms A stand of arms
arrows A quiver, sheaf of arrows
arseholes A bunch of arseholes
arsonists A conflagration of arsonists
artillery A battery, park, rumble, troop of artillery
artistes (acrobats, singers or dancers) A troupe of artistes
artists (painters) A colony of artists
asparagus A bundle of asparagus
asses A coffle, drove, herd, or pace of asses
assholes See "arseholes" above
asteroids A belt of asteroids
athletes A team of athletes
auditors A bashir of auditors.
auks A raft, colony, flock of auks
avocets A colony of avocets
baboons A congress, flange, rumpus, tribe, troop, troupe of baboons
bacteria A colony of bacteria (a culture if laboratory-grown)
badgers A cete,[3] clan, or colony of badgers
bagpipes A skirl of bagpipes
bakers An aroma, tabernacle of bakers
balloons A festival of balloons
bananas A hand, bunch of bananas
bankers A wunch of bankers
bankers, Scottish A knot of Scottish bankers
Baptists An immersion of Baptists
barbels A shoal of barbels
barbers A babble of barbers
barbers, military A crew of military barbers
barflies A buzz of barflies
barons A thought of barons
barracuda A battery of barracuda
barristers A boast, wiggery of barristers
bass A shoal, fleet of bass
bastards A shower of bastards
bats A colony, cloud, cauldron of bats
batteries A bank of batteries
bayonets A grove of bayonets
beakers A nest of beakers
beans A hill of beans
bears A maul, pack, sloth,[4] or sleuth of bears
beasts A nobility of beasts
beauties A bevy, or harmony of beauties
beavers A colony, family, or lodge of beavers
bed bugs A infestation of bed bugs
bees A bike, bike cast, byke, cast (secondary swarm), cluster, colony, commonwealth, erst, flight, drift, game, grist, hive, hum, rabble, stand, or swarm of bees
beers A brew of beer
beggar A coster, guild, parliament of beggars
bells A peal, change, or carillon of bells
bikers A gang of bikers
bills A wad of bills
birds A congregation, dissimulation (small birds), fleet, flight, flock, parcel, pod, roost, volary / volery (in an aviary) of birds
birds, large group A colony of birds (roosting in large numbers)
birds, small A dissimulation of birds (small birds)
birds, in flight A drift, or flight of birds (in flight)
birds, migrating A rush of birds (migrating)
birds, aviary A volery of birds (in an aviary)
bishops A sea, bench, or psalter of bishops
bison A herd, gang of bison
bitterns A pretence, sedge or siege of bitterns
blackbirds A cloud, flock, grind, merl of blackbirds
blackfish A grind of blackfish
blankets A swelter of blankets
bloodhounds A sute of bloodhounds
blossoms A flourish of blossoms
boars A drift (herded), herd, singular, singularity, sounder of boars
boars, wild A sounder[5] of wild boars
boats A fleet, flotilla of boats
bobolinks A chain of bobolinks (polygamous bird, Ricebird)
bombs A cluster, stick (air-dropped) of bombs
bomblets A cluster of bomblets
bonobos A box of bonobos
books A library, pile, compendium of books
boors A rood of boors
borg A collective, hive of borg
bother A spot of bother
bowlers A keg of bowlers
bowls A nest, set of bowls
boys A blush, boister, leer, passel or rascal of boys
brats A passel of brats
bread A batch of bread
brumbies A band, mob of brumbies
brush, wood A bavin of brush (wood)
bucks A brace, clash, herd, leash of bucks
budgerigars A chatter, flock of budgerigars
buffalo A gang, herd, or obstinacy of buffalo
bullfinches A bellowing, lowing of bullfinches
bullocks A drove of bullocks
bureaucrats A shuffle of bureaucrats
burritos A pace of burritos
businessmen A stock of businessmen
business angels A bevy of business angels
bustards A flock, wake of bustards
butlers A draught of butlers
butterflies A flight, flutter, kaleidoscope, rabble, rainbow, school fish, swarm, or wing of butterflies
butterfly fish A school of butterfly fish
buzzards A wake, kettle, pack of buzzards
cadets A corps of cadets
camels A caravan, flock, herd, scorn, train of camels
(canal) lock A flight of locks
candidates A slate of candidates
candies A mint of candies
canons A dignity, chapter of canons
canyons A maze of canyons
capercaillies A tok of capercaillies (i.e. Old World grouse)
capons A mews, muse of capons
cardinals A conclave, or radiance of cardinals
cards A deck, pack, hand, house (specially arranged), tower (specially arranged) of cards
caribou A herd of caribou
carpenters A pound of carpenters
cars A fleet, mayhem, park, or stack of cars
cat houses A mews of cat houses
caterpillars An army of caterpillars
Catholics A mass of Catholics
cats A clowder,[6] cluster, clutter, destruction (wild cats), dout, dowt, glaring, kindle, litter, nuisance (house cats) or pounce of cats
cats and dogs A rain of cats and dogs
cattle A drift, drove, fold, kine, herd, mob, team of cattle
cattle, two A yoke of cattle
cavalry A squadron, troop of cavalry
cellists A parenthesis of cellists
censors A gaggle of censors
chairs A fold of chairs
chamois A herd of chamois
check controllers A stab of check controllers (Air Traffic Control)
cheerleaders An array of cheerleaders
cheetahs A coalition of cheetahs
chess players A board, or brood of chess players
chicks A brood, chattering, clutch of chicks
chickens A brood, chattering, cletch, clutch, flock, or peep of chickens
children An ingratitude of children
chimpanzees A troop, whoop, family, cartload of chimpanzees
chihuahuas A yap of chihuahuas
chinchillas A colony, herd of chinchillas
choughs A chattering, clattering of choughs
churchgoers A congregation of churchgoers
churls A cluster of churls
circuits A bank of circuits
clams A bed of clams
clans A gathering of clans
claques A shriek of claques
classicists A codex of classicists
clerks A school, rookery of clerks
clergy An assembly, convocation of clergy
clouds A soufflé of clouds
clowns A (an) alley, bunch, mutiny, nest, pratfall, shudder, trunkload of clowns
cobblers A cutting, drunken ship, drunkship, or load of cobblers
cobras A quiver of cobras
cocides A bed of cocides
cockatoos A chattering, clattering, cluttering, crackle, or family of cockatoos
cockles A bed of cockles
cockroaches An intrusion, or swarm of cockroaches
cock-turkeys A posse of cock-turkeys
cod A lap, school of cod
coins A roll, or roleau of coins
collective nouns A catch of collective nouns
coloraturas A quaver of coloraturas
colts A rack, rag, or rake of colts
comedians A gaggle, or riot of comedians
communists A colhose of communists
computers A cluster of computers
computers, linked A network of computers (linked together)
concretors A slurrie of concretors
condiments An accompaniment of condiments
conges A congerie of conges
conies A bury, or game of conies
convicts A chain, gang of convicts
cooks A temperance, hastiness of cooks
coots A commotion, cover, covert, fleet, flock, pod, raft, rasp, or swarm of coots
corgi A consort of corgi
cormorants A flight, gulp of cormorants
corn A sheaf, shock of corn (pile of stalks)
coughs A chattering of coughs
courtesans A harem of courtesans
courtiers A threatening of courtiers
cowboy mounts, extra A cavvy, or remuda of extra cowboy mounts
cowboys A saunter of cowboys
cows A drift, drove, flink, herd, kine, or mob of cows
coyotes A band, pack, rout, or run of coyotes
cranes A herd, sedge, siege, or flock of cranes
crickets An orchestra of crickets
cricketers An eleven of cricketers
crocodiles A bask, congregation, float, or nest of crocodiles
crows A cauldron, caucus, congress, cowardice, hover, murder, muster, parcel, or storytelling of crows
cubs A litter of cubs
curates A charge of curates
curlews A buff, head, herd, salon, skein, or wedge of curlews
curs A cowardice of curs
cutlery A canteen of cutlery
cyclists A pack, peloton of cyclists
cymbals A sign of cymbals
dachshunds A moxie of doxies
dancers A gambol, troop / troupe of dancers
dancers, female A float of dancers
dancers, male A flight of dancers
daubers A squat of daubers
deans A decanter, or decorum of deans
debtors A split of debtors
debutants A delirium of debutants
decorators A tantrum of decorators
deer A bunch, herd, leash, parcel, mob, or rangale of deer
deer, roe A bevy of roe deer
deer, two/three A brace (2), or leash (3) of deer
dentists An amalgam, brace, or wince of dentists
dermatologists A rash of dermatologists
designers A set, or subtlety of designers
diagnosticians A guess of diagnosticians
dice A luck of dice
dictators A tyranny of dictators
dictionaries A meaning of dictionaries
dieters A pot of dieters
dilation A dilation of pupils
dinosaurs A herd, or pack of dinosaurs
directions A vane of directions
directors A gild, drove, or board of directors
barstaff A disappearance of barstaff
divers A bubble of divers
divorcees A desperation of divorcees
DIYers A bodge of DIYers
doctors A confab, doctrine, dose, field of doctors
documents A wealth, or dossier of documents
dodos An extinction of dodos
dogfish A troop of dogfish
dogs, two/three A brace (2), or leash (3) of dogs
dogs A cry, kennel, litter (puppies), pack[7] of dogs
dollars A fistful of dollars
dolphins A herd, flock, pod,[8] school, or team of dolphins
dominoes A falling of dominoes
donkeys A herd, drove, or pace of donkeys
dons An obstruction of dons
donuts A holiness of donuts
doorkeepers A safeguard of doorkeepers
dotterel A trip of dotterel
doves A bevy, cote, dole, dule, exaltation, flight, piteousness, pitying, or prettying of doves
dowagers A bevy, or frost of dowagers
dragonet fish A swarm of dragonet fish
dragons A blaze, doom, drive, flight, horde, thunder, weyr, or wing of dragons
drawers A chest of drawers
dray A dray of squirrels
drinks A round of drinks
drones, literary A swarm of literary drones
drongos A bunch of drongos
drugs A cocktail of drugs
drummers An asylum, fagot, or roll of drummers
drums A kettle of drums
drunks A load, or stone of drunks
ducks A brace, bunch, flush, flock, fleet (ducklings), paddling, skein, sord, string, team (on the wing) of ducks
ducks, diving A dopping of ducks (diving)
ducks, flying A flight, plump, pump, or team of ducks (while flying)
ducks, idle in water A raft of ducks (while idle in water)
ducks, on ground A badelynge of ducks (on the ground)
ducks, swimming A paddling of ducks (while swimming)
dunbirds A rush, or flight of dunbirds
dung A pile of dung
dunlin A fling of dunlin
dwarves A shortage of dwarves
eagles An aerie, army, convocation, jubilee, soar, or spread of eagles
earth ware, broken A fragment of broken earth ware
ecdysiasts A strip of ecdysiasts (striptease artists)
economists A clashing, deficit, or recession of economists
editors An erudition of editors
eels A bind, fry, swarm of eels
eggs A clutch, nest, setting of eggs
egos A pumphouse of egos
eland A herd of eland
electors A college of electors
electricians A grid or ohm of electricians
elephants A herd, memory, or parade of elephants
elk A gang or herd of elk
Elvis impersonators A wiggle of Elvis impersonators
embarrassments A blush of embarrassments
emos An embarrassment of emos
emotions A wash of emotions
empiricists A tabula rasa of empiricists
employees A staff of employees
emus A mob of emus
engineers An awkward, design or geek of engineers
Englishmen A pound of Englishmen
epidemiologists A host of epidemiologists
Episcopalians A government of Episcopalians
equestrians A prance of equestrians
errands A hassle of errands
Esperantists A congress, constellation of Esperantists
estimations A bout of estimations
events A chain of events
experts A panel, discord of experts
exterminators A slew of exterminators
fairies A charm, herd, fantasy of fairies
falcons, pair A cast of falcons
falcons A soar or tower of falcons
fans A thrill of fans
farts A gross of farts
Fence builders An encroachment of fence-builders
fencers A poke of fencers
ferrets A business, cast, fesnying / fesnyng of ferrets
finches A charm, chirm, company, flock, trembling, or trimming of finches
fine print A pitfall of fine print
firewood A faggot of firewood
fish A catch, draught, drift, fray, fun, haul, kettle, run, scale, school, or shoal of fish
fishermen A drift, exaggeration, grumble or sulk of fishermen
flags A flutter of flags
flamingos A flamboyance, flurry, regiment, skein, or stand of flamingos
flashers A phalanx or revelation of flashers
flautists A phalanx of flautists
flies A business, cloud, grist, hatch or swarm of flies
florists A bed, bouquet, bunch, garden, or patch of florists
flour A boll of flour
flowers A bed, bouquet, bunch, nosegay of flowers
flower pots A caste of flower pots
flying fish A glide of flying fish
footballers A coach, eleven, squad, team of footballers
footsteps A patter of footsteps
foresters A stalk, coop of foresters
fowl A plump, roost, skein, trip, (in flight) of fowl
foxes An earth, fleet, lead, skulk,[9] or troop of foxes
foxes, three A leash (3) of foxes
freezers A glacier of freezers
Frenchmen A peck of Frenchmen
freshmen A clump, plentitude of freshman
friars A scull, skulk of friars
friends A clique of friends
frogs A army, colony, knot, froggery of frogs
front end loaders A heap of front-end loaders
fry A nursery of fry
fungi A colony of fungi
fur seals A harem of seals (belonging to one male)
furniture A suite of furniture
game A bag of game
gamblers A talent of gamblers
gangsters A knuckle of gangsters
gardeners A sprinkling of gardeners
gays A village of gays
gears A rack of gears
geese A flock, gaggle, nide, skein, team, trip, wedge (flying in a "V") of geese
geldings A clipping, brace of geldings
generals A glitter of generals
geneticists A helix of geneticists
geologists A conglomerate, formation of geologists
geometrists A plane of geometrists
gerbils A horde of gerbils
Germans A gross of Germans
ghosts A fraid, fright of ghosts
giraffes A caravan, corps, herd, journey, stretch, totter, tower of giraffes
girls A bevy, giggle of girls
girls, tanked sorority A bevy of tanked sorority girls
glass Panes of glass
gluttons A slaver of gluttons
gnats A cloud, clout, horde, swarm of gnats
gnus An implausibility, herd of gnus
goats A drove, flock, herd, tribe,[10] trip of goats
gods A conception, pantheon of gods
goldfinches A drum, charm, glister, chattering, troubling, vein of goldfinches
goldfish A glint, troubling[11] of goldfish
golf balls A flight of golf balls
golf clubs A set of golf clubs
golfers A lie, tedium of golfers
goons A plunder of goons
goosanders A dopping of goosanders
gophers A garrison of gophers
gorillas A band, woop of gorillas
goshawks A flight of goshawks
goslings A shoal, skein of goslings
gossip columnists A slither of gossip columnists
gossips A dish of gossips
gourmands A delicatessen of gourmands
gourmets A delicatessen of gourmets
governesses A galaxy of governesses
graduate students A fortitude of graduate students
graduates An unemployment of graduates
grammarians A conjunction of grammarians
grandparents A nag, wisdom of grandparents
grapes A bunch, cluster, vineyard of grapes
grass A tuft of grass
grasses A fistful of grasses
grasshoppers A cloud, cluster, swarm of grasshoppers
greyhounds A gallop, leash of greyhounds
griffins A pryde of griffins
grits A mess of grits
groupies A grope of groupies
grouse A brace (2), brood (large group), covey (single family), drumming, flight, lek, pack of grouse
guillemots A bazaar of guillemots
guinea pigs A group of guinea pigs
gulls A colony, pack, screech of gulls
guns An arsenal, battery of guns
gunfire A salvo of gunfire
gunships A hailstorm of gunships
gurus A profit of gurus
gym instructors A set of gym instructors
gymnasts A tumbler of gymnasts
gynaecologists A smear of gynaecologists
gypsies A store of gypsies
hackers A cruft of hackers
hair A tuz, lock, wig of hair
hairdressers A set, swish of hairdressers
hammers A morning of hammers
hamsters A horde of hamsters
hand tools A grip of hand tools
hares A down, drove, flick, herd, husk, huske, kindle, leap, leash (3), trace, trip, warren of hares
haries A swarm of haries
harlots A heard / herd of harlots
harpers A melody of harpers
harps A twangle of harps
hartebeest A herd of hartebeest
harts A herd of harts
haute bourgeoisie An ennui of haute bourgeoisie
hawks A aerie, boil, cast, kettle, leash (3), mews, moulting, schizophrenia, screw, stream of hawks
hay A truss of hay
hedgehogs A prickle, array of hedgehogs
hedonists A debauchery of Hedonists
heirs An expectation of heirs
helicopters A hover of helicopters
helpers A hamper of helpers
hens A brood, run of hens
herdsmen A waywardness of herdsmen
hermits An observance of hermits
herons A hedge, siege, sedge, sege, station, rookery, flight, colony of herons
herrings A cran, glean, shoal, army of herrings
hides A dicker of hides
hills An undulation of hills
hinds A parcel of hinds
hippies A trip of hippies
hippopotamuses A bloat, crash, herd, huddle, pod, school, thunder of hippopotamuses
hipsters A fixie of hipsters
historians An argumentation of historians
hit men, retired A slew of retired hit men
hitmen A magnum of hitmen
hobos A bindle of hobos, A flagon of hobos
hogs A drift, drove, parcel, passel, sounder of hogs
homework A slew of homework
homosexuals An ensemble of homosexuals
hoodlums A gang of hoodlums
hops A pocket of hops
hornets A bike, nest, swarm of hornets
horsemen A cavalcade, troop of horsemen
horseplayers A parlay of horseplayers
horses A drove, harass / harras (breeding), herd, pair, remuda (large group), span (2), stable,[12] string, stud, team,[13] troop of horses
hoses A sprinkle of hoses
hostlers A laughter of hostlers
hounds A brace (2), cry, hunt, kennel, leash (3), meet, mute, pack,[14] stable, sute of hounds
housekeepers A foresight of housekeepers
houses A huddle of houses
humming birds A charm, hover, shimmer of hummingbirds
hummingbirds A charm, shimmer, glittering, bouquet, chattering, drum, troubling of hummingbirds
hunters A blast of hunters
husbands A multiply, unhappiness of husbands
hybrids A vigour of hybrids
hyenas A cackle, clan of hyenas
ibex A herd of ibex
ibises A colony of ibises
icebergs A crush, drift of icebergs
ichthyologists A scale of ichthyologists
icons A shield of icons
idiots A thicket of idiots
iguanas A mess of iguanas
impalas A couple of impalas
impediments A vagary of impediments
impressionists A blur of impressionists
infantry A crèche of infantry
information A bit, wealth of information
ingénues A spate of ingénues
in-laws An imposition of in-laws
insects A cloud, flight, horde, plague, rabble, swarm of insects
instruments, musical A parley of musical instruments
intellects A pretension of intellects
interpreters A tongue lashing of interpreters
Irishmen A pint of Irishmen
islands A archipelago, chain, cluster, group of islands
Italians An explosion of Italians
jackdaws A train, pair, band of jackdaws
jackrabbits A husk of jackrabbits
jays A band, cast, party, scold of jays
jellyfish A brood, fluther, jive, smack, smuck, smuth, stuck, studk, swarm of jellyfish
jewellers A ring of jewellers
jewels A cache of jewels
Jews A minyan of Jews (the quorum for a congregation)
Jezebels A peel of Jezebels
jigsaw puzzlers An assemblage of jigsaw puzzlers
jockeys A race of jockeys
joggers A wheeze of joggers
journalists A scoop, slant of journalists
judges A bench, sentence, bevy of judges
jugglers A neverthriving of jugglers
juniors A gratitude of juniors
kangaroo A flock, troop of kangaroo
kangaroos A court, mob, troop of kangaroos
keglers A bowl of keglers
kestrels A flight, soar of kestrels
keys A ring of keys (linked physically)
kids A caper of kids
kingfishers A concentration, realm, rattle, clique of kingfishers
kites (birds) A kettle, soar, roost of kites
kittens A claw, kendle / kindle[15] of kittens
kittens (cats) A litter of kittens (cats)
kittens (rabbits) A wrack of kittens (rabbits)
kleptomaniacs A clutch of kleptomaniacs
knaves A rayful, riff raff of knaves
knights A banner, rout / route of knights
knots A medusa, cluster of knots
labourers A gang of labourers
ladies A bevy of ladies
ladybirds / ladybugs A loveliness of ladybirds
lambs A fall, leap, rack of lambs
lamentations A moan of lamentations
languages A group of languages
lapwings A deceit, desert of lapwings
larks A ascension, bevy, exaltation, flight, happiness, springful of larks
larks An exaltation, exalting of larks
lavatories A flush of lavatories
laws, bad A strangle of bad laws
lasers / lazers A zap of lasers
lawyers A disputation, eloquence, escheat, greed, huddle, quarrel of lawyers
leaves An autumn, pile of leaves
lecturers A drift of lecturers
leopards A leap, lepe, snarl of leopards
lepers A colony of lepers
lesbians A tough of lesbians
leverets A kindle of leverets
liberals A pink of liberals
librarians A catalogue, stack, shush of librarians
lice A colony, infestation, flock of lice
lies A pack, web of lies
lifts / elevators A bank of lifts / elevators
lines A pencil of lines (proper contemporary group term in mathematics)
linguists A babble of linguists
linnets A parcel of linnets
lions A flock, pride,[16] sault, sowse, troop of lions
lispers A plethora of lispers
listeners A fascination, audience of listeners
lizards A lounge of lizards
llamas A herd of llamas
loafers A multiplication of loafers
locals A plague of locals
locusts A plague, cloud, swarm of locusts
logicians A sequitur of logicians
lollies A packet of lollies
loopholes A ho ho of loopholes
lorries A fleet, convoy of lorries
lovebirds A pair, orgy of lovebirds
lovers A trance of lovers
luddites A smashing of luddites
luminaries An array of luminaries
lutists A litany of lutists
lynx A chain of lynx
machines An invention of machines
machine guns A nest of machine guns
mackerel A shoal of mackerel
magicians An illusion of magicians
magistrates A bench of magistrates
magpies A congregation, charm, flock, gulp, murder, tiding, tittering, tribe of magpies
maidens A bevy, rage of maidens
mallards A battling, flush, lute, puddling, sord, sute (on water) of mallards
managers An asylum, cost of managers
maps An atlas of maps
marching bands A Sousa of marching bands
mares A stud of mares
mares, brood An overbearance of brood mares
marines A muscle of marines
martens A richness, richesse of martens
masseurs A pummel of masseurs
masters An example of masters
matadors A pavanne of matadors
matches A chain of matches
mathematicians A addition, number, set of mathematicians
matrons A riches of matrons
meanderings A confusion of meanderings
meatheads A density of meatheads
mechanics A clutch, torque of mechanics
mediators A compromise, caucus of mediators
meerkats A mob of meerkats
men A band (merry), host of men
merchants A faith of merchants
messengers A diligence of messengers
metallurgists An amalgamation of metallurgists
meteorologists A shower of meteorologists
mice A click, horde, mischief, nest, punnet,[17] trip of mice
microbiologists A colony of microbiologists
midges A bite of midges
midwives An expectation of midwives
millers A fraunch of millers
minks A richness of minks
minnows A shoal, steam, stream, swarm of minnows
minstrels A troupe of minstrels
misers A horde of misers
mistakes A catalogue of mistakes
mites A mite of mites
mockingbirds An impression, plagiary, exactness, echo, precision, ridicule of mockingbirds
models A slouch of models
moles A [[[arbour]], [company]], movement, labour of moles
money A wad, rouleau, cache of money
mongooses A band, pack of mongooses
mongrels A ménage of mongrels
monitors A bank of monitors
monkeys A barrel, cartload, machination, mission, tribe, troop, troupe, wilderness of monkeys
monks An abomination of monks (see note)
moorhens A plump of moorhens
moose A herd of moose
Mormons A book, branch of Mormons
morning glories A dawn of morning glories
morticians A slab of morticians
mosquitoes A scourge, swarm of mosquitoes
mothers A consternation of mothers
mothers-in-law A mutter of mothers-in-law
motorcyclists A clutch of motorcyclists
mountains A range of mountains
mourners A cortege, pathos of mourners
moving men A truculence of moving men
mudhen A fleet of mudhen
mules A barren, pack, rake, string of mules
mules A span (team of 2) mules
munchkins A phalanx, throng of munchkins
mushrooms A troop, sproutness of mushrooms
musicians An band, orchestra of musicians
mussels A bed, pint of mussels
mythological creatures A bestiary of mythological creatures
names An index of names
narcissists A mug of narcissists
narcissists A reflection of narcissists
natives A tribe of natives
Nazis A jungle of Nazis
neighbours An annoyance, nerve of neighbours
newsboys A scream of newsboys
newscasters A veneer of newscasters
newspapers A quire of newspapers
niccolos A nonsense of niccolos
nieces A squeal of nieces
night students A pallor of night students
nightingales A match, pray, kettle, watch, of nightingales
nightwatchmen A pallor of nightwatchmen
Northerners A freeze of Northerners
nouns A collective of nouns
nouns A propriety, rump roast of nouns
nuns A murmur of nuns (as of their sound)
nuns A prey, flap, convent of nuns
nuns A superfluity of nuns
nymphomaniacs A spread of nymphomaniacs
oarsmen A row of oarsmen
objectivists A Rand of Objectivists
objects A collection of objects
office boys An ogle of office boys
officers A mess, execution, gaggle (military) of officers
old guard A slumber of old guard
on-lookers A fascination of on-lookers
onions A rope of onions
onlookers A crowd of onlookers
optometrists A vision of optometrists
oranges A pocket of oranges
orangutans A buffoonery of orangutans
orchids A coterie of orchids
orgiasts A concatenation of orgiasts
orphans An abandonment of orphans
orthodontists A brace of orthodontists
orthopaedists A cast, brace of orthopaedists
osteopaths A joint of osteopaths
ostriches A wobble, pride, flock of ostriches
otologists A herd of otologists (a physician who specializes in the study of the anatomy and diseases of the ear)
otters A bevy, family, raft, ramp, romp of otters
otters, sea A raft of sea otters
over achievers A leap of over achievers
ovoids A metamorphosis of ovoids
owls A parliament of owls
owls A stare of owls
owls A wisdom, sagaciousness of owls
oxbirds A fling of oxbirds
oxen A drove, herd, meinie, span, team,[18] yoke (2) of oxen
oysters A bed, hive of oysters
oysters, young A set of young oysters
Pacificans A troop of Pacificans
padres A host of padres
painters An illusion, madder, curse, misbelieving of painters
paisleys A swirl of paisleys
palindrome A tenet of palindromes
palm readers A handful of palm readers
paparazzi A flash of paparazzi
paper A pad, ream of (sheets of) paper
papers A budget of papers
paratroops A storm of paratroops
paratroopers A stick of paratroopers
pardoners A lying of pardoners
parents A persistence of parents
parents An embarrassment of parents(for use by teenagers)
parishioners A kneeling of parishioners
parking attendants / parking wardens A fine, lot of parking attendants
parrots A company, flock, prattle of parrots
parrots A pandemonium of parrots
parrots A prattle, psittacosis of parrots
parrs A glut of parrs
particulars A bill of particulars
partridges A bevy, bew, brace, cover, covey of partridges
partridges A warren, clutch of partridges
pathologists A body of pathologists
patients A virtue of patients
Patrick A bungle of Patricks
peacocks A muster of peacocks
peacocks A pride, pulchritude of peacocks
peacocks An ostentation of peacocks
pearls A rope, string of pearls
peas A pod of peas
peasants A toil of peasants
pedants A parliament of pedants
peddlers / pedlers A malapertness (= impertinence) of peddlers
pekinese A pomp of pekinese
pelicans A brief, rookery, scoop, colony, raft, squadron, pod
penguins A colony, rookery of penguins
penguins A crèche of penguins
penguins A formality of penguins
penguins A huddle of penguins
penguins A parade, waddle (on dry land) of penguins
penguins A parcel of penguins
Pentecostals A glossolalia of Pentecostals
people A clique, community, congregation, crowd, group of people
perch A pack of perch
percussionist A meter of percussionists
peregrines A cadge of peregrines
performers A troupe of performers
phantoms A phantasmagoria of phantoms
pharmacists A mixture of pharmacists
pheasants A bouquet (flushed), brace, fesynes, head, nest, nye, warren of pheasants
pheasants, on the ground A covey, nide of pheasants
philatelists A stampede of philatelists
philosophers A ponder, confusion, wrangle of philosophers
photographers A clique, snap of photographers
photons An enlightenment of photons
physicians A college of physicians
physicists A nucleus of physicists
pianists A pound of pianists
pickpockets A snatch of pickpockets
pigeons A bunch, dropping, roost of pigeons
pigeons A kit, flight of pigeons (flying together)
pigeons A loft, flock of pigeons
piglets A farrow, passel of piglets
piglets A litter, farrow of piglets[19]
pigs A drove of pigs
pigs A fleet of pigs
pigs A herd of pigs
pigs A litter of pigs
pigs A sounder of pigs
pilchards A shoal, school of pilchards
pill-poppers A gaggle of pill poppers
pilots A yoke of pilots
pineapples A prickle of pineapples
pintail A knob of pintail
pipers A poverty of pipers
pipers A skirl of pipers
pistols A brace of pistols
planes A stack of planes
planets A quincunx of planets
plankton A cloud of plankton
plans A breakdown of plans
players A cry, squad, team of players
players A huddle, retinue of players
playingcards A pack, deck of playingcards
playwrights A plot of playwrights
pleasure A glut of pleasure
pleasures A guilt of pleasures
plovers A congregation of plovers
plovers A stand, band, leash of plovers
plovers A wing, flight of plovers
plums A basket of plums
plumbers A flood of plumbers
plumbers A flush of plumbers
pochard A rush, flight, knob (small number) of pochard
poems An anthology of poems
poets A rhyme of poets
poets An iamb of poets
poets An obscurity of poets
poker players A stud of poker players
polar bears An aurora, celebration, pack of polar bears
polecats A chine of polecats
police A posse, squad, troop of police
politicians An equivocation, lie, odium, windsock or windbag of politicians
ponies A herd, string of ponies[20]
poodles A salon of Poodles
porcupine fish A cluster of porcupine fish
porcupines A prickle of porcupines
porpoises A gam, herd, pod[8], school, turmoil of porpoises
porters A grip, safeguard of porters
portfolio managers A stock of portfolio managers
posers A posse of posers
possum A passel of possum
posties A parcel of posties
potato chips A salt substrate of potato chips
pottage A mess of pottage
poultry A run of poultry
prairie dogs A coterie, town of prairie dogs
preachers A converting, pontification of preachers
prelates A pontifica, pontificality of prelates
premises A breach of premises
Presbyterians A membership of Presbyterians
Press Officers An Alancrockford of Press Officers
pretzels A salt substrate of pretzels
priests A discretion, lechery, mass, pontification, superfluity of priests
prima donnas A spite of prima donnas
princes A state of princes
princesses A royalty of princesses
prisoners A pity of prisoners
proctologists A buttload, pile of proctologists
professors A pomposity of professors
professors emeriti An ex cathedra of professors emeriti
professors, assistant A clamber of assistant professors
professors, associate A tenure of associate professors
professors, full An entrenchment of professors
programmers An archive of programmers
programmers, Microsoft computer An asylum, bloat of Microsoft computer programmers
proofreaders A squint of proofreaders
prose An anthology of prose
prostitutes A stable of prostitutes
prostitutes A whored of prostitutes
prostitutes An anthology of pros (prostitutes) (see note), A firm of solicitors, A jam of tarts, A flourish of strumpets
psychoanalysts A complex of psychoanalysts
psychologists A complex of psychologists
ptarmigans A covey, parliament of ptarmigans
public speakers A twaddle of public speakers
puddles A splash of puddles
puffins A circus, colony (on land), improbability, loomery, raft, wheel (flying) of puffins
pugilists A box of pugilists
pugs A grumble of Pugs
puns A groan of puns
pupils A dilation of pupils
puppies A litter[21] of puppies
puppies A piddle of puppies
pyromaniacs A blaze of pyromaniacs
pyromaniacs A conflagration of pyromaniacs
quail A bevy, covey, drift, flight, flush, knob, rout, shake of quail
Quakers A meeting of Quakers
queers A brace, camp of queers
quilts A hotbed of quilts
rabbits A bury, berry, colony, down, drove, flick, herd, husk, leash, nest, trace, trip, warren, wrack of rabbits
raccoons A mask, gaze, nursery of raccoons
racehorses A field, meet, string of racehorses
radio announcers A herd of radio announcers
radiologists A series of radiologists
railroad schedules A tragedy of railroad schedules
rainbow fish A party of rainbow fish
rats A colony, horde, kingdom, mischief, pack, plague, rabble, swarm of rats
rattle snakes A rhumba of rattle snakes
ravens A conspiracy, parliament, storytelling, tower, unkindness of ravens
ravers A scatter of ravers
realtors A lot of realtors
reasons A rainbow of reasons
rebuttals A quiver of rebuttals
redwing A crowd of redwing
reeds A clump of reeds
refugees A flight of refugees
relatives A descent of relatives
relatives A gossip of relatives
renters A knot of renters
repairmen An overcharge of repairmen
reporters A scoop of reporters
reviewers A pan of reviewers
rhinoceroses A crash, herd, stubbornness of rhinoceroses
ribs A rack of ribs
riches An embarrassment of riches
rioters A melee of rioters
roach A shoal of roach
road ragers A stack of road ragers
robbers A band of robbers
robins A worm of robins
robots A cog of robots
roe deer A bevy of roe deer
roebucks A bevy of roebucks
roes A bevy of roes
rooks A building, clamour, congregation, parliament, shoal, storytelling, wing of rooks
rooms A suite, tenement of rooms
ruffs A bill, hill of ruffs
runners A field of runners
sails A fitting, outfit, set of sails
sailors A crew, perversion, watch of sailors
sailors A deck of sailors
saints A calendar, communion of saints
salesmen A sample of salesmen
salmon A bind, draught, leap, run, school, shoal of salmon
salt A lot of salt
saltines A salt substrate of saltines
sandpipers A fling of sandpipers
sardines A family of sardines
satellites A constellation of satellites
sausages A sizzle of sausages
savages A horde of savages
scholars A brow of scholars
schoolboys A rout of schoolboys
schoolies A chalk of schoolies
Scots A disworship, clan of Scots
Scots A fifth of Scots
scouts A woggle of scouts
sea fowl A cloud of sea fowl
seagulls A flock, flotilla, screech, squabble, scavenging of seagulls
seahorses A herd of seahorses
seals A bob, bunch, colony, crash, harem, herd, knob, plum, plump, pod[8], rockery, rookery, spring, team of seals
seamstresses A scolding of seamstresses
second thoughts A clutch of second thoughts
seismologists A quake of seismologists
senators A compromise, house, pomposity of senators
seniors An attitude of seniors
sergeants at law A subtlety of sergeants at law
sermons A squash of sermons
servants An obeisance, staff of servants
shad A shoal of shad
sharks A pack, shiver, school, shoal of sharks
sheep A down, drift, drove, flock, fold, herd, hurtle, meinie, mob, parcel, trip, wing of sheep
sheldrakes A doading, dopping of sheldrakes
shells (sea) A midden of shells
shells, artillery A broadside (on water), salvo of (artillery) shells
shepherds A Sodom of shepherds
sheriffs A posse of sheriffs
ships A fleet of ships
ships A flotilla of ships
ships An armada of ships
shrimp A troup of shrimp
shoelaces A knot of shoelaces
shoemakers A blackening of shoemakers
shoes A scandal, pair of shoes
shoppers A crush of shoppers
show dogs A bench of show dogs
shrimps A troup of shrimps
silk A skein of silk
silk screens A pull of silk-screens
silks (QCs) A purse of silks
silver foxes A richness of silver foxes
similes A superfluity of similes
singers A choir, harmony of singers
Sirens A wail of sirens
skunks A stench, surfeit of skunks
slaves A coffle (chained), gang of slaves
slugs A cornucopia of slugs
smelt A quantity of smelt
smokers A billow, confraternity, hack of smokers
snails A escargatoire, rout, suit, walk of snails
snakes A bed, knot, trogle of snakes
snakes A den of snakes
snakes A nest of snakes
snakes A pit of snakes
snakes A slither of snakes
snipe A leash, volley, walk (at rest), whisper, wisp of snipe
software A bunch, crash of software
soldiers An army, boast, brigade, company, division, draft, muster, platoon, squad, troop of soldiers
sonnets A garland of sonnets
sophomores A platitude of sophomores
sopranos A sweetness of sopranos
source code A bottle of source code
sparrows A host, tribe of sparrows
sparrows A meinie of sparrows
sparrows A quarrel of sparrows
sparrows A ubiquity of sparrows
spatulas A beautification of spatulas
speed cameras A tyranny of speed cameras
sphincters A clench of sphincters
spiders A cluster of spiders
spiders A clutter of spiders
spies A treachery of spies
sponsors A splurge of sponsors
spoons A serving, stir of spoons
sportsmen A team of sportsmen
squirrels A church, dray of squirrels (a nest)
squirrels A scurry, colony of squirrels
stage hands A brace, sarcasm of stage hands
stage mothers A pride of stage mothers
stairs A flight of stairs
stalkers A following of stalkers
starlets A cupful of starlets
starlets A galaxy of starlets
starlets A wiggle of starlets
starlings A cloud, chattering, clutter, congregation, constellation, filth, flight, vulgarity of starlings
starlings A murmuration of starlings
stars A cluster, constellation of stars
stars A galaxy of stars
stars A wonder of stars
statesmen A disagreement of statesmen
statisticians A number of statisticians
steps A flight of steps
sticklebacks A shoal, spread of sticklebacks
sticks A faggot / fagot of sticks
stoats A pack, trip of stoats
stockbrokers A portfolio of stockbrokers
storks A muster of storks
storks A mustering of storks
storks A phalanx of storks
storks A silence, swoop, flight of storks
straphangers A puree of straphangers
strawberries A punnet of strawberries
strippers A tassel of strippers
strumpets A fanfare, flourish of strumpets
students A class of students
students A failing of students
students A flunk of students
sub-atomic particles A minuscule of sub-atomic particles
submarines A pack of submarines
submarines A wolfpack of submarines
suburbanites A transplant of suburbanites
suitcases A pack of suitcases
suitors A bleach of suitors (another name for cobblers)
suitors A swarm of suitors
summoners An untruth of summoners
surfers A wave of surfers
surfers A whale of surfers
surgeons An incision of surgeons
surprises A boo of surprises
surveyors A chain of surveyors
suspects A fidget of suspects
swallows A flight of swallows
swallows A gulp, kettle, swoop, richness of swallows
swans A ballet, bank, drift, herd, lamentation, ponce, sounder, squadron, team, whiting of swans
swans A game, herd, bevy of swans
swans A regatta of swans (on water)
swans A whiteness of swans
swans An eyrar of swans
swans, flying A wedge of swans (flying in a "V")
swedish A bork of swedish
swifts A flock, drift of swifts
swimmers A raft of swimmers
swimmers, long distance A league of long distance swimmers
swine A doyft, drift of swine (wild)
swine A drove of swine
swine A herd of swine
swine A sounder of swine (tame)
swine A trip of swine (tame)
swingers A bed of swingers
Swiss A watch of Swiss
swordfish A flotilla of swordfish
sycophants A gush, swarm of sycophants
tailors A disguising of tailors
tailors A proud showing of tailors
tanks A clank of tanks
tanks A clatter of tanks
tapirs A candle of tapirs
tapsters A promise of tapsters
TARDISes A manor of TARDISes
tarts A jam of tarts
tasks An agenda of tasks
taverners A cajolery of taverners
taverners A glazing (= fawning) of taverners
taxis A charge of taxis
teachers A quiz of teachers
teal A diving of teal
teal A spring, string, raft, knob, bunch, coil of teal
teddy bears A hug of teddy bears
teenagers A grunt of teenagers
teenagers An attitude of teenagers
tennis games A set of tennis games
termites A colony, swarm of termites
terriers A mess, terror of terriers
testicles A clutch of testicles
tests A battery of tests
Texans A mob of Texans
theoretical physicists A field of theoretical physicists
thieves A den, gang, mob, skulk of thieves
things A bunch, cluster of things
threshers A thrave of threshers
thrushes A mutation of thrushes
thugs A gang of thugs
tigers A hide of tigers
tigers A streak of tigers
tigers An ambush of tigers
tinkers A wandering of tinkers
toadies A pander of toadies
toads A knab, knot of toads (derivation: appearance)
toads A lump, nest, knob of toads
todays A twinkling of todays
tomorrows A promise of tomorrows
tongues A convention of tongues
tongues A jagger of tongues
tortoises A creep of tortoises
toucans A durante of toucans
tourists A flock, glaze of tourists
toys An assembly of toys
trainers, personal A torment of trainers
trains A postponement, cancellation of trains
tranquilizers An equanimity of tranquilizers
transvestites A camp, travesty of transvestites
trash A heap of trash
tree surgeons A graft of tree surgeons
trees A clump, copse, coupe, forest, grove, spinney, stand of trees
trees A grove of trees
trees A stand of trees
trees A thicket of trees
trees A stillness of trees
tricksters A tangle of tricksters
troops A parel of troops
troubles A shitload of troubles
trout A hover, shoal of trout
trucks A convoy, fleet of trucks
trumpets A flourish of trumpets
trustees A board of trustees
truths A pithy of truths
tubas A tumult of tubas
tuna A float, troup of tuna
turds A steam of turds
turkeys A brood of turkeys (immature)
turkeys A death-row of turkeys
turkeys A flock, dole, dule, gang, posse of turkeys
turkeys A raffle of turkeys
turkeys A rafter, raft of turkeys
turtledoves A pitying, dule, peerage of turtledoves
turtles A bale, dole of turtles
turtles A dule of turtles
turtles A turn of turtles
twitches An embarrassment of twitches
two-up players A stoop of two-up players
typists A pool of typists
umbrellas A phalanx, spawn of umbrellas
under achievers A drowse of under achievers
undertakers An unction (or extreme unction) of undertakers
unicorns A blessing, glory, or marvel of unicorns
urologists A void of urologists
used car salesmen A great deal of used car salesmen
ushers A set of ushers
utensils A set of utensils
vacationers A peel of vacationers
vases, broken A mingling of broken vases
vegetarians A sprig of vegetarians
vehicles A fleet of vehicles
vellum A cutch of vellum
vendors A haggle of vendors
vessels A fleet of vessels
vicaries (vicars) A prudence of vicaries (vicars)
violinists A string of violinists
vipers A nest, generation of vipers
voles A colony of voles
voters A constituency of voters
voters A desperation of voters
vultures A wake, nest, colony, looming, meal, venue, vortex of vultures
wagers A book of wagers
waiters An absence of waiters
waiters An indifference of waiters
waiters An order of waiters, absence of waiters
walkers An amble of walkers
wallabies A mob of wallabies
walruses A herd, pod, huddle of walruses
walruses An ugly of walruses
wankers A palm of wankers
wardrobe ladies A measure of wardrobe ladies
warlocks An incantation of warlocks
washing A load of washing
wasps A nest, destruction, bike, colony of wasps
wasps A pail of wasps
waterfowl A bunch of waterfowl
waterfowl A knob of waterfowl (less than 30)
waterfowl A plump of waterfowl
waterfowl A raft of waterfowl (on water)
weapons A cache of weapons
weasels A sneak of weasels (derivation: behaviour)
weasels A sneak, pack, gang of weasels
webmasters A linkage of webmasters
webmasters A net of webmasters
webpages A charlotte of webpages
weed A stash of weed (when hidden)
Weight Watchers A wailing of Weight Watchers
whales A gam, plump, shard of whales
whales A grind of whales (bottle-nosed)
whales A herd, mob of whales
whales A pod[8] of whales
whales A school,[22] float, shoal, run, troupe of whales
whales (bottle-nosed) A grind of whales
whalers A gam of whalers
wheat A sheaf of wheat (stalks) of grain tied together)
whelps A litter of whelps
whiting A pod of whiting
whores A congress, miller, parliament of whores
widgeon A coil, company, trip, flight, bunch, knob of widgeon
widgeon A raft of widgeon (wild duck)
widows An ambush of widows
wikipedians A page of wikipedians
wildcats A destruction, dout of wild cats
wildebeest A herd of wildebeest
wildfowl A bunch, know (less than 30) of wildfowl
wildfowl A plump, bunch, trip, knob, lute, scry, skein, sord of wildfowl
willows A bend of willows
windmills A tilt of windmills
wine tasters A bouquet of wine tasters
wing-commanders A flush of wing commanders (aka "WCs")
winners A shout of winners
winnings A purse of winnings
winter fishermen A chill of winter fishermen
witches A cackle, coven, incantation of witches
wives An impatience of wives
wizards An argument of wizards
wolves A herd, rout[23] of wolves
wolves A pack[24] of wolves
wolves A route of wolves
wombats A mob, snear, warren of wombats
women A bond, gaggle of women
women, leering A clutch of leering women
woodcocks A fall, covey, plump, flight of woodcocks
woodlice A quabble of woodlice
woodpeckers A descent, descension of woodpeckers
woodpeckers A gatling of woodpeckers
woodwinds A cord of woodwinds
words A babel of words
worms A clew, mouthful of worms
worms A wriggle of worms
worshipers A congregation, sect of worshipers
wrens A herd, flock of wrens
wrestlers A clutch, crunch of wrestlers
writers A worship of writers
yaks (both animal and conversation) A herd of yaks
yeomen A fellowship of yeomen
yes men A concert of yes men
yesterdays A flight of yesterdays
yesterdays A yearning of yesterdays
yolks A burden of yolks
youths An optimism of youths
zebra A cohort, dazzle, herd, stripe, zeal of zebra
zines A staple of zines
zombies A stagger, stench of zombies

See also

English Wikipedia has an article on:


  1. ^ Oxford Reference Dictionary, Oxford University Press, 1986.
  2. ^ shrewdness. (n.d.). The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Retrieved November 29, 2006, from website[1]
  3. ^ cete. (n.d.). Unabridged (v 1.0.1). Retrieved November 29, 2006, from website[2]
  4. ^ sloth. (n.d.). Unabridged (v 1.0.1). Retrieved November 29, 2006, from website[3]
  5. ^ sounder. (n.d.). The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Retrieved November 29, 2006, from website[4]
  6. ^ clowder”, in Unabridged,, LLC, 1995–present.
  7. ^ pack”, in Unabridged,, LLC, 1995–present.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 pod. (n.d.). The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Retrieved November 29, 2006, from website[5]
  9. ^ skulk. (n.d.). Unabridged (v 1.0.1). Retrieved November 29, 2006, from website[6]
  10. ^ trip. (n.d.). Unabridged (v 1.0.1). Retrieved November 29, 2006, from website[7]
  11. ^ “San Diego Zoo's Got Questions? Animal Group Names”, in (please provide the title of the work)[8], accessed 2008-01-19
  12. ^ stable. (n.d.). The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Retrieved November 29, 2006, from website[9]
  13. ^ team. (n.d.). Unabridged (v 1.0.1). Retrieved November 29, 2006, from website[10]
  14. ^ pack”, in Unabridged,, LLC, 1995–present.
  15. ^ kindle”, in Unabridged,, LLC, 1995–present.
  16. ^ pride. (n.d.). Unabridged (v 1.0.1). Retrieved November 29, 2006, from website[11]
  17. ^ punnet. (n.d.). Unabridged (v 1.0.1). Retrieved November 29, 2006, from website[12]
  18. ^ team. (n.d.). Unabridged (v 1.0.1). Retrieved November 29, 2006, from website[13]
  19. ^ farrow”, in Unabridged,, LLC, 1995–present.
  20. ^ string. (n.d.). Unabridged (v 1.0.1). Retrieved November 29, 2006, from website[14]
  21. ^ litter”, in Unabridged,, LLC, 1995–present.
  22. ^ school. (n.d.). Unabridged (v 1.0.1). Retrieved November 29, 2006, from website[15]
  23. ^ rout. (n.d.). The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Retrieved November 29, 2006, from website[16]
  24. ^ pack”, in Unabridged,, LLC, 1995–present.