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User:Gilgamesh~enwiktionary/English words by phonological interest

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Assorted nondeterministic pronunciationsEdit

any /ˈɛni/ (also /ˈæni/) blood /ˈblʌd/ both /ˈboʊlθ/ (also /ˈboʊθ/) broad /ˈbrɔːd/ broaden /ˈbrɔːdən/ bury /ˈbɛri/ business /ˈbɪznᵻs/ busy /ˈbɪzi/ butte /ˈbjuːt, ˈbɪut/ cay /ˈkiː/ (also /ˈkeɪ/) choir /ˈkwaɪ(ə)r/ clerk /ˈklɑː(r)k, ˈklærk/ (also /ˈklɜː(r)k, ˈklɛrk/) colonel /ˈkɜː(r)nəl, ˈkʌrn-/ comfortable /ˈkʌmftərbəl/ (also /ˈkʌmf(ə(r))təbəl/) coupon /ˈkjuːpɒn, ˈkɪup-/ (also /ˈkuːpɒn/) debt /ˈdɛt/ doubt /ˈdaʊt/ drawer (compartment) /ˈdrɔər/ (also /ˈdrɔːə(r)/) England /ˈɪŋɡlənd/ English /ˈɪŋɡlᵻʃ/ flood /ˈflʌd/ fount (font) /ˈfɒnt/ (also /ˈfaʊnt/) friend /ˈfrɛnd/ gaol /ˈdʒeɪl/ heart /ˈhɑː(r)t, ˈhært/ hearth /ˈhɑː(r)θ, ˈhærθ/ hiccough /ˈhɪkʌp, -kəp/ Houston (Texas) /ˈhjuːstən, ˈhɪust-/ iron /ˈaɪə(r)n/ lieutenant /lɛfˈtɛnənt/ (also /ljuːˈtɛnənt, lɪu-/) many /ˈmɛni/ (also /ˈmæni/) mayor /ˈmɛə(r), ˈmeɪr/ (also /ˈmeɪə(r)/) once /ˈwʌns, ˈwɒns/ one /ˈwʌn, ˈwɒn/ people /ˈpiːpəl/ plaid /ˈplæd/ prayer (petition) /ˈprɛə(r), ˈpreɪr/ pretty /ˈprɪti/ quay /ˈkiː/ (also /ˈkeɪ, ˈkweɪ/) receipt /rɨˈsiːt/ Sean /ˈʃɔːn/ sergeant /ˈsɑː(r)dʒənt, ˈsærdʒ-/ sew /ˈsoʊ/ sewn /ˈsoʊn/ sieve /ˈsɪv/ subtle /ˈsʌtəl/ trough /ˈtrɒθ, ˈtrɔːθ/ (also /ˈtrɒf, ˈtrɔːf/) twenty /ˈtwʌnti, ˈtwʊnti/ (also /ˈtwɛnti/) victual /ˈvɪtəl/ women /ˈwɪmən/

Alternate pronunciations with /ʌ/Edit

This list does not include:

  • Words where the only pronunciations involve either /ʌ/ or /ʊ/.

anybody /ˈɛnibʌdi, ˈæn-/ (also /ˈɛnibɒdi, ˈæn-/) because /bɨˈkʌz/ (also /bɨˈkɒz, -ˈkɔːz/) 'cause /ˈkʌz/ (also /ˈkɒz, ˈkɔːz/) coney, cony /ˈkʌni/ (also /ˈkoʊni/) coven /ˈkʌvən/ (also /ˈkoʊvən/) donjon /ˈdʌndʒən/ (also /ˈdɒndʒən/) donkey /ˈdʌŋki/ (also /ˈdɒŋki, ˈdɔːŋki/) everybody /ˈɛv(ə)ribʌdi/ (also /ˈɛv(ə)ribɒdi/) from /ˈfrʌm/ (also /ˈfrɒm/) grovel /ˈɡrʌvəl/ (also /ˈɡrɒvəl/) hovel /ˈhʌvəl/ (also /ˈhɒvəl/) hover /ˈhʌvə(r)/ (also /ˈhɒvə(r)/) nobody /ˈnoʊbʌdi/ (also /ˈnoʊbɒdi, -bədi/) of /ˈʌv/ (also /ˈɒv/) once /ˈwʌns/ (also /ˈwɒns/) one /ˈwʌn/ (also /ˈwɒn/) somebody /ˈsʌmbʌdi/ (also /ˈsʌmbɒdi, -bədi/) southerly /ˈsʌðə(r)li/ (also /ˈsaʊðə(r)li/) southern /ˈsʌðə(r)n/ (also /ˈsaʊðə(r)n/) sovereign /ˈsʌv(ə)rᵻn/ (also /ˈsɒv(ə)rᵻn/) tournament /ˈtɜː(r)nəmənt, ˈtʌrn-/ (also /ˈtʊə(r)nəmənt, ˈtuːrn-/) tourney /ˈtɜː(r)ni, ˈtʌrni/ (also /ˈtʊə(r)ni, ˈtuːrni/) twenty /ˈtwʌnti/ (also /ˈtwɛnti, ˈtwʊnti/) was /ˈwʌz/ (also /ˈwɒz/) wast /ˈwʌst/ (also /ˈwɒst/) what /ˈ(h)wʌt/ (also /ˈ(h)wɒt/) won /ˈwʌn/ (also /ˈwɒn/) wont /ˈwʌnt/ (also /ˈwɒnt, ˈwɔːnt/)

Centering diphthong without /r/Edit

Graham, graham, Graeme /ˈɡrɛəm/ (also /ˈɡreɪəm, ˈɡræm/) Leah /ˈlɪə/ (also /ˈliːə/) mayonnaise /ˈmɛəneɪz/ (also /ˈmeɪəˈneɪz, ˈmæneɪz/) real /ˈrɪəl/ (also /ˈriː(ə)l/) Rhea, rhea /ˈrɪə/ (also /ˈriːə/) theater, theatre /ˈθɪətə(r)/ (also /ˈθiː(ə)tə(r), ˈθiːæt-, ˈθiːeɪt-/) yeah /ˈjɛə/ (also /ˈjæ/)

Fricative and silent plosive before lateral or nasalEdit

apostle /əˈpɒsəl/ bristle /ˈbrɪsəl/ bustle /ˈbʌsəl/ castle /ˈkæsəl, ˈkɑːs-/ chasten /ˈtʃeɪsən/ chestnut /ˈtʃɛsnʌt/ (also /ˈtʃɛstnʌt/) christen /ˈkrɪsən/ Christmas /ˈkrɪsməs/ fasten /ˈfæsən, ˈfɑːs-/ glisten /ˈɡlɪsən/ gristle /ˈɡrɪsəl/ hasten /ˈheɪsən/ hustle /ˈhʌsəl/ jostle /ˈdʒɒsəl/ listen /ˈlɪsən/ mistletoe /ˈmɪsəltoʊ/ moisten /ˈmɔɪsən/ muscle /ˈmʌsəl/ mustn't /ˈmʌsənt/ nestle /ˈnɛsəl/ often /ˈɒfən, ˈɔːf-/ (also /ˈɒftən, ˈɔːft-/) pestle /ˈpɛsəl/ (also /ˈpɛstəl/) rastle, wrastle /ræsəl/ rustle /ˈrʌsəl/ soften /ˈsɒfən, ˈsɔːf-/ thistle /ˈθɪsəl/ throstle /ˈθrɒsəl/ whistle /ˈ(h)wɪsəl/ wrestle /ˈrɛsəl/

‹a› as /ɒ/ or /ɔː/Edit

Most such words have the spelling combinations ‹wa›, ‹ua› or ‹wha›.

This list does not include:

  • Words only pronounced with /ɑː/, such as qualm or suave.
  • Words pronounced with /ɔː(l)/ from L-vocalization, such as squall or walk.

Bengal /bɛŋˈɡɔːl, bɛn-/ (also /ˈbɛŋɡəl, ˈbɛn-, bɛŋˈɡɑːl, bɛn-/) Bengali /bɛŋˈɡɔːli, bɛn-/ (also /bɛŋˈɡɑːli, bɛn-/) bulwark /ˈbʊlwɔː(r)k, ˈbʌl-, -wɒrk/ (also /ˈbʊlwə(r)k, ˈbʌl-/) dwarf /ˈdwɔː(r)f, ˈdwɒrf/ dwarves /ˈdwɔː(r)vz, ˈdwɒrvz/ Malta /ˈmɒltə/ (also /ˈmɔːltə/) Lancelot /ˈlɔːns(ə)lɒt, -lət/ (also /ˈlæns(ə)lɒt, ˈlɑːns-, -lət/) quaff /ˈkwɒf, ˈkwɔːf/ (also /ˈkwæf, ˈkwɑːf/) quag /ˈkwɒɡ/ (also /ˈkwæɡ/) quagmire /ˈkwɒɡmaɪ(ə)r/ (also /ˈkwæɡmaɪ(ə)r/) quantum /ˈkwɒntəm/ quarantine /ˈkwɒrəntiːn, ˈkwɔːr-/ quark /ˈkwɔː(r)k, ˈkwɒrk/ (also /ˈkwɑː(r)k, ˈkwærk/) quarrel /ˈkwɒrəl, ˈkwɔːr-/ quarry /ˈkwɒri, ˈkwɔːri/ quart /ˈkwɔː(r)t, ˈkwɒrt/ quarter /ˈkwɔː(r)tə(r), ˈkwɒrt-/ quarts, quartz /ˈkwɔː(r)ts, ˈkwɒrts/ quash /ˈkwɒʃ/ sasquatch /ˈsæskwɒtʃ/ (also /ˈsæskwætʃ/) scallop /ˈskɒləp/ (also /ˈskæləp/) Sean /ˈʃɔːn/ Siobhan /ʃɨˈvɔːn/ squabble /ˈskwɒbəl/ squad /ˈskwɒd/ squadron /ˈskwɒdrən/ squalid /ˈskwɒlᵻd/ squalor /ˈskwɒlə(r)/ squander /ˈskwɒndə(r)/ Squanto /ˈskwɒntoʊ/ squash /ˈskwɒʃ, ˈskwɔːʃ/ squat /ˈskwɒt/ squatch /ˈskwɒtʃ/ (also /ˈskwætʃ/) stanch /ˈstɔːntʃ/ (also /ˈstæntʃ, ˈstɑːntʃ/) swab /ˈswɒb/ swaddle /ˈswɒdəl/ swallow /ˈswɒloʊ/ swamp /ˈswɒmp/ swan /ˈswɒn/ swap /ˈswɒp/ swarm /ˈswɔː(r)m, ˈswɒrm/ swart /ˈswɔː(r)t, ˈswɒrt/ swarthy /ˈswɔː(r)ði, ˈswɒrði, ˈswɔː(r)θi, ˈswɒrθi/ swash /ˈswɒʃ, ˈswɔːʃ/ swat /ˈswɒt/ swatch /ˈswɒtʃ/ swath /ˈswɒθ, ˈswɔːθ/ swaths /ˈswɒðz, ˈswɔːðz/ twat /ˈtwɒt/ wabble /ˈwɒbəl/ wad /ˈwɒd/ waddle /ˈwɒdəl/ waffle /ˈwɒfəl, ˈwɔːf-/ Wallace /ˈwɒlᵻs/ wallow /ˈwɒloʊ/ Wally /ˈwɒli, ˈwɔːli/ Walsh /ˈwɒlʃ/ wan (pallid) /ˈwɒn/ wand /ˈwɒnd/ wander /ˈwɒndə(r)/ wanna /ˈwɒnə, ˈwɔːnə/ want /ˈwɒnt, ˈwɔːnt/ wanton /ˈwɒntən/ war /ˈwɔː(r), ˈwɒr/ warble /ˈwɔː(r)bəl, ˈwɒrb-/ ward, warred /ˈwɔː(r)d, ˈwɒrd/ warden /ˈwɔː(r)dən, ˈwɒrd-/ warm /ˈwɔː(r)m, ˈwɒrm/ warmth /ˈwɔː(r)mθ, ˈwɒrmθ/ warn /ˈwɔː(r)n, ˈwɒrn/ warp /ˈwɔː(r)p, ˈwɒrp/ warrant /ˈwɒrənt, ˈwɔːr-/ warranty /ˈwɒrənti, ˈwɔːr-/ Warren, warren /ˈwɒrən, ˈwɔːr-/ warrior /ˈwɒriə(r), ˈwɔːri-, ˈwɒrjər, ˈwɔː(r)jə(r), ˈwɔɪə(r)/ Warsaw /ˈwɔː(r)sɔː, ˈwɒrs-/ wart /ˈwɔː(r)t, ˈwɒrt/ Warwick /ˈwɒrᵻk, ˈwɔːr-, ˈwɔː(r)wᵻk, ˈwɒr-/ was /ˈwɒz/ (also /ˈwʌz/) Wash, wash /ˈwɒʃ, ˈwɔːʃ/ Washington /ˈwɒʃᵻŋtən, ˈwɔːʃ-/ wasp /ˈwɒsp/ wassail /ˈwɒsᵻl, -seɪl, wɒˈseɪl/ (also /ˈwæsᵻl, -seɪl, wæˈseɪl/) wast /ˈwɒst/ (also /ˈwʌst/) watch /ˈwɒtʃ/ water /ˈwɔːtə(r)/ watt /ˈwɒt/ whap /ˈ(h)wɒp/ (also /ˈ(h)wæp/) wharf /ˈ(h)wɔː(r)f, ˈ(h)wɒrf/ wharves /ˈ(h)wɔː(r)vz, ˈ(h)wɒrvz/ what /ˈ(h)wɒt/ (also /ˈ(h)wʌt/) wrath /ˈrɒθ, ˈrɔːθ/ (also /ˈræθ, ˈrɑːθ/) yacht /ˈjɒt/

‹aCC› as /eɪCC/ invalid IPA characters (CC) and final ‹aC› as /eɪC/ invalid IPA characters (C)Edit

This list does not include:

  • Words where the consonant cluster sequence is only /Cl/ invalid IPA characters (C) (as in table) or only /Cr/ invalid IPA characters (C) (as in sabre), since vowels are expected to be long in these spellings.
  • Words where the spelling ‹agC› is pronounced /eɪC/ invalid IPA characters (C) from older /æjC/ invalid IPA characters (C).
  • Words pronounced with /eɪŋ(ɡ)/ or /eɪŋk/, as this is specific and regular to certain dialects of North American English.

Before /mb/Edit

Cambridge /ˈkeɪmbrᵻdʒ/ chamber /ˈtʃeɪmbə(r)/ chamberlain /ˈtʃeɪmbə(r)lᵻn/

Before /ndʒ/Edit

angel /ˈeɪndʒəl/ change /ˈtʃeɪndʒ/ danger /ˈdeɪndʒə(r)/ grange /ˈɡreɪndʒ/ mange /ˈmeɪndʒ/ range /ˈreɪndʒ/ strange /ˈstreɪndʒ/

Before /st/Edit

baste /ˈbeɪst/ chaste /ˈtʃeɪst/ haste /ˈheɪst/ paste /ˈpeɪst/ pastry /ˈpeɪstri/ taste /ˈteɪst/ waste /ˈweɪst/ wastrel /ˈweɪstrəl/

InfluencedEdit

chasten /ˈtʃeɪsən/ hasten /ˈheɪsən/

OtherEdit

ancient /ˈeɪn(t)ʃənt/ bass (clef) /ˈbeɪs/ Halley /ˈheɪli/ (also /ˈhæli/) nascent /ˈneɪsənt/ (also /ˈnæsənt/) Ralph /ˈreɪf/ (also /ˈrælf, ˈrɑː(l)f/) scarce /ˈskɛə(r)s, ˈskeɪrs/

‹ai› and ‹ay› as /aɪ/Edit

aisle /ˈaɪl/ ay, aye /ˈaɪ/ (also /ˈeɪ/) banzai /ˈbɑːnˈzaɪ/ bonsai /ˈbɒnˈsaɪ, ˈboʊn-, -ˈzaɪ/ Cairo (Egypt) /ˈkaɪroʊ/ Dubai /duːˈbaɪ/ Gaia /ˈɡaɪə/ (also /ˈɡeɪə/) Gaius /ˈɡaɪəs/ (also /ˈɡeɪəs/) Hawaii /həˈwaɪi, -ˈvaɪʔi, -ˈwaɪə/ (also /həˈwɑːi, -ˈvɑːʔi/) Isaiah /aɪˈzaɪə/ (also /aɪˈzeɪə/) kaiser /ˈkaɪzə(r)/ Mordecai /ˈmɔː(r)dəˈkaɪ, ˈmɒrd-/ (also /mɔː(r)dəˈkeɪaɪ, mɒrd-/) Lorelai /ˈlɒrəlaɪ, ˈlɔːr-/ samurai /ˈsæm(j)ᵿraɪ/ sempai /ˈsɛmpaɪ/ senpai /ˈsɛmpaɪ, ˈsɛn-/ Shanghai /ˈʃæŋˈhaɪ/ Taipei /ˈtaɪˈpeɪ/ Taiwan /ˈtaɪˈwɑːn/ Thai /ˈtaɪ/ Thailand /ˈtaɪlænd/

‹ai› and ‹ay› as /ɛ/Edit

again /əˈɡɛn/ (also /əˈɡeɪn/) against /əˈɡɛnst/ (also /əˈɡeɪnst/) Craig /ˈkrɛɡ/ (also /ˈkreɪɡ/) said /ˈsɛd/ sayeth /ˈsɛθ/ (also /ˈseɪəθ/) says /ˈsɛz/

/æŋ/Edit

These words mostly have /eɪŋ/ in North American English, though certain words may still retain /æŋ/.

anchor /ˈæŋkə(r)/ anger /ˈæŋɡə(r)/ Angle, angle /ˈæŋɡəl/ Anglia /ˈæŋɡliə/ angry /ˈæŋɡri/ angst /ˈæŋ(k)st/ anguish /ˈæŋɡwᵻʃ/ angular /ˈæŋɡjᵿlə(r)/ Angus /ˈæŋɡəs/ ankh /ˈæŋk/ ankle /ˈæŋkəl/ anxious /ˈæŋ(k)ʃəs/ bang /ˈbæŋ/ Bangalore /ˈbæŋɡəlɔə(r), -loʊr/ Bangkok /ˈbæŋˈkɒk/ Bangladesh /ˈbæŋɡlədɛʃ/ (also /ˈbɑːŋɡlədɛʃ/) bangle /ˈbæŋɡəl/ Bangor /ˈbæŋɡɔː(r), -ɡɒr, -ɡə(r)/ bank /ˈbæŋk/ blank /ˈblæŋk/ brang /ˈbræŋ/ cankle /ˈkæŋkəl/ chank /ˈtʃæŋk/ clang /ˈklæŋ/ clank /ˈklæŋk/ crank /ˈkræŋk/ dang /ˈdæŋ/ dangle /ˈdæŋɡəl/ dank /ˈdæŋk/ doppelganger /ˈdɒpəlɡæŋə(r)/ drank /ˈdræŋk/ fang /ˈfæŋ/ fangle /ˈfæŋɡəl/ flank /ˈflæŋk/ franc, Frank, frank /ˈfræŋk/ gang /ˈɡæŋ/ handkerchief /ˈhæŋkə(r)tʃiːf, -tʃᵻf/ (also /ˈhændkə(r)tʃiːf, -tʃᵻf/) hang /ˈhæŋ/ hangar, hanger /ˈhæŋə(r)/ Hank /ˈhæŋk/ hanker /ˈhæŋkə(r)/ jangle /ˈdʒæŋɡəl/ Lang /ˈlæŋ/ language /ˈlæŋɡwᵻdʒ/ languid /ˈlæŋɡwᵻd/ languish /ˈlæŋɡwᵻʃ/ lank /ˈlæŋk/ mangle /ˈmæŋɡəl/ Manx /ˈmæŋks/ meringue /məˈræŋ/ orangutan /ɵˈræŋᵿtæn, -tæŋ/ pang /ˈpæŋ/ plank /ˈplæŋk/ prank /ˈpræŋk/ rancor, rancour, ranker /ˈræŋkə(r)/ rang /ˈræŋ/ rank /ˈræŋk/ rankle /ˈræŋkəl/ sang /ˈsæŋ/ sanguine /ˈsæŋɡwᵻn/ sank /ˈsæŋk/ Shanghai /ˈʃæŋˈhaɪ/ shank /ˈʃæŋk/ shrank /ˈʃræŋk/ skank /ˈskæŋk/ slang /ˈslæŋ/ slank /ˈslæŋk/ spangle /ˈspæŋɡəl/ spank /ˈspæŋk/ sprang /ˈspræŋ/ stang /ˈstæŋ/ stank /ˈstæŋk/ strangle /ˈstræŋɡəl/ swang /ˈswæŋ/ swank /ˈswæŋk/ Tang, tang /ˈtæŋ/ tangle /ˈtæŋɡəl/ tank /ˈtæŋk/ thank /ˈθæŋk/ trank, tranq /ˈtræŋk/ tranquil /ˈtræŋkwᵻl/ twang /ˈtwæŋ/ wang /ˈwæŋ/ wank /ˈwæŋk/ whang /ˈ(h)wæŋ/ Wrangel, Wrangell, wrangle /ˈræŋɡəl/ yang /ˈjæŋ/ Yank, yank /ˈjæŋk/ Yankee /ˈjæŋki/

‹au› as /ɑː/Edit

This pronunciation mainly occurs before a cluster of /n/ and another consonant, and most such words also have alternate pronunciations with /ɔː/.

aunt /ˈɑːnt/ (also /ˈænt/) daunt /ˈdɑːnt/ (also /ˈdɔːnt/) Gaunt /ˈɡɑːnt/ (also /ˈɡɔːnt/) gauntlet /ˈɡɑːntlᵻt/ (also /ˈɡɔːntlᵻt/) haunch /ˈhɑːntʃ/ (also /ˈhɔːntʃ/) haunt /ˈhɑːnt/ (also /ˈhɔːnt, ˈhænt/) jaundice /ˈdʒɑːndᵻs/ (also /ˈdʒɔːndᵻs/) jaunt /ˈdʒɑːnt/ (also /ˈdʒɔːnt/) Launcelot /ˈlɑːns(ə)lɒt, -lət/ (also /ˈlæns(ə)lɒt, ˈlɔːns-, -lət/) launch /ˈlɑːntʃ/ (also /ˈlɔːntʃ/) launder /ˈlɑːndə(r)/ (also /ˈlɔːndə(r)/) laundry /ˈlɑːndri/ (also /ˈlɔːndri/) paunch /ˈpɑːntʃ/ (also /ˈpɔːntʃ/) raunch /ˈrɑːntʃ/ (also /ˈrɔːntʃ/) Saunders /ˈsɑːndə(r)z/ (also /ˈsɔːndə(r)z/) saunter /ˈsɑːntə(r)/ (also /ˈsɔːntə(r)/) staunch /ˈstɑːntʃ/ (also /ˈstɔːntʃ/) taunt /ˈtɑːnt/ (also /ˈtɔːnt/) vaunt /ˈvɑːnt/ (also /ˈvɔːnt/)

‹au› and ‹aw› as /ɒ/Edit

because /bɨˈkɒz/ (also /bɨˈkɔːz, -ˈkʌz/) 'cause /ˈkɒz/ (also /ˈkɔːz, ˈkʌz/) laurel /ˈlɒrəl/ (also /ˈlɔːrəl/) Laurence, Lawrence /ˈlɒrəns/ (also /ˈlɔːrəns/) Maurice /ˈmɒrᵻs/ (also /ˈmɔːrᵻs, mɔːˈriːs/) sausage /ˈsɒsᵻdʒ/ (also /ˈsɔːsᵻdʒ/)

/aʊl/Edit

This sound tends to merge with /æl/ in certain accents of North American English.

bowel /ˈbaʊl/ (also /ˈbaʊəl/) Cowell /ˈkaʊl/ (also /ˈkaʊəl/) cowl /ˈkaʊl/ foul, fowl /ˈfaʊl/ growl /ˈɡraʊl/ howl /ˈhaʊl/ owl /ˈaʊl/ (also /ˈaʊəl/) Powell /ˈpaʊl/ (also /ˈpaʊəl, ˈpoʊəl/) prowl /ˈpraʊl/ scowl /ˈskaʊl/ towel /ˈtaʊl/ (also /ˈtaʊəl/) trowel /ˈtraʊl/ (also /ˈtraʊəl/) vowel /ˈvaʊl/ (also /ˈvaʊəl/)

‹augh› and ‹ough› as /ɔː/Edit

aught, ought /ˈɔːt/ besought /bɨˈsɔːt/ bought /ˈbɔːt/ brought /ˈbrɔːt/ caught /ˈkɔːt/ daughter /ˈdɔːtə(r)/ distraught /dᵻˈstrɔːt/ fought /ˈfɔːt/ fraught /ˈfrɔːt/ haughty /ˈhɔːti/ naught, nought /ˈnɔːt/ onslaught /ˈɒnslɔːt, ˈɔːn-/ slaughter /ˈslɔːtə(r)/ sought /ˈsɔːt/ taught /ˈtɔːt/ thought /ˈθɔːt/ Vaughan, Vaughn /ˈvɔːn/ wrought /ˈrɔːt/ Youghal /ˈjɔːl/

BATH lexical setEdit

These words tend to have /æ ~ ɛə/ in North American English and /ɑː/ in Received Pronunciation. Some accents have both sounds, but varying word by word.

Before /f/Edit

aft /ˈæft, ˈɑːft/ after /ˈæftə(r), ˈɑːft-/ chaff /ˈtʃæf, ˈtʃɑːf/ craft /ˈkræft, ˈkrɑːft/ daft /ˈdæft, ˈdɑːft/ draft, draught /ˈdræft, ˈdrɑːft/ giraffe /dʒᵻˈræf, -ˈrɑːf/ graft, graphed /ˈɡræft, ˈɡrɑːft/ graph /ˈɡræf, ˈɡrɑːf/ laugh /ˈlæf, ˈlɑːf/ laughter /ˈlæftə(r), ˈlɑːft-/ quaff /ˈkwæf, ˈkwɑːf/ (also /ˈkwɒf, ˈkwɔːf/) raft /ˈræft, ˈrɑːft/ shaft /ˈʃæft, ˈʃɑːft/ staff /ˈstæf, ˈstɑːf/

Before /(l)f/ or /(l)v/Edit

calf /ˈkæ(l)f, ˈkɑː(l)f/ calves /ˈkæ(l)vz, ˈkɑː(l)vz/ calve /ˈkæ(l)v, ˈkɑː(l)v/ half /ˈhæ(l)f, ˈhɑː(l)f/ halves /ˈhæ(l)vz, ˈhɑː(l)vz/ halve /ˈhæ(l)v, ˈhɑː(l)v/ Ralph /ˈrælf, ˈrɑː(l)f/ (also /ˈreɪf/) salve /ˈsæ(l)v, ˈsɑː(l)v/

Before /mp(ə)l/Edit

example /ᵻɡˈzæmpəl, ɛɡ-, -ˈzɑːmp-/ sample /ˈsæmpəl, ˈsɑːmp-/

Before /nd(ə)r/Edit

Alexander /ælᵻɡˈzændə(r), -ˈzɑːnd-/ Alexandra /ælᵻɡˈzændrə, -ˈzɑːnd-/ Alexandretta /ælᵻɡzænˈdrɛtə, -zɑːnd-/ Alexandria /ælᵻɡˈzændriə, -ˈzɑːnd-/ commander /kəˈmændə(r), -ˈmɑːnd/ Flanders /ˈflændə(r)z, ˈflɑːnd-/ Sanders /ˈsændə(r)z, ˈsɑːnd-/ Sandra /ˈsændrə, ˈsɑːnd-/ slander /ˈslændə(r), ˈslɑːnd-/

InfluencedEdit

chandler /ˈtʃændlə(r), ˈtʃɑːnd-/ command /kəˈmænd, -ˈmɑːnd/ demand /dɨˈmænd, -ˈmɑːnd/ remand /rɨˈmænd, -ˈmɑːnd/

Before /ns/Edit

advance /ædˈvæns, -ˈvɑːns/ answer /ˈænsə(r), ˈɑːns-/ chance /ˈtʃæns, ˈtʃɑːns/ chancellor /ˈtʃæns(ə)lə(r), ˈtʃɑːns-/ chancery /ˈtʃænsəri, ˈtʃɑːns-/ dance /ˈdæns, ˈdɑːns/ enhance /ᵻnˈhæns, ɛn-, -ˈhɑːns/ France /ˈfræns, ˈfrɑːns/ Frances (name), Francis /ˈfrænsᵻs, ˈfrɑːns-/ glance /ˈɡlæns, ˈɡlɑːns/ lance /ˈlæns, ˈlɑːns/ Lancelot, Launcelot /ˈlæns(ə)lɒt, ˈlɑːns-, -lət/ (also /ˈlɔːns(ə)lɒt, -lət/) prance /ˈpræns, ˈprɑːns/ Romance, romance /rɵˈmæns, ˈroʊˈmæns, -ˈmɑːns/ stance /ˈstæns, ˈstɑːns/ trance /ˈtræns, ˈtrɑːns/ trans- (stressed) /ˈtrænz-, ˈtrɑːnz-, ˈtræns-, ˈtrɑːns-/

Before /nt/Edit

advantage /ædˈvæntᵻdʒ, -ˈvɑːnt-/ aunt /ˈænt, ˈɑːnt/ can't /ˈkænt, ˈkɑːnt/ chant /ˈtʃænt, ˈtʃɑːnt/ Grant, grant /ˈɡrænt, ˈɡrɑːnt/ plant /ˈplænt, ˈplɑːnt/ rant /ˈrænt, ˈrɑːnt/ shan't /ˈʃænt, ˈʃɑːnt/

Before /ntʃ/Edit

blanch, Blanche /ˈblæntʃ, ˈblɑːntʃ/ branch /ˈbræntʃ, ˈbrɑːntʃ/ panch /ˈpæntʃ, ˈpɑːntʃ/ ranch /ˈræntʃ, ˈrɑːntʃ/ stanch /ˈstæntʃ, ˈstɑːntʃ/ (also /ˈstɔːntʃ/)

Before /s/Edit

alas /əˈlæs, əˈlɑːs/ ask /ˈæsk, ˈɑːsk/ ass (arse) /ˈæs, ˈɑːs/ bask, Basque, basque /ˈbæsk, ˈbɑːsk/ basket /ˈbæskᵻt, ˈbɑːsk-/ bastard /ˈbæstə(r)d, ˈbɑːst-/ Belfast /ˈbɛlfæst, -fɑːst/ blast /ˈblæst, ˈblɑːst/ brass /ˈbræs, ˈbrɑːs/ cask /ˈkæsk, ˈkɑːsk/ casket /ˈkæskᵻt, ˈkɑːsk-/ cast, caste /ˈkæst, ˈkɑːst/ caster, castor /ˈkæstə(r), ˈkɑːst-/ castle /ˈkæsəl, ˈkɑːs-/ clasp /ˈklæsp, ˈklɑːsp/ class /ˈklæs, ˈklɑːs/ contrast (noun) /ˈkɒntræst, -trɑːst/ contrast (verb) /kənˈtræst, -ˈtrɑːst/ disaster /dᵻˈzæstə(r), -ˈzɑːst-/ drastic /ˈdræstᵻk, ˈdrɑːst-/ fast /ˈfæst, ˈfɑːst/ fasten /ˈfæsən, ˈfɑːs-/ flask /ˈflæsk, ˈflɑːsk/ gasp /ˈɡæsp, ˈɡɑːsp/ gast, ghast /ˈɡæst, ˈɡɑːst/ Glasgow /ˈɡlæsɡoʊ, ˈɡlɑːs-, -koʊ/ glass /ˈɡlæs, ˈɡlɑːs/ grasp /ˈɡræsp, ˈɡrɑːsp/ grass /ˈɡræs, ˈɡrɑːs/ last /ˈlæst, ˈlɑːst/ mask, masque /ˈmæsk, ˈmɑːsk/ mast /ˈmæst, ˈmɑːst/ master /ˈmæstə(r), ˈmɑːst-/ nasty /ˈnæsti, ˈnɑːsti/ pass /ˈpæs, ˈpɑːs/ passed, past /ˈpæst, ˈpɑːst/ pastor /ˈpæstə(r), ˈpɑːst-/ pasture /ˈpæstʃə(r), ˈpɑːst-/ plaster /ˈplæstə(r), ˈplɑːst-/ plastic /ˈplæstᵻk, ˈplɑːst-/ rasp /ˈræsp, ˈrɑːsp/ task /ˈtæsk, ˈtɑːsk/ vast /ˈvæst, ˈvɑːst/

InfluencedEdit

raspberry /ˈræzb(ɛ)ri, ˈrɑːz-/

Before /θ/ or /ð/Edit

Bath, bath /ˈbæθ, ˈbɑːθ/ baths /ˈbæðz, ˈbɑːðz, ˈbæθs, ˈbɑːθs/ lather /ˈlæðə(r), ˈlɑːð-/ path /ˈpæθ, ˈpɑːθ/ paths /ˈpæðz, ˈpɑːðz, ˈpæθs, ˈpɑːθs/ rather /ˈræðə(r), ˈrɑːð-/ wrath /ˈræθ, ˈrɑːθ/ (also /ˈrɒθ, ˈrɔːθ/)

OtherEdit

banana /bəˈnænə, -ˈnɑːnə/ corral /kɵˈræl, -ˈrɑːl/ locale /loʊˈkæl, -ˈkɑːl/ moustache, mustache /ˈmʌstæʃ, -stɑːʃ, məˈstæʃ, -ˈstɑːʃ/ plaque /ˈplæk, ˈplɑːk/ soprano /sɵˈprænoʊ, -ˈprɑːn-/ stache /ˈstæʃ, ˈstɑːʃ/

‹ch› as /ʃ/Edit

bouche /ˈbuːʃ/ cache /ˈkæʃ/ caroche /kəˈrɒʃ, -ˈroʊʃ/ (also /kəˈroʊtʃ/) chagrin /ʃəˈɡrɪn/ Champagne, champagne /ʃæmˈpeɪn/ charade /ʃəˈrɑːd, -ˈreɪd/ Charlene /ʃɑː(r)ˈliːn, ʃær-/ Charlotte /ˈʃɑː(r)lət, ˈʃær-/ Charmaine /ʃɑː(r)ˈmeɪn, ʃær-/ chef /ˈʃɛf/ Cher, cher /ˈʃɛə(r), ˈʃeɪr/ Cheryl /ˈʃɛrᵻl/ chevron /ˈʃɛvrɒn, -rən/ chic /ˈʃiːk/ chiv /ˈʃɪv/ (also /ˈtʃɪv/) chivalrous /ˈʃɪvəlrəs/ chivalry /ˈʃɪvəlri/ chute /ˈʃuːt, ˈʃɪut/ douche /ˈduːʃ/ ganache /ɡəˈnæʃ, -ˈnɑːʃ/ gauche /ˈɡoʊʃ/ machine /məˈʃiːn/ Michelle /mᵻˈʃɛl/ moustache, mustache /ˈmʌstæʃ, -stɑːʃ, məˈstæʃ, -ˈstɑːʃ/ niche /ˈniːʃ/ (also /ˈnɪtʃ/) panache /pəˈnæʃ, -ˈnɑːʃ/ parachute /ˈpærəʃuːt, -ʃɪut/ pastiche /pæˈstiːʃ, pɑː-/ quiche /ˈkiːʃ/ stache /ˈstæʃ, ˈstɑːʃ/ Welch /ˈwɛlʃ/ (also /ˈwɛltʃ/)

CLOTH lexical setEdit

These words tend to have /ɔː/ in North American English and /ɒ/ in Australian English and Received Pronunciation. Some accents have both sounds, but varying word by word.

Before /f/Edit

coffee /ˈkɒfi, ˈkɔːfi/ coffer /ˈkɒfə(r), ˈkɔːf-/ coffin /ˈkɒfᵻn, ˈkɔːf-/ cough /ˈkɒf, ˈkɔːf/ croft /ˈkrɒft, ˈkrɔːft/ dolphin /ˈdɒlfᵻn, ˈdɔːlf-/ golf /ˈɡɒ(l)f, ˈɡɔː(l)f/ loft /ˈlɒft, ˈlɔːft/ off /ˈɒf, ˈɔːf/ offal /ˈɒfəl, ˈɔːf-/ Offaly /ˈɒfəli, ˈɔːf-/ offence, offense /ˈɒfɛns, ˈɔːfɛns/ (also /ɵˈfɛns/) offer /ˈɒfə(r), ˈɔːf-/ office /ˈɒfᵻs, ˈɔːf-/ oft /ˈɒft, ˈɔːft/ often /ˈɒf(t)ən, ˈɔːf(t)-/ quaff /ˈkwɒf, ˈkwɔːf/ (also /ˈkwæf, ˈkwɑːf/) soft /ˈsɒft, ˈsɔːft/ soften /ˈsɒfən, ˈsɔːf-/ toffee, toffy /ˈtɒfi, ˈtɔːfi/ trough /ˈtrɒf, ˈtrɔːf/ (also /ˈtrɒθ, ˈtrɔːθ/) waffle /ˈwɒfəl, ˈwɔːf-/

Before /ɡ/Edit

blog /ˈblɒɡ, ˈblɔːɡ/ bog /ˈbɒɡ, ˈbɔːɡ/ clog /ˈklɒɡ, ˈklɔːɡ/ cog /ˈkɒɡ, ˈkɔːɡ/ demagog, demagogue /ˈdɛməɡɒɡ, -ɡɔːɡ/ dog /ˈdɒɡ, ˈdɔːɡ/ flog /ˈflɒɡ, ˈflɔːɡ/ fog /ˈfɒɡ, ˈfɔːɡ/ frog /ˈfrɒɡ, ˈfrɔːɡ/ hog /ˈhɒɡ, ˈhɔːɡ/ log /ˈlɒɡ, ˈlɔːɡ/ -log, -logue /-lɒɡ, -lɔːɡ/ smog /ˈsmɒɡ, ˈsmɔːɡ/ synagog, synagogue /ˈsɪnəɡɒɡ, -ɡɔːɡ/ vlog /ˈvlɒɡ, ˈvlɔːɡ/ vog /ˈvɒɡ, ˈvɔːɡ/

Before /n/Edit

gone /ˈɡɒn, ˈɡɔːn/ gonna /ˈɡɒnə, ˈɡɔːnə/ (also /ˈɡʌnə/) on /ˈɒn, ˈɔːn/ shone /ˈʃɒn, ˈʃɔːn/ (also /ˈʃoʊn/) wanna /ˈwɒnə, ˈwɔːnə/ (also /ˈwʌnə/) want /ˈwɒnt, ˈwɔːnt/ wont /ˈwɒnt, ˈwɔːnt/ (also /ˈwʌnt/)

Before /ŋ/Edit

bong /ˈbɒŋ, ˈbɔːŋ/ bonk /ˈbɒŋk, ˈbɔːŋk/ conk /ˈkɒŋk, ˈkɔːŋk/ dong /ˈdɒŋ, ˈdɔːŋ/ dongle /ˈdɒŋɡəl, ˈdɔːŋɡ-/ donkey /ˈdɒŋki, ˈdɔːŋki/ (also /ˈdʌŋki/) gong /ˈɡɒŋ, ˈɡɔːŋ/ honk /ˈhɒŋk, ˈhɔːŋk/ long /ˈlɒŋ, ˈlɔːŋ/ longer /ˈlɒŋɡə(r), ˈlɔːŋɡ-/ pong /ˈpɒŋ, ˈpɔːŋ/ prong /ˈprɒŋ, ˈprɔːŋ/ song /ˈsɒŋ, ˈsɔːŋ/ strong /ˈstrɒŋ, ˈstrɔːŋ/ stronger /ˈstrɒŋɡə(r), ˈstrɔːŋɡ-/ thong /ˈθɒŋ, ˈθɔːŋ/ throng /ˈθrɒŋ, ˈθrɔːŋ/ tong /ˈtɒŋ, ˈtɔːŋ/ wonk /ˈwɒŋk, ˈwɔːŋk/ wrong /ˈrɒŋ, ˈrɔːŋ/

InfluencedEdit

longevity /lɒnˈdʒɛvᵻti, lɔːn-/ longitude /ˈlɒndʒᵻtjuːd, ˈlɔːndʒ-, -tɪud/

Before /s/Edit

albatross /ˈælbətrɒs, -trɔːs/ boss /ˈbɒs, ˈbɔːs/ Boston /ˈbɒstən, ˈbɔːst-/ cost /ˈkɒst, ˈkɔːst/ cross /ˈkrɒs, ˈkrɔːs/ floss /ˈflɒs, ˈflɔːs/ foster /ˈfɒstə(r), ˈfɔːst-/ frost /ˈfrɒst, ˈfrɔːst/ gloss /ˈɡlɒs, ˈɡlɔːs/ Gloster, Gloucester /ˈɡlɒstə(r), ˈɡlɔːst-/ hoss /ˈhɒs, ˈhɔːs/ loss /ˈlɒs, ˈlɔːs/ lost /ˈlɒst, ˈlɔːst/ mosque /ˈmɒsk, ˈmɔːsk/ moss /ˈmɒs, ˈmɔːs/ ostrich /ˈɒstrᵻtʃ, ˈɔːst-/ Ross /ˈrɒs, ˈrɔːs/ sausage /ˈsɒsᵻdʒ, ˈsɔːs-/ toss /ˈtɒs, ˈtɔːs/

Before /θ/ or /ð/Edit

betroth /bɨˈtrɒθ, -ˈtrɔːθ/ (also /bɨˈtroʊð/) bothy /ˈbɒθi, ˈbɔːθi/ broth /ˈbrɒθ, ˈbrɔːθ/ brothel /ˈbrɒθəl, ˈbrɔːθ-, ˈbrɒð-, ˈbrɔːð-/ cloth /ˈklɒθ, ˈklɔːθ/ cloths /ˈklɒðz, ˈklɔːðz, ˈklɒθs, ˈklɔːθs/ froth /ˈfrɒθ, ˈfrɔːθ/ moth /ˈmɒθ, ˈmɔːθ/ mother (moth) /ˈmɒðə(r), ˈmɔːð-, ˈmɒθ-, ˈmɔːθ-/ moths /ˈmɒðz, ˈmɔːðz, ˈmɒθs, ˈmɔːθs/ Roth /ˈrɒθ, ˈrɔːθ/ sloth /ˈslɒθ, ˈslɔːθ/ (also /ˈsloʊθ/) swath /ˈswɒθ, ˈswɔːθ/ swaths /ˈswɒðz, ˈswɔːðz/ troth /ˈtrɒθ, ˈtrɔːθ/ (also /ˈtroʊθ/) trough /ˈtrɒθ, ˈtrɔːθ/ (also /ˈtrɒf, ˈtrɔːf/) wrath /ˈrɒθ, ˈrɔːθ/ (also /ˈræθ, ˈrɑːθ/) wroth /ˈrɒθ, ˈrɔːθ/ (also /ˈroʊθ/)

After /w/ and before /ʃ/Edit

squash /ˈskwɒʃ, ˈskwɔːʃ/ swash /ˈswɒʃ, ˈswɔːʃ/ Wash, wash /ˈwɒʃ, ˈwɔːʃ/ Washington /ˈwɒʃᵻŋtən, ˈwɔːʃ-/

OtherEdit

because /bɨˈkɒz, bɨˈkɔːz/ (also /bɨˈkʌz/) 'cause /ˈkɒz, ˈkɔːz/ (also /ˈkʌz/) chocolate /ˈtʃɒk(ɵ)lᵻt, ˈtʃɔːk-/

Initial /dw/Edit

Duane /ˈdweɪn/ (also /duːˈeɪn/) dwarf /ˈdwɔː(r)f, ˈdwɒrf/ dwarves /ˈdwɔː(r)vz, ˈdwɒrvz/ Dwayne /ˈdweɪn/ dweeb /ˈdwiːb/ dwell /ˈdwɛl/ dwelt /ˈdwɛlt/ Dwight /ˈdwaɪt/

Initial /ð/Edit

than /ˈðæn/ that /ˈðæt/ the /ˈðiː, ðə, ði/ thee /ˈðiː/ their, there, they're /ˈðɛə(r), ˈðeɪr/ theirs, there's /ˈðɛə(r)z, ˈðeɪrz/ them /ˈðɛm/ then /ˈðɛn/ thence /ˈðɛns/ these /ˈðiːz/ they /ˈðeɪ/ thine /ˈðaɪn/ this /ˈðɪs/ thither /ˈðɪðə(r)/ (also /ˈθɪðə(r)/) those /ˈðoʊz/ thou (pronoun) /ˈðaʊ/ though /ˈðoʊ/ thus /ˈðʌs/ thy /ˈðaɪ/

Interchangeable /ð/ and /θ/Edit

baths /ˈbæðz, ˈbɑːðz, ˈbæθs, ˈbɑːθs/ blithe /ˈblaɪð, ˈblaɪθ/ Blyth /ˈblaɪð, ˈblaɪθ/ (also /ˈblaɪ/) Booth, booth /ˈbuːð, ˈbuːθ/ cloths /ˈklɒðz, ˈklɔːðz, ˈklɒθs, ˈklɔːθs/ loath /ˈloʊð, ˈloʊθ/ mother (moth) /ˈmɒðə(r), ˈmɔːð-, ˈmɒθ-, ˈmɔːθ-/ moths /ˈmɒðz, ˈmɔːðz, ˈmɒθs, ˈmɔːθs/ oaths /ˈoʊðz, ˈoʊθs/ paths /ˈpæðz, ˈpɑːðz, ˈpæθs, ˈpɑːθs/ scythe /ˈsaɪð, ˈsaɪθ/ Smithee, smithy /ˈsmɪði, ˈsmɪθi/ Smyth /ˈsmaɪð, ˈsmaɪθ/ (also /ˈsmɪθ/) swarthy /ˈswɔː(r)ði, ˈswɒrði, ˈswɔː(r)θi, ˈswɒrθi/ thither /ˈðɪðə(r), ˈθɪð-/ truths /ˈtruːðz, ˈtrɪuðz, ˈtruːθs, ˈtrɪuθs/ with /ˈwɪð, ˈwɪθ/ wreaths /ˈriːðz, ˈriːθs/ youths /ˈjuːðz, ˈjuːθs/ zither /ˈzɪðə(r), ˈzɪθ-/

‹e› as /eɪ/Edit

beta /ˈbeɪtə/ (also /ˈbiːtə/) dengue /ˈdɛŋɡeɪ/ (also /ˈdɛŋɡi/) eh /ˈeɪ/ (also /ˈɛ/) ere /ˈɛə(r), ˈeɪr/ eta /ˈeɪtə/ (also /ˈiːtə/) mega- /meɪɡə-/ (also /mɛɡə-/) Megan /ˈmeɪɡən/ (also /ˈmɛɡən/) omega /oʊˈmeɪɡə/ (also /oʊˈmɛɡə, -ˈmiːɡə, ˈoʊmɨɡə/) Peking /ˈpeɪˈkɪŋ/ (also /ˈpiːˈkɪŋ/) re /ˈreɪ/ suede /ˈsweɪd/ there /ˈðɛə(r), ˈðeɪr/ theta /ˈθeɪtə/ (also /ˈθiːtə/) Vega /ˈveɪɡə/ (also /ˈviːɡə/) where /ˈ(h)wɛə(r), ˈ(h)weɪr/ zeta /ˈzeɪtə/ (also /ˈziːtə/)

‹ea› as /ɛ/Edit

already /ɔːlˈrɛdi/ bread /ˈbrɛd/ breadth /ˈbrɛ(d)θ/ breakfast /ˈbrɛkfəst/ breast /ˈbrɛst/ breath /ˈbrɛθ/ cleanly /ˈklɛnli/ cleanse /ˈklɛnz/ dead /ˈdɛd/ deaden /ˈdɛdən/ deaf /ˈdɛf/ deafen /ˈdɛfən/ dealt /ˈdɛlt/ dearth /ˈdɜː(r)θ, ˈdɛrθ/ death /ˈdɛθ/ dread /ˈdrɛd/ dreamt /ˈdrɛmt/ Earl, earl /ˈɜː(r)l, ˈɛrl/ early /ˈɜː(r)li, ˈɛrli/ earn /ˈɜː(r)n, ˈɛrn/ earnest /ˈɜː(r)nᵻst, ˈɛrn-/ Earp /ˈɜː(r)p, ˈɛrp/ earth /ˈɜː(r)θ, ˈɛrθ/ earthen /ˈɜː(r)θən, ˈɛrθ-/ endeavor, endeavour /ᵻnˈdɛvə(r), ɛn-/ feather /ˈfɛðə(r)/ health /ˈhɛlθ/ heard /ˈhɜː(r)d, ˈhɛrd/ hearse /ˈhɜː(r)s, ˈhɛrs/ Hearst /ˈhɜː(r)st, ˈhɛrst/ Heather, heather /ˈhɛðə(r)/ heaven /ˈhɛvən/ heavy /ˈhɛvi/ jealous /ˈdʒɛləs/ Kearney /ˈkɜː(r)ni, ˈkɛrni/ Kearns /ˈkɜː(r)nz, ˈkɛrnz/ lead (metal) /ˈlɛd/ leant /ˈlɛnt/ leapt /ˈlɛpt/ learn /ˈlɜː(r)n, ˈlɛrn/ learned /ˈlɜː(r)nᵻd, ˈlɛrn-/ (also /ˈlɜː(r)nd, ˈlɛrnd/) learnt /ˈlɜː(r)nt, ˈlɛrnt/ leather /ˈlɛðə(r)/ leaven /ˈlɛvən/ meadow /ˈmɛdoʊ/ meant /ˈmɛnt/ measure /ˈmɛʒə(r)/ pearl /ˈpɜː(r)l, ˈpɛrl/ peasant /ˈpɛzənt/ pheasant /ˈfɛzənt/ pleasant /ˈplɛzənt/ pleasure /ˈplɛʒə(r)/ read (past) /ˈrɛd/ Reading /ˈrɛdᵻŋ/ ready /ˈrɛdi/ realm /ˈrɛlm/ search /ˈsɜː(r)tʃ, ˈsɛrtʃ/ spread /ˈsprɛd/ stead /ˈstɛd/ steady /ˈstɛdi/ stealth /ˈstɛlθ/ sweat /ˈswɛt/ thread /ˈθrɛd/ threat /ˈθrɛt/ threaten /ˈθrɛtən/ treacherous /ˈtrɛtʃərəs/ treachery /ˈtrɛtʃəri/ tread /ˈtrɛd/ treasure /ˈtrɛʒə(r)/ wealth /ˈwɛlθ/ weapon /ˈwɛpən/ weather /ˈwɛðə(r)/ yearn /ˈjɜː(r)n, ˈjɛrn/ zealot /ˈzɛlət/ zealous /ˈzɛləs/

‹ea› as /eɪ/Edit

bear /ˈbɛə(r), ˈbeɪr/ break /ˈbreɪk/ great /ˈɡreɪt/ lea /ˈleɪ/ (also /ˈliː/) pear /ˈpɛə(r), ˈpeɪr/ steak /ˈsteɪk/ swear /ˈswɛə(r), ˈsweɪr/ tear (rip) /ˈtɛə(r), ˈteɪr/ wear, were (man) /ˈwɛə(r), ˈweɪr/ yea /ˈjeɪ/ Yeager /ˈjeɪɡə(r)/ Yeats, Yeates /ˈjeɪts/

‹ed› as irregular /ᵻd/ obsolete or nonstandard characters (ᵻ), invalid IPA characters (ᵻ)Edit

Alfred /ˈælfrᵻd/ (also /ˈælfrɛd/) beloved /bɨˈlʌvᵻd/ (also /bɨˈlʌvd/) crooked /ˈkrʊkᵻd/ (also /ˈkrʊkt/) hatred /ˈheɪtrᵻd/ hundred /ˈhʌndrᵻd/ jagged /ˈdʒæɡᵻd/ (also /ˈdʒæɡd/) Jared /ˈdʒærᵻd/ kindred /ˈkɪndrᵻd/ learned /ˈlɜː(r)nᵻd, ˈlɛrn-/ (also /ˈlɜː(r)nd, ˈlɛrnd/) legged /ˈlɛɡᵻd/ (also /ˈlɛɡd/) naked /ˈneɪkᵻd/ ragged /ˈræɡᵻd/ (also /ˈræɡd/) rugged /ˈrʌɡᵻd/ sacred /ˈseɪkrᵻd/ wicked /ˈwɪkᵻd/ (also /ˈwɪkt/) wretched /ˈrɛtʃᵻd/

‹ei› and ‹ey› as /aɪ/Edit

Ebeye /ˈiːbaɪ/ either /ˈaɪðə(r)/ (also /ˈiːðə(r)/) eye /ˈaɪ/ eyrie, eyry /ˈaɪ(ə)ri/ (also /ˈɪəri, ˈiːri, ˈɛəri, ˈeɪri/) feist /ˈfaɪst/ geyser /ˈɡaɪzə(r)/ (also /ˈɡiːzə(r)/) gneiss /ˈnaɪs/ heigh /ˈhaɪ/ (also /ˈheɪ/) height /ˈhaɪt/ heighten /ˈhaɪtən/ heist /ˈhaɪst/ leitmotif /ˈlaɪtmoʊtiːf/ Lorelei /ˈlɒrəlaɪ, ˈlɔːr-/ meister /ˈmaɪstə(r)/ neither /ˈnaɪðə(r)/ (also /ˈniːðə(r)/) poltergeist /ˈpoʊltə(r)ɡaɪst, ˈpɒlt-/ Poseidon /pɵˈsaɪdən/ sleight /ˈslaɪt/ zeitgeist /ˈtsaɪtɡaɪst, ˈzaɪt-/

‹ei› and ‹ey› as /ɛ/Edit

Leicester /ˈlɛstə(r)/ leisure /ˈlɛʒə(r)/ (also /ˈliːʒə(r)/) Reynold /ˈrɛnəld/

‹ei› and ‹ey› as /eɪ/Edit

beige /ˈbeɪʒ/ Beijing /ˈbeɪˈ(d)ʒɪŋ/ convey /kənˈveɪ/ deign /ˈdeɪn/ eight /ˈeɪt/ eighteen /ˈeɪˈtiːn/ eighth /ˈeɪ(t)θ/ eighty /ˈeɪti/ Eyre, eyre, heir /ˈɛə(r), ˈeɪr/ eyrie, eyry /ˈɛəri, ˈeɪri/ (also /ˈɪəri, ˈiːri, ˈaɪ(ə)ri/) feign /ˈfeɪn/ feint /ˈfeɪnt/ fey /ˈfeɪ/ freight /ˈfreɪt/ Grey, grey /ˈɡreɪ/ heigh /ˈheɪ/ (also /ˈhaɪ/) heinous /ˈheɪnəs/ heiress /ˈɛərᵻs, ˈeɪr-/ hey /ˈheɪ/ lei /ˈleɪ/ ley /ˈleɪ/ (also /ˈliː/) neigh /ˈneɪ/ neighbour /ˈneɪbə(r)/ obey /oʊˈbeɪ/ osprey /ˈɒspreɪ/ (also /ˈɒspri/) prey /ˈpreɪ/ reign, rein /ˈreɪn/ sheik /ˈʃeɪk/ (also /ˈʃiːk/) sleigh /ˈsleɪ/ survey /ˈsɜː(r)veɪ, ˈsʌr-/ Taipei /ˈtaɪˈpeɪ/ their, they're /ˈðɛə(r), ˈðeɪr/ theirs /ˈðɛə(r)z, ˈðeɪrz/ they /ˈðeɪ/ Trey, trey /ˈtreɪ/ veil /ˈveɪl/ vein /ˈveɪn/ weigh /ˈweɪ/ weight /ˈweɪt/ whey /ˈ(h)weɪ/

‹ei› and ‹ey› as /iː/Edit

This list does not include:

  • Words where ‹ei› or ‹ey› only represents the HAPPY vowel /i/.

ceil /ˈsiːl/ conceit /kənˈsiːt/ conceive /kənˈsiːv/ deceit /dɨˈsiːt/ deceive /dɨˈsiːv/ either /ˈiːðə(r)/ (also /ˈaɪðə(r)/) eyrie, eyry /ˈɪəri, ˈiːri/ (also /ˈɛəri, ˈeɪri, ˈaɪ(ə)ri/) geyser /ˈɡiːzə(r)/ (also /ˈɡaɪzə(r)/) Keighley /ˈkiːθli/ keister /ˈkiːstə(r)/ Keith /ˈkiːθ/ key /ˈkiː/ leisure /ˈliːʒə(r)/ (also /ˈlɛʒə(r)/) ley /ˈliː/ (also /ˈleɪ/) Neil /ˈniːl/ neither /ˈniːðə(r)/ (also /ˈnaɪðə(r)/) perceive /pə(r)ˈsiːv/ receipt /rɨˈsiːt/ receive /rɨˈsiːv/ Reid /ˈriːd/ seize /ˈsiːz/ sheik /ˈʃiːk/ (also /ˈʃeɪk/) transceive /trænˈsiːv/ weir /ˈwɪə(r), ˈwiːr/ weird /ˈwɪə(r)d, ˈwiːrd/

Final ‹el› and ‹ell› as /əl/Edit

Abel /ˈeɪbəl/ angel /ˈeɪndʒəl/ Ariel, ariel /ˈɛəriəl/ Axel /ˈæksəl/ Babel /ˈbeɪbəl, ˈbæb-/ bagel /ˈbeɪɡəl/ barrel /ˈbærəl/ Bethel /ˈbɛθəl/ (also /ˈbɛθˈɛl/) bevel /ˈbɛvəl/ bowel /ˈbaʊəl/ (also /ˈbaʊl/) camel /ˈkæməl/ channel /ˈtʃænəl/ chapel /ˈtʃæpəl/ chattel /ˈtʃætəl/ chisel /ˈtʃɪzəl/ Connell /ˈkɒnəl/ Daniel /ˈdænjəl/ diesel /ˈdiːzəl/ dishevel /ðᵻˈʃɛvəl/ Donnell /ˈdɒnəl/ drivel /ˈdrɪvəl/ duel /ˈdjuːəl, ˈdɪu-/ (also /ˈdjuːl/) easel /ˈiːzəl/ Farrell /ˈfærəl/ flannel /ˈflænəl/ fuel /ˈfjuːəl, ˈfɪu-/ (also /ˈfjuːl/) funnel /ˈfʌnəl/ Gabriel /ˈɡeɪbriəl/ gavel /ˈɡævəl/ gimel /ˈɡɪməl/ gospel /ˈɡɒspəl/ gravel /ˈɡrævəl/ grovel /ˈɡrɒvəl, ˈɡrʌv-/ gruel /ˈɡruːəl, ˈɡrɪu-/ (also /ˈɡruːl/) Handel /ˈhændəl/ hostel /ˈhɒstəl/ hovel /ˈhɒvəl, ˈhʌv-/ Israel /ˈɪzriəl, -reɪ-/ jewel /ˈdʒuːəl, ˈdʒɪu-/ (also /ˈdʒuːl/) Joel /ˈdʒoʊəl/ (also /ˈdʒoʊl/) kennel /ˈkɛnəl/ kernel /ˈkɜː(r)nəl, ˈkɛrn-/ label /ˈleɪbəl/ level /ˈlɛvəl/ Lowell /ˈloʊəl/ (also /ˈloʊl/) Mabel /ˈmeɪbəl/ marvel /ˈmɑː(r)vəl, ˈmærv-/ Mendel /ˈmɛndəl/ Mitchell /ˈmɪtʃəl/ model /ˈmɒdəl/ Muriel /ˈmjʊəriəl, ˈmjuːr-, ˈmɪʊər-/ mussel /ˈmʌsəl/ navel /ˈneɪvəl/ nickel /ˈnɪkəl/ Noel /ˈnoʊəl/ (also /ˈnoʊl, noʊˈɛl, nɵˈwɛl/) novel /ˈnɒvəl/ Orel /ˈɔərəl/ panel /ˈpænəl/ pixel /ˈpɪksəl/ (also /ˈpɪksɛl/) pommel /ˈpɒməl/ Powell /ˈpaʊəl, ˈpoʊ-/ (also /ˈpaʊl/) pummel /ˈpʌməl/ Rachel /ˈreɪtʃəl/ ravel /ˈrævəl/ rebel (noun) /ˈrɛbəl/ Russell /ˈrʌsəl/ Samuel /ˈsæmjuəl, -mɪu-/ satchel /ˈsætʃəl/ scalpel /ˈskælpəl/ scoundrel /ˈskaʊndrəl/ shovel /ˈʃʌvəl/ shrapnel /ˈʃræpnəl/ shrivel /ˈʃrɪvəl/ snivel /ˈsnɪvəl/ snorkel /ˈsnɔː(r)kəl, ˈsnɒrk-/ spinel /ˈspɪnəl/ (also /spᵻˈnɛl/) squirrel /ˈskwɪrəl/ (also /ˈskwɜː(r)l, ˈskwɪrl/) swivel /ˈswɪvəl/ towel /ˈtaʊəl/ (also /ˈtaʊl/) travel /ˈtrævəl/ trowel /ˈtraʊəl/ (also /ˈtraʊl/) tunnel /ˈtʌnəl/ vowel /ˈvaʊəl/ (also /ˈvaʊl/) wastrel /ˈweɪstrəl/ weasel /ˈwiːzəl/ yodel /ˈjoʊdəl/ yokel /ˈjoʊkəl/

/ɛŋ/Edit

These words mostly have /eɪŋ/ in North American English, though certain words may still retain /ɛŋ/.

Bengal /ˈbɛŋɡəl, bɛŋˈɡɑːl, -ˈɡɔːl/ (also /ˈbɛnɡəl, bɛnˈɡɑːl, -ˈɡɔːl/) Bengali /bɛŋˈɡɑːli, -ˈɡɔːli/ (also /bɛnˈɡɑːli, -ˈɡɔːli/) dengue /ˈdɛŋɡeɪ, ˈdɛŋɡi/ ginseng /ˈdʒɪnsɛŋ/ (also /ˈdʒɪnsᵻŋ/) length /ˈlɛŋ(k)θ/ (also /ˈlɛnθ/) penguin /ˈpɛŋɡwᵻn/ strength /ˈstrɛŋ(k)θ/ (also /ˈstrɛnθ/) wrength /ˈrɛŋ(k)θ, ˈrɛnθ/

‹eo› as one syllableEdit

Geoffrey /ˈdʒɛfri/ George /ˈdʒɔː(r)dʒ, ˈdʒɒrdʒ/ Georgia /ˈdʒɔː(r)dʒə, ˈdʒɒrdʒə/ jeopardy /ˈdʒɛpə(r)di/ Leonard /ˈlɛnə(r)d/ leopard /ˈlɛpə(r)d/ people /ˈpiːpəl/ theory /ˈθɪəri/ (also /ˈθiːɵri/) yeoman, yeomen /ˈjoʊmən/

‹f› and ‹ph› as /v/Edit

nephew /ˈnɛvjuː, -vɪu/ (also /ˈnɛfjuː, -fɪu/) of /ˈɒv, ˈʌv/ Stephen /ˈstiːvən/ (also /ˈstɛfən/)

‹g› as /ɡ/ before ‹e›, ‹i› or ‹y›Edit

This list does not include:

anger /ˈæŋɡə(r)/ bagel /ˈbeɪɡəl/ begin /bɨˈɡɪn/ bogey, bogy /ˈboʊɡi, ˈbʊɡi, ˈbuːɡi/ booger /ˈbʊɡə(r)/ boogie /ˈbʊɡi, ˈbuːɡi/ bugger /ˈbʌɡə(r), ˈbʊɡ-/ buggy /ˈbʌɡi/ burger /ˈbɜː(r)ɡə(r), ˈbʌrɡ-/ dagger /ˈdæɡə(r)/ doppelganger /ˈdɒpəlɡæŋə(r)/ eager /ˈiːɡə(r)/ finger /ˈfɪŋɡə(r)/ forget /fɔː(r)ˈɡɛt, fɒr-/ forgive /fɔː(r)ˈɡɪv, fɒr-/ forgiven /fɔː(r)ˈɡɪvən, fɒr-/ gear /ˈɡɪə(r), ˈɡiːr/ gecko /ˈɡɛkoʊ/ geek /ˈɡiːk/ geese /ˈɡiːs/ geezer /ˈɡiːzə(r)/ gelding /ˈɡɛldᵻŋ/ Gertrude /ˈɡɜː(r)truːd, ˈɡɛr-, -trɪud/ get /ˈɡɛt/ geyser /ˈɡaɪzə(r), ˈɡiːz-/ gibbon /ˈɡɪbən/ Gibbs /ˈɡɪbz/ giddy /ˈɡɪdi/ Gifford /ˈɡɪfə(r)d/ gift /ˈɡɪft/ giga- /ɡɪɡə-, ɡaɪɡə-/ (also /dʒɪɡə-/) giggle /ˈɡɪɡəl/ Gil, gill /ˈɡɪl/ Gilbert /ˈɡɪlbə(r)t/ gild /ˈɡɪld/ Gilliam /ˈɡɪliəm/ gilt /ˈɡɪlt/ gimp /ˈɡɪmp/ ginkgo /ˈɡɪŋkoʊ/ gird /ˈɡɜː(r)d, ˈɡɪrd/ girdle /ˈɡɜː(r)dəl, ˈɡɪrd-/ girl /ˈɡɜː(r)l, ˈɡɪrl/ girth /ˈɡɜː(r)θ, ˈɡɪrθ/ git /ˈɡɪt/ give /ˈɡɪv/ given /ˈɡɪvən/ gizzard /ˈɡɪzə(r)d/ hamburger /ˈhæmbɜː(r)ɡə(r), -bʌrɡ-/ hoagie, hoagy /ˈhoʊɡi/ jagged /ˈdʒæɡᵻd/ (also /ˈdʒæɡd/) legged /ˈlɛɡᵻd/ (also /ˈlɛɡd/) liger /ˈlaɪɡə(r)/ linger /ˈlɪŋɡə(r)/ meager /ˈmiːɡə(r)/ nugget /ˈnʌɡᵻt/ poltergeist /ˈpoʊltə(r)ɡaɪst, ˈpɒlt-/ ragged /ˈræɡᵻd/ (also /ˈræɡd/) rugged /ˈrʌɡᵻd/ stagger /ˈstæɡə(r)/ target /ˈtɑː(r)ɡᵻt, ˈtærɡ-/ tiger /ˈtaɪɡə(r)/ together /tᵿˈɡɛðə(r)/

Lenited ‹g› and ‹c›Edit

align /əˈlaɪn/ arraign /əˈreɪn/ benign /bɨˈnaɪn/ campaign /kæmˈpeɪn/ Champagne, champagne /ʃæmˈpeɪn/ deign /ˈdeɪn/ design /dɨˈzaɪn/ feign /ˈfeɪn/ foreign /ˈfɒrᵻn, ˈfɔːr-/ impugn /ᵻmˈpjuːn, -ˈpɪun/ indict /ᵻnˈdaɪt/ malign /məˈlaɪn/ paradigm /ˈpærədaɪm/ reign /ˈreɪn/ repugn /rɨˈpjuːn, -ˈpɪun/ resign (yield) /rɨˈzaɪn/ sign /ˈsaɪn/ sovereign /ˈsɒv(ə)rᵻn, ˈsʌv-/ Thegn, thegn /ˈθeɪn/

Initial ‹gn› as /n/Edit

gnarl /ˈnɑː(r)l, ˈnærl/ gnash /ˈnæʃ/ gnat /ˈnæt/ gneiss /ˈnaɪs/ gnoll /ˈnoʊl/ gnome /ˈnoʊm/ Gnostic /ˈnɒstᵻk/ gnu /ˈnjuː, ˈnɪu/

Initial silent ‹h›Edit

heir /ˈɛə(r), ˈeɪr/ herb /ˈɜː(r)b, ˈɛrb/ (also /ˈhɜː(r)b, ˈhɛrb/) homage /ˈɒmᵻdʒ/ (also /ˈhɒmᵻdʒ/) honest /ˈɒnᵻst/ honor, honour /ˈɒnə(r)/ hour /ˈaʊ(ə)r/

/(h)w/Edit

Juan /ˈ(h)wɑːn/ marijuana /mærɨˈ(h)wɑːnə/ whack /ˈ(h)wæk/ whale /ˈ(h)weɪl/ wham /ˈ(h)wæm/ whang /ˈ(h)wæŋ/ whap /ˈ(h)wɒp, ˈ(h)wæp/ wharf /ˈ(h)wɔː(r)f, ˈ(h)wɒrf/ wharves /ˈ(h)wɔː(r)vz, ˈ(h)wɒrvz/ what /ˈ(h)wɒt, ˈ(h)wʌt/ wheat /ˈ(h)wiːt/ wheel /ˈ(h)wiːl/ wheeze /ˈ(h)wiːz/ Whelan /ˈ(h)wiːlən/ whelk /ˈ(h)wɛlk/ whelm /ˈ(h)wɛlm/ whelp /ˈ(h)wɛlp/ when /ˈ(h)wɛn/ whence /ˈ(h)wɛns/ where /ˈ(h)wɛə(r), ˈ(h)weɪr/ whet /ˈ(h)wɛt/ whey /ˈ(h)weɪ/ which /ˈ(h)wɪtʃ/ whiff /ˈ(h)wɪf/ whiffle /ˈ(h)wɪfəl/ whig /ˈ(h)wɪɡ/ while /ˈ(h)waɪl/ whilst /ˈ(h)waɪlst/ whim /ˈ(h)wɪm/ whimper /ˈ(h)wɪmpə(r)/ whine /ˈ(h)waɪn/ whinny /ˈ(h)wɪni/ whip /ˈ(h)wɪp/ whir, whirr /ˈ(h)wɜː(r), ˈ(h)wɪr/ whirl /ˈ(h)wɜː(r)l, ˈ(h)wɪrl/ whisk /ˈ(h)wɪsk/ whisker /ˈ(h)wɪskə(r)/ whisper /ˈ(h)wɪspə(r)/ whistle /ˈ(h)wɪsəl/ whit /ˈ(h)wɪt/ white /ˈ(h)waɪt/ whiten /ˈ(h)waɪtən/ whither /ˈ(h)wɪðə(r)/ Whitney /ˈ(h)wɪtni/ whittle /ˈ(h)wɪtəl/ whomp /ˈ(h)wɒmp/ whoosh /ˈ(h)wuːʃ, ˈ(h)wʊʃ/ whop /ˈ(h)wɒp/ why /ˈ(h)waɪ/

/ᵻ/ obsolete or nonstandard characters (ᵻ), invalid IPA characters (ᵻ) not spelt ‹e›, ‹i› or ‹y›Edit

-ace (unstressed) /-ᵻs/ -age (unstressed) /-ᵻdʒ/ -ate (unstressed) /-ᵻt/ -ave (unstressed) /-ᵻv/ bargain /ˈbɑː(r)ɡᵻn, ˈbær-/ captain /ˈkæptᵻn/ carriage /ˈkærᵻdʒ/ certain /ˈsɜː(r)tᵻn, ˈsɛrt-/ chamberlain /ˈtʃeɪmbə(r)lᵻn/ character /ˈkærᵻktə(r)/ chieftain /ˈtʃiːftᵻn/ curtain /ˈkɜː(r)tᵻn, ˈkʌrt-/ foreign /ˈfɒrᵻn, ˈfɔːr-/ forfeit /ˈfɔː(r)fᵻt, ˈfɒr-/ fountain /ˈfaʊntᵻn/ kerchief /ˈkɜː(r)tʃᵻf, ˈkɛr-/ (also /ˈkɜː(r)tʃiːf, ˈkɛr-/) Kwajalein /ˈkwɑːdʒəlᵻn, ˈkwɒdʒ-/ lettuce /ˈlɛtᵻs/ marriage /ˈmærᵻdʒ/ minute (noun) /ˈmɪnᵻt/ mischief /ˈmɪstʃᵻf/ (also /ˈmɪstʃiːf/) mountain /ˈmaʊntᵻn/ porcelain /ˈpɔə(r)s(ə)lᵻn, ˈpoʊrs-/ sovereign /ˈsɒv(ə)rᵻn, ˈsʌv-/ spinach /ˈspɪnᵻtʃ, -ᵻdʒ/ villain /ˈvɪlᵻn/ wassail /ˈwɒsᵻl, ˈwæs-/ (also /ˈwɒˈseɪl, ˈwæˈs-/)

‹i› and ‹y› as /iː/Edit

This list does not include:

  • Words where ‹i› and ‹y› only represent the HAPPY vowel /i/.

Camille /kəˈmiːl/ Cecile /sᵻˈsiːl/ Cecilia /sᵻˈsiːljə/ chic /ˈʃiːk/ Christina /krᵻˈstiːnə/ Christine /krᵻˈstiːn/ clique /ˈkliːk/ (also /ˈklɪk/) Felicia /fᵻˈliːʃə, -ˈliːsiə/ (also /fᵻˈlɪʃə, -ˈlɪsiə/) intrigue /ˈɪntriːɡ, ᵻnˈtriːɡ/ Janine /dʒəˈniːn/ Katrina /kəˈtriːnə/ Lille /ˈliːl/ Lima /ˈliːmə/ Lisa /ˈliːsə, ˈliːzə/ liter, litre /ˈliːtə(r)/ Lucille /ljuːˈsiːl, lɪu-/ machine /məˈʃiːn/ Maria /məˈriːə/ (also /məˈraɪə/) Marina, marina /məˈriːnə/ marine /məˈriːn/ Maurice /mɔːˈriːs/ (also /ˈmɒrᵻs, ˈmɔːr-/) Mia /ˈmiːə/ Nice /ˈniːs/ Nina /ˈniːnə/ philia /fiːliə, -ljə/ (also /ˈfɪliə, -ljə/) pique /ˈpiːk/ Pisa /ˈpiːzə/ pita /ˈpiːtə/ pizza /ˈpiːtsə/ police /pɵˈliːs, ˈpoʊliːs/ prestige /prɛˈstiːʒ, -ˈstiːdʒ/ quarantine /ˈkwɒrəntiːn, ˈkwɔːr-/ Rhys /ˈriːs/ Sikh /ˈsiːk/ Tina /ˈtiːnə/ unique /juːˈniːk, ɪu-/ visa /ˈviːzə/ viva /ˈviːvə/ (also /ˈvaɪvə/)

‹iCC› and ‹yCC› as /aɪCC/ invalid IPA characters (CC) and final ‹iC› and ‹yC› as /aɪC/ invalid IPA characters (C)Edit

This list does not include:

  • Words where the spelling ‹igC› is pronounced /aɪC/ invalid IPA characters (C) from older /iːC/ invalid IPA characters (C) from previous /ɪjC/ invalid IPA characters (C).

bind /ˈbaɪnd/ blind /ˈblaɪnd/ Blyth /ˈblaɪð, ˈblaɪθ/ (also /ˈblaɪ/) child /ˈtʃaɪld/ Christ /ˈkraɪst/ climb /ˈklaɪm/ dissect /daɪˈsɛkt/ (also /dɨˈsɛkt/) find /ˈfaɪnd/ grind /ˈɡraɪnd/ hind /ˈhaɪnd/ kind /ˈkaɪnd/ mic /ˈmaɪk/ mild /ˈmaɪld/ mind /ˈmaɪnd/ ninth /ˈnaɪnθ/ pint /ˈpaɪnt/ Pisces /ˈpaɪsiːz/ (also /ˈpɪsiːz/) psych /ˈsaɪk/ rind /ˈraɪnd/ shyster /ˈʃaɪstə(r)/ Smyth /ˈsmaɪð, ˈsmaɪθ/ (also /ˈsmɪθ/) tryst /ˈtraɪst/ (also /ˈtrɪst/) whilst /ˈ(h)waɪlst/ wild, Wilde /ˈwaɪld/ wind (coil) /ˈwaɪnd/

‹ie› as /iː/Edit

This list does not include:

  • Words where ‹ie› only represents the HAPPY vowel /i/.

achieve /əˈtʃiːv/ belief /bɨˈliːf/ believe /bɨˈliːv/ brie /ˈbriː/ brief /ˈbriːf/ cashier /kæˈʃɪə(r), -ˈʃiːr/ cavalier /kævəˈlɪə(r), -ˈliːr/ chandelier /ʃændᵻˈlɪə(r), -ˈliːr/ chief /ˈtʃiːf/ chieftain /ˈtʃiːftᵻn/ diesel /ˈdiːzəl/ fief /ˈfiːf/ field /ˈfiːld/ fiend /ˈfiːnd/ fierce /ˈfɪə(r)s, ˈfiːrs/ frieze /ˈfriːz/ frontier /frʌnˈtɪə(r), -ˈtiːr/ Genevieve /ˈdʒɛnᵻviːv/ grief /ˈɡriːf/ grieve /ˈɡriːv/ kerchief /ˈkɜː(r)tʃiːf, ˈkɛr-/ (also /ˈkɜː(r)tʃᵻf, ˈkɛr-/) liege /ˈliː(d)ʒ/ lien (claim) /ˈliːn/ (also /ˈliːən/) Marie /məˈriː/ mischief /ˈmɪstʃiːf/ (also /ˈmɪstʃᵻf/) niece /ˈniːs/ piece /ˈpiːs/ pier /ˈpɪə(r), ˈpiːr/ pierce /ˈpɪə(r)s, ˈpiːrs/ priest /ˈpriːst/ relief /rɨˈliːf/ relieve /rɨˈliːv/ reprieve /rɨˈpriːv/ retrieve /rɨˈtriːv/ shield /ˈʃiːld/ shriek /ˈʃriːk/ siege /ˈsiːdʒ/ thief /ˈθiːf/ thieve /ˈθiːv/ thieves /ˈθiːvz/ tier (rank) /ˈtɪə(r), ˈtiːr/ wield /ˈwiːld/ yield /ˈjiːld/

‹igh› and ‹eigh› as /aɪ/Edit

almighty /ɔːlˈmaɪti/ bight /ˈbaɪt/ blight /ˈblaɪt/ bright /ˈbraɪt/ brighten /ˈbraɪtən/ delight /dɨˈlaɪt/ Dwight /ˈdwaɪt/ fight /ˈfaɪt/ flight /ˈflaɪt/ fright /ˈfraɪt/ frighten /ˈfraɪtən/ height /ˈhaɪt/ heighten /ˈhaɪtən/ high /ˈhaɪ/ knight, night /ˈnaɪt/ light /ˈlaɪt/ lightning /ˈlaɪtnᵻŋ/ might /ˈmaɪt/ nigh /ˈnaɪ/ plight /ˈplaɪt/ right, Wright, wright /ˈraɪt/ sigh /ˈsaɪ/ sight /ˈsaɪt/ sleight, slight /ˈslaɪt/ spright /ˈspraɪt/ thigh /ˈθaɪ/ tight /ˈtaɪt/ tighten /ˈtaɪtən/ Wight, wight /ˈwaɪt/

Final /ᵻl/ obsolete or nonstandard characters (ᵻ), invalid IPA characters (ᵻ)Edit

April /ˈeɪprᵻl/ Averill /ˈæv(ə)rᵻl/ Basil, basil /ˈbæzᵻl, ˈbæs-, ˈbeɪz-, ˈbeɪs-/ Beryl, beryl /ˈbɛrᵻl/ Cecil /ˈsɛsᵻl, ˈsiːs-/ Cheryl /ˈʃɛrᵻl/ council /ˈkaʊnsᵻl/ Daryl /ˈdærᵻl/ devil /ˈdɛvᵻl/ ethyl /ˈɛθᵻl/ evil /ˈiːvᵻl/ fossil /ˈfɒsᵻl/ gerbil /ˈdʒɜː(r)bᵻl, ˈdʒɛrb-/ Hamill /ˈhæmᵻl/ -ile /-ᵻl/ (also /-aɪl/) lentil /ˈlɛntᵻl/ Meryl /ˈmɛrᵻl/ Neville /ˈnɛvᵻl/ nostril /ˈnɒstrᵻl/ pencil /ˈpɛnsᵻl/ peril /ˈpɛrᵻl/ stencil /ˈstɛnsᵻl/ tonsil /ˈtɒnsᵻl/ vinyl /ˈvaɪnᵻl/ weevil /ˈwiːvᵻl/

/ɪŋ/Edit

These words mostly have /iːŋ/ in North American English, though certain words may still retain /ɪŋ/.

Beijing /ˈbeɪˈ(d)ʒɪŋ/ bing /ˈbɪŋ/ bingle /ˈbɪŋɡəl/ bingo /ˈbɪŋɡoʊ/ bling /ˈblɪŋ/ blink /ˈblɪŋk/ bring /ˈbrɪŋ/ brink /ˈbrɪŋk/ Ching, Qing /ˈtʃɪŋ/ chink /ˈtʃɪnk/ cling /ˈklɪŋ/ clink /ˈklɪŋk/ crinkle /ˈkrɪŋkəl/ ding /ˈdɪŋ/ Dingle, dingle /ˈdɪŋɡəl/ dingo /ˈdɪŋɡoʊ/ dink /ˈdɪŋk/ drink /ˈdrɪŋk/ England /ˈɪŋɡlənd/ English /ˈɪŋɡlᵻʃ/ finger /ˈfɪŋɡə(r)/ fink /ˈfɪŋk/ fling /ˈflɪŋ/ ginkgo /ˈɡɪŋkoʊ/ hinky /ˈhɪŋki/ Ingrid /ˈɪŋɡrᵻd/ ink /ˈɪŋk/ inkle /ˈɪnkəl/ jingle /ˈdʒɪŋɡəl/ jink /ˈdʒɪŋk/ jinks, jinx /ˈdʒɪŋks/ king /ˈkɪŋ/ kink /ˈkɪŋk/ Lincoln /ˈlɪŋkən/ ling /ˈlɪŋ/ linger /ˈlɪŋɡə(r)/ lingo /ˈlɪŋɡoʊ/ lingua /ˈlɪŋɡwə/ linguist /ˈlɪŋɡwᵻst/ link /ˈlɪŋk/ links, lynx /ˈlɪŋks/ Ming /ˈmɪŋ/ mingle /ˈmɪŋɡəl/ mink /ˈmɪŋk/ Peking /ˈpiːˈkɪŋ, ˈpeɪ-/ ping /ˈpɪŋ/ pink /ˈpɪŋk/ pinken /ˈpɪŋkən/ plink /ˈplɪŋk/ ring, wring /ˈrɪŋ/ Ringo /ˈrɪŋɡoʊ/ rink /ˈrɪŋk/ shingle /ˈʃɪŋɡəl/ shrink /ˈʃrɪŋk/ sing, Singh /ˈsɪŋ/ Singapore /ˈsɪŋəpɔə(r), -poʊr/ single /ˈsɪŋɡəl/ singular /ˈsɪŋɡjᵿlə(r)/ sink, sync, synch /ˈsɪŋk/ skink /ˈskɪŋk/ sling /ˈslɪŋ/ slink /ˈslɪŋk/ sphinx /ˈsfɪŋks/ spring /ˈsprɪŋ/ sprinkle /ˈsprɪŋkəl/ sting /ˈstɪŋ/ stink /ˈstɪŋk/ string /ˈstrɪŋ/ swing /ˈswɪŋ/ synchronise /ˈsɪŋkrɵnaɪz/ thing /ˈθɪŋ/ think /ˈθɪŋk/ tingle /ˈtɪŋɡəl/ tinkle /ˈtɪŋkəl/ trinket /ˈtrɪŋkᵻt/ twink /ˈtwɪŋk/ twinkle /ˈtwɪŋkəl/ wing /ˈwɪŋ/ wink /ˈwɪŋk/ wrinkle /ˈrɪŋkəl/ zinc /ˈzɪŋk/ zing /ˈzɪŋ/

‹kn› as /n/Edit

knack /ˈnæk/ knapsack /ˈnæpsæk/ knave /ˈneɪv/ knead, kneed /ˈniːd/ knee /ˈniː/ kneel /ˈniːl/ knell /ˈnɛl/ knelt /ˈnɛlt/ knew /ˈnjuː, ˈnɪu/ knickers /ˈnɪkə(r)z/ knife /ˈnaɪf/ knight /ˈnaɪt/ knit /ˈnɪt/ knives /ˈnaɪvz/ knob /ˈnɒb/ knock /ˈnɒk/ knocks, Knox /ˈnɒks/ knoll /ˈnoʊl/ knot /ˈnɒt/ know /ˈnoʊ/ knowledge /ˈnɒlᵻdʒ/ known /ˈnoʊn/ knuckle /ˈnʌkəl/

Silent ‹l›Edit

alms /ˈɑːmz/ (also /ˈɑːlmz/) balk /ˈbɔːk/ (also /ˈbɔːlk/) balm /ˈbɑːm/ (also /ˈbɑːlm/) calf /ˈkæf, ˈkɑːf/ (also /ˈkælf, ˈkɑːlf/) calk, caulk /ˈkɔːk/ (also /ˈkɔːlk/) calm /ˈkɑːm/ (also /ˈkɑːlm/) calve /ˈkæv, ˈkɑːv/ (also /ˈkælv, ˈkɑːlv/) calves /ˈkævz, ˈkɑːvz/ (also /ˈkælvz, ˈkɑːlvz/) chalk /ˈtʃɔːk/ (also /ˈtʃɔːlk/) Chalmers /ˈtʃɑːmə(r)z/ (also /ˈtʃɑːlmə(r)z/) Chisholm /ˈtʃɪzəm/ could /ˈkʊd/ Dundalk /ˈdʌndɔːk/ (also /ˈdʌndɔːlk/) falcon /ˈfɔːkən/ (also /ˈfɔːlkən, ˈfælk-/) Falkland /ˈfɔːklənd/ (also /ˈfɔːlklənd/) Faulkner /ˈfɔːknə(r)/ (also /ˈfɔːlknə(r)/) folk /ˈfoʊk/ (also /ˈfoʊlk/) golf /ˈɡɒf, ˈɡɔːf/ (also /ˈɡɒlf, ˈɡɔːlf/) guillotine /ˈɡiːɵtiːn/ (also /ˈɡɪlɵtiːn/) half /ˈhæf, ˈhɑːf/ (also /ˈhælf, ˈhɑːlf/) halve /ˈhæv, ˈhɑːv/ (also /ˈhælv, ˈhɑːlv/) halves /ˈhævz, ˈhɑːvz/ (also /ˈhælvz, ˈhɑːlvz/) holm /ˈhoʊm/ (also /ˈhoʊlm/) Holmes, holms /ˈhoʊmz/ (also /ˈhoʊlmz/) Lincoln /ˈlɪŋkən/ Marseille /mɑː(r)ˈseɪ, mær-/ Norfolk /ˈnɔː(r)fək, ˈnɒr-, -fɔːk/ palm /ˈpɑːm/ (also /ˈpɑːlm/) Polk /ˈpoʊk/ (also /ˈpoʊlk/) polka /ˈpoʊkə/ (also /ˈpoʊlkə, ˈpɒlkə/) psalm /ˈsɑːm/ (also /ˈsɑːlm/) qualm /ˈkwɑːm/ (also /ˈkwɑːlm/) Ralph /ˈreɪf, ˈrɑːf/ (also /ˈrælf, ˈrɑːlf/) salmon /ˈsæmən/ (also /ˈsælmən/) salve /ˈsæv, ˈsɑːv/ (also /ˈsælv, ˈsɑːlv/) should /ˈʃʊd/ solder /ˈsɒdə(r)/ (also /ˈsɒldə(r)/) stalk /ˈstɔːk/ (also /ˈstɔːlk/) Suffolk /ˈsʌfək/ talk /ˈtɔːk/ (also /ˈtɔːlk/) Versailles /vɜː(r)ˈsaɪ, vɛr-, vɛə(r)-, veɪr-/ (also /vɜː(r)ˈseɪlz, vɛr-, vɛə(r)-, veɪr-/) walk /ˈwɔːk/ (also /ˈwɔːlk/) would /ˈwʊd/ yolk /ˈjoʊk/ (also /ˈjoʊlk/)

‹le› as /əl/Edit

-able (unstressed) /-əbəl/ able /ˈeɪbəl/ -acle (unstressed) /-əkəl/ ample /ˈæmpəl/ Angle, angle /ˈæŋɡəl/ ankle /ˈæŋkəl/ apostle /əˈpɒsəl/ apple /ˈæpəl/ Aristotle /ˈærᵻstɒtəl/ axle /ˈæksəl/ babble /ˈbæbəl/ baffle /ˈbæfəl/ bangle /ˈbæŋɡəl/ battle /ˈbætəl/ bauble /ˈbɔːbəl/ beagle /ˈbiːɡəl/ beetle /ˈbiːtəl/ bible /ˈbaɪbəl/ bingle /ˈbɪŋɡəl/ bobble /ˈbɒbəl/ boggle /ˈbɒɡəl/ bottle /ˈbɒtəl/ bramble /ˈbræmbəl/ bridle /ˈbraɪdəl/ bristle /ˈbrɪsəl/ brittle /ˈbrɪtəl/ bubble /ˈbʌbəl/ buckle /ˈbʌkəl/ bugle /ˈbjuːɡəl, ˈbɪuɡ-/ bumble /ˈbʌmbəl/ bundle /ˈbʌndəl/ bungle /ˈbʌŋɡəl/ burgle /ˈbɜː(r)ɡəl, ˈbʌrɡ-/ bustle /ˈbʌsəl/ buttle /ˈbʌtəl/ cable /ˈkeɪbəl/ cackle /ˈkækəl/ candle /ˈkændəl/ cankle /ˈkæŋkəl/ carbuncle /ˈkɑː(r)bʌŋkəl, ˈkær-/ castle /ˈkæsəl, ˈkɑːs-/ cattle /ˈkætəl/ caudle /ˈkɔːdəl/ chortle /ˈtʃɔː(r)təl, ˈtʃɒrt-/ chuckle /ˈtʃʌkəl/ circle /ˈsɜː(r)kəl, ˈsɪrk-/ cobble /ˈkɒbəl/ coddle /ˈkɒdəl/ couple /ˈkʌpəl/ crackle /ˈkrækəl/ cradle /ˈkreɪdəl/ cringle /ˈkrɪŋɡəl/ crinkle /ˈkrɪŋkəl/ cripple /ˈkrɪpəl/ cuddle /ˈkʌdəl/ curdle /ˈkɜː(r)dəl, ˈkʌrd-/ cuttle /ˈkʌtəl/ cycle /ˈsaɪkəl/ dabble /ˈdæbəl/ dangle /ˈdæŋɡəl/ dawdle /ˈdɔːdəl/ dazzle /ˈdæzəl/ diddle /ˈdɪdəl/ Dingle, dingle /ˈdɪŋɡəl/ doddle /ˈdɒdəl/ dongle /ˈdɒŋɡəl, ˈdɔːŋɡ-/ doodle /ˈduːdəl/ double /ˈdʌbəl/ drabble /ˈdræbəl/ dribble /ˈdrɪbəl/ drizzle /ˈdrɪzəl/ eagle /ˈiːɡəl/ embezzle /ᵻmˈbɛzəl, ɛm-/ example /ᵻɡˈzæmpəl, ɛɡ-, -ˈzɑːmp-/ fable /ˈfeɪbəl/ fangle /ˈfæŋɡəl/ feeble /ˈfiːbəl/ fickle /ˈfɪkəl/ fiddle /ˈfɪdəl/ fizzle /ˈfɪzəl/ fondle /ˈfɒndəl/ frazzle /ˈfræzəl/ freckle /ˈfrɛkəl/ fuddle /ˈfʌdəl/ fuzzle /ˈfʌzəl/ gabble /ˈɡæbəl/ gaggle /ˈɡæɡəl/ gamble /ˈɡæmbəl/ gargle /ˈɡɑː(r)ɡəl, ˈɡærɡ-/ gentle /ˈdʒɛntəl/ giggle /ˈɡɪɡəl/ girdle /ˈɡɜː(r)dəl, ˈɡɪrd-/ goggle /ˈɡɒɡəl/ Google, google /ˈɡuːɡəl/ grabble /ˈɡræbəl/ grapple /ˈɡræpəl/ gribble /ˈɡrɪbəl/ griddle /ˈɡrɪdəl/ gristle /ˈɡrɪsəl/ grizzle /ˈɡrɪzəl/ grumble /ˈɡrʌmbəl/ gruntle /ˈɡrʌntəl/ gurgle /ˈɡɜː(r)ɡəl, ˈɡʌrɡ-/ guzzle /ˈɡʌzəl/ haggle /ˈhæɡəl/ handle /ˈhændəl/ heckle /ˈhɛkəl/ hobble /ˈhɒbəl/ Hubble, hubble /ˈhʌbəl/ huckle /ˈhʌkəl/ huddle /ˈhʌdəl/ huggle /ˈhʌɡəl/ humble /ˈhʌmbəl/ hurdle /ˈhɜː(r)dəl, ˈhʌrd-/ hurtle /ˈhɜː(r)təl, ˈhʌrt-/ hustle /ˈhʌsəl/ -ible (unstressed) /-ᵻbəl/ -icle (unstressed) /-ᵻkəl/ inkle /ˈɪŋkəl/ jangle /ˈdʒæŋɡəl/ jiggle /ˈdʒɪɡəl/ jingle /ˈdʒɪŋɡəl/ jostle /ˈdʒɒsəl/ juggle /ˈdʒʌɡəl/ jumble /ˈdʒʌmbəl/ jungle /ˈdʒʌŋɡəl/ kettle /ˈkɛtəl/ kindle /ˈkɪndəl/ knuckle /ˈnʌkəl/ ladle /ˈleɪdəl/ little /ˈlɪtəl/ mangle /ˈmæŋɡəl/ mantle /ˈmæntəl/ maple /ˈmeɪpəl/ marble /ˈmɑː(r)bəl, ˈmærb-/ measle /ˈmiːzəl/ meddle /ˈmɛdəl/ mettle /ˈmɛtəl/ middle /ˈmɪdəl/ mingle /ˈmɪŋɡəl/ mistletoe /ˈmɪsəltoʊ/ muddle /ˈmʌdəl/ muggle /ˈmʌɡəl/ mumble /ˈmʌmbəl/ muscle /ˈmʌsəl/ muzzle /ˈmʌzəl/ myrtle /ˈmɜː(r)təl, ˈmɪrt-/ needle /ˈniːdəl/ nestle /ˈnɛsəl/ nettle /ˈnɛtəl/ nibble, nybble /ˈnɪbəl/ nimble /ˈnɪmbəl/ nipple /ˈnɪpəl/ noble /ˈnoʊbəl/ noddle /ˈnɒdəl/ noodle /ˈnuːdəl/ nozzle /ˈnɒzəl/ nubble /ˈnʌbəl/ nuzzle /ˈnʌzəl/ ogle /ˈoʊɡəl/ paddle /ˈpædəl/ pebble /ˈpɛbəl/ peddle /ˈpɛdəl/ people /ˈpiːpəl/ pestle /ˈpɛs(t)əl/ pettle /ˈpɛtəl/ pickle /ˈpɪkəl/ pintle /ˈpɪntəl/ poodle /ˈpuːdəl/ prattle /ˈprætəl/ prickle /ˈprɪkəl/ puddle /ˈpʌdəl/ purple /ˈpɜː(r)pəl, ˈpʌrp-/ puzzle /ˈpʌzəl/ quibble /ˈkwɪbəl/ raffle /ˈræfəl/ ramble /ˈræmbəl/ rankle /ˈræŋkəl/ rassle, rastle, wrastle /ˈræsəl/ rattle /ˈrætəl/ razzle /ˈræzəl/ riddle /ˈrɪdəl/ riffle /ˈrɪfəl/ rifle /ˈraɪfəl/ ripple /ˈrɪpəl/ rubble /ˈrʌbəl/ ruffle /ˈrʌfəl/ rustle /ˈrʌsəl/ saddle /ˈsædəl/ sample /ˈsæmpəl, ˈsɑːmp-/ scrabble /ˈskræbəl/ scramble /ˈskræmbəl/ scribble /ˈskrɪbəl/ scruple /ˈskruːpəl/ scuffle /ˈskʌfəl/ scuttle /ˈskʌtəl/ Seattle /siˈætəl/ settle /ˈsɛtəl/ shackle /ˈʃækəl/ shamble /ˈʃæmbəl/ shingle /ˈʃɪŋɡəl/ shuffle /ˈʃʌfəl/ shuttle /ˈʃʌtəl/ sickle /ˈsɪkəl/ simple /ˈsɪmpəl/ single /ˈsɪŋɡəl/ sizzle /ˈsɪzəl/ skittle /ˈskɪtəl/ smuggle /ˈsmʌɡəl/ sniffle /ˈsnɪfəl/ snuggle /ˈsnʌɡəl/ Spackle, spackle /ˈspækəl/ spangle /ˈspæŋɡəl/ sparkle /ˈspɑː(r)kəl, ˈspærk-/ spindle /ˈspɪndəl/ sprinkle /ˈsprɪŋkəl/ squabble /ˈskwɒbəl/ squiggle /ˈskwɪɡəl/ stable /ˈsteɪbəl/ staple /ˈsteɪpəl/ startle /ˈstɑː(r)təl, ˈstært-/ steeple /ˈstiːpəl/ stickle /ˈstɪkəl/ stifle /ˈstaɪfəl/ straddle /ˈstrædəl/ straggle /ˈstræɡəl/ strangle /ˈstræŋɡəl/ struggle /ˈstrʌɡəl/ stubble /ˈstʌbəl/ subtle /ˈsʌtəl/ suckle /ˈsʌkəl/ supple /ˈsʌpəl/ swaddle /ˈswɒdəl/ swindle /ˈswɪndəl/ swizzle /ˈswɪzəl/ table /ˈteɪbəl/ tackle /ˈtækəl/ tangle /ˈtæŋɡəl/ tattle /ˈtætəl/ temple /ˈtɛmpəl/ thimble /ˈθɪmbəl/ thistle /ˈθɪsəl/ throstle /ˈθrɒsəl/ throttle /ˈθrɒtəl/ tickle /ˈtɪkəl/ tingle /ˈtɪŋɡəl/ tinkle /ˈtɪŋkəl/ title /ˈtaɪtəl/ tittle /ˈtɪtəl/ toddle /ˈtɒdəl/ toggle /ˈtɒɡəl/ tootle /ˈtuːtəl/ topple /ˈtɒpəl/ trample /ˈtræmpəl/ treble /ˈtrɛbəl/ tremble /ˈtrɛmbəl/ trickle /ˈtrɪkəl/ trifle /ˈtraɪfəl/ triple /ˈtrɪpəl/ trouble /ˈtrʌbəl/ truffle /ˈtrʌfəl/ trundle /ˈtrʌndəl/ tumble /ˈtʌmbəl/ turtle /ˈtɜː(r)təl, ˈtʌrt-/ twaddle /ˈtwɒdəl/ twinkle /ˈtwɪŋkəl/ uncle /ˈʌŋkəl/ vittle /ˈvɪtəl/ wabble, wobble /ˈwɒbəl/ waddle /ˈwɒdəl/ waffle /ˈwɒfəl, ˈwɔːf-/ warble /ˈwɔː(r)bəl, ˈwɒrb-/ whiffle /ˈ(h)wɪfəl/ whistle /ˈ(h)wɪsəl/ whittle /ˈ(h)wɪtəl/ wiggle /ˈwɪɡəl/ wrangle /ˈræŋɡəl/ wrestle /ˈrɛsəl/ wriggle /ˈrɪɡəl/ wrinkle /ˈrɪŋkəl/

‹mb› as /m/Edit

bomb /ˈbɒm/ climb /ˈklaɪm/ comb /ˈkoʊm/ combe, coomb /ˈkuːm, ˈkoʊm/ crumb /ˈkrʌm/ dumb /ˈdʌm/ jamb, jambe /ˈdʒæm/ lamb /ˈlæm/ limb /ˈlɪm/ numb /ˈnʌm/ plumb /ˈplʌm/ succumb /səˈkʌm/ thumb /ˈθʌm/ tomb /ˈtuːm/ womb /ˈwuːm/

‹o› and ‹oe› as /ʌ/Edit

This list does not include:

  • Words where ‹o› only represents /ə/.

above /əˈbʌv/ amok /əˈmʌk/ (also /əˈmɒk/) among /əˈmʌŋ/ amongst /əˈmʌŋ(k)st/ anybody /ˈɛnibʌdi, ˈæn-/ (also /ˈɛnibɒdi, ˈæn-/) attorney /əˈtɜː(r)ni, əˈtʌrni/ borough /ˈbʌroʊ, -rə/ brother /ˈbrʌðə(r)/ colonel /ˈkɜː(r)nəl, ˈkʌrn-/ color, colour /ˈkʌlə(r)/ come /ˈkʌm/ comfort /ˈkʌmfə(r)t/ comfortable /ˈkʌmf(ə(r))təbəl, ˈkʌmftə(r)bəl/ company /ˈkʌmpəni/ compass /ˈkʌmpəs/ coney, cony /ˈkʌni/ (also /ˈkoʊni/) coven /ˈkʌvən/ (also /ˈkoʊvən/) covenant /ˈkʌvənənt/ Coventry /ˈkʌvəntri/ cover /ˈkʌvə(r)/ discover /dᵻˈskʌvə(r)/ does (verb) /ˈdʌz/ done /ˈdʌn/ donkey /ˈdʌŋki/ (also /ˈdɒŋki, ˈdɔːŋki/) dost /ˈdʌst/ doth /ˈdʌθ/ dove (pigeon) /ˈdʌv/ dozen /ˈdʌzən/ enough /ɨˈnʌf/ everybody /ˈɛv(ə)ribʌdi/ (also /ˈɛv(ə)ribɒdi/) from /ˈfrʌm/ (also /ˈfrɒm/) front /ˈfrʌnt/ frontier /frʌnˈtɪə(r), -ˈtiːr/ glove /ˈɡlʌv/ govern /ˈɡʌvə(r)n/ grovel /ˈɡrʌvəl/ (also /ˈɡrɒvəl/) honey /ˈhʌni/ hovel /ˈhʌvəl/ (also /ˈhɒvəl/) hover /ˈhʌvə(r)/ (also /ˈhɒvə(r)/) London /ˈlʌndən/ love /ˈlʌv/ Monday /ˈmʌndeɪ, -di/ money /ˈmʌni/ monies /ˈmʌniz/ monk /ˈmʌŋk/ monkey /ˈmʌŋki/ month /ˈmʌnθ/ Moray /ˈmʌri/ mother (parent) /ˈmʌðə(r)/ nobody /ˈnoʊbʌdi/ (also /ˈnoʊbɒdi, -bədi/) none /ˈnʌn/ nothing /ˈnʌθᵻŋ/ of /ˈʌv/ (also /ˈɒv/) onion /ˈʌnjən/ other /ˈʌðə(r)/ oven /ˈʌvən/ rough /ˈrʌf/ roughen /ˈrʌfən/ shove /ˈʃʌv/ shovel /ˈʃʌvəl/ sloven /ˈslʌvən/ smother /ˈsmʌðə(r)/ some /ˈsʌm/ somebody /ˈsʌmbʌdi/ (also /ˈsʌmbɒdi, -bədi/) somersault /ˈsʌmə(r)sɔːlt/ Somerset /ˈsʌmə(r)sɛt/ son /ˈsʌn/ sovereign /ˈsʌv(ə)rᵻn/ (also /ˈsɒv(ə)rᵻn/) sponge /ˈspʌndʒ/ stomach /ˈstʌmək/ thorough /ˈθʌroʊ, -rə/ ton, tonne /ˈtʌn/ tongue /ˈtʌŋ/ tough /ˈtʌf/ toughen /ˈtʌfən/ won /ˈwʌn/ (also /ˈwɒn/) wont /ˈwʌnt/ (also /ˈwɒnt, ˈwɔːnt/) word /ˈwɜː(r)d, ˈwʌrd/ work /ˈwɜː(r)k, ˈwʌrk/ world /ˈwɜː(r)ld, ˈwʌrld/ worm /ˈwɜː(r)m, ˈwʌrm/ worry /ˈwʌri/ worse /ˈwɜː(r)s, ˈwʌrs/ worsen /ˈwɜː(r)sən, ˈwʌrs-/ worship /ˈwɜː(r)ʃᵻp, ˈwʌrʃ-/ worst /ˈwɜː(r)st, ˈwʌrst/ wort /ˈwɜː(r)t, ˈwʌrt/ (also /ˈwɔː(r)t, ˈwɒrt/) worth /ˈwɜː(r)θ, ˈwʌrθ/ worthy /ˈwɜː(r)ði, ˈwʌrði/

‹o› and ‹oe› as /ʊ/Edit

bosom /ˈbʊzəm/ wolf /ˈwʊlf/ Wolsey /ˈwʊlzi/ wolverine /ˈwʊlvəˈriːn/ wolves /ˈwʊlvz/ woman /ˈwʊmən/ yod /ˈjʊd/

‹o› and ‹oe› as /uː/Edit

canoe /kəˈnuː/ combe /ˈkuːm/ (also /ˈkoʊm/) do /ˈduː/ domesday /ˈduːmzdeɪ/ lose /ˈluːz/ move /ˈmuːv/ movie /ˈmuːvi/ prove /ˈpruːv/ proven /ˈpruːvən/ (also /ˈproʊvən/) shoe /ˈʃuː/ to /ˈtuː/ tomb /ˈtuːm/ womb /ˈwuːm/

‹oCC› as /oʊCC/ invalid IPA characters (CC) and final ‹oC› as /oʊC/ invalid IPA characters (C)Edit

This list does not include:

  • Words where the consonant cluster sequence is only /Cl/ invalid IPA characters (C) (as in noble) or only /Cr/ invalid IPA characters (C) (as in cobra), since vowels are expected to be long in these spellings.
  • Plurals formed with -s.
  • Words with ‹olC› or final ‹ol›.

almost /ˈɔːlˈmoʊst/ betroth /bɨˈtroʊð/ (also /bɨˈtrɒθ, -ˈtrɔːθ/) borne /ˈbɔə(r)n, ˈboʊrn/ Borneo /ˈbɔə(r)nioʊ, ˈboʊrn-/ both /ˈboʊθ/ (also /ˈboʊlθ/) comb /ˈkoʊm/ divorce /dᵻˈvɔə(r)s, -ˈvoʊrs/ don't /ˈdoʊnt/ fiord, fjord /ˈfjɔə(r)d, ˈfjoʊrd/ force /ˈfɔə(r)s, ˈfoʊrs/ ford /ˈfɔə(r)d, ˈfoʊrd/ forge /ˈfɔə(r)dʒ, ˈfoʊrdʒ/ fort /ˈfɔə(r)t, ˈfoʊrt/ forth /ˈfɔə(r)θ, ˈfoʊrθ/ ghost /ˈɡoʊst/ gross /ˈɡroʊs/ horde /ˈhɔə(r)d, ˈhoʊrd/ host /ˈhoʊst/ most /ˈmoʊst/ porcelain /ˈpɔə(r)s(ə)lᵻn, ˈpoʊrs-/ porch /ˈpɔə(r)tʃ, ˈpoʊrtʃ/ pork /ˈpɔə(r)k, ˈpoʊrk/ port /ˈpɔə(r)t, ˈpoʊrt/ portend /ˈpɔə(r)tɛnd, ˈpoʊrt-/ portent /ˈpɔə(r)tɛnt, ˈpoʊrt-/ portion /ˈpɔə(r)ʃən, ˈpoʊrʃ-/ portrait /ˈpɔə(r)trᵻt, ˈpoʊrt-/ post /ˈpoʊst/ shorn /ˈʃɔə(r)n, ˈʃoʊrn/ sloth /ˈsloʊθ/ (also /ˈslɒθ, ˈslɔːθ/) sport /ˈspɔə(r)t, ˈspoʊrt/ sword /ˈsɔə(r)d, ˈsoʊrd/ sworn /ˈswɔə(r)n, ˈswoʊrn/ torn /ˈtɔə(r)n, ˈtoʊrn/ troth /ˈtroʊθ/ (also /ˈtrɒθ, ˈtrɔːθ/) won't /ˈwoʊnt/ worn /ˈwɔə(r)n, ˈwoʊrn/ wroth /ˈroʊθ/ (also /ˈrɒθ, ˈrɔːθ/)

/ɔːl/Edit

assault /əˈsɔːlt/ bawl /ˈbɔːl/ brawl /ˈbrɔːl/ cauldron /ˈkɔːldrən/ caulk /ˈkɔːlk/ (also /ˈkɔːk/) drawl /ˈdrɔːl/ Faulkner /ˈfɔːlknə(r)/ (also /ˈfɔːknə(r)/) fault /ˈfɔːlt/ Gaul /ˈɡɔːl/ haul /ˈɡɔːl/ maul /ˈmɔːl/ Paul, pawl /ˈpɔːl/ Saul /ˈsɔːl/ scrawl /ˈskrɔːl/ shawl /ˈʃɔːl/ somersault /ˈsʌmə(r)sɔːlt/ sprawl /ˈskrɔːl/ trawl /ˈtrɔːl/ vault /ˈvɔːlt/

‹alC› /ɔːlC/ invalid IPA characters (C) or final ‹al› as /ɔːl/Edit

Albany /ˈɔːlbəni/ albeit /ɔːlˈbiːᵻt/ Alderney /ˈɔːldə(r)ni/ all /ˈɔːl/ almighty /ɔːlˈmaɪti/ almost /ˈɔːlˈmoʊst/ already /ɔːlˈrɛdi/ also /ˈɔːlsoʊ/ altar, alter /ˈɔːltə(r)/ alternate (adjective) /ˈɔːltə(r)nᵻt/ alternate (verb) /ˈɔːltə(r)neɪt/ although /ɔːlˈðoʊ/ altogether /ˈɔːltᵿˈɡɛðə(r)/ always /ˈɔːlweɪz, -wiz/ asphalt /ˈæsfɔːlt, ˈæʃ-/ (also /ˈæsfælt, ˈæʃ-/) bald, balled /ˈbɔːld/ Balder, balder /ˈbɔːldə(r)/ balk /ˈbɔːlk/ (also /ˈbɔːk/) ball /ˈbɔːl/ Balt /ˈbɔːlt/ Baltimore /ˈbɔːl(tᵻ)mɔə(r), -moʊr/ calk /ˈkɔːlk/ (also /ˈkɔːk/) call /ˈkɔːl/ chalk /ˈtʃɔːlk/ (also /ˈtʃɔːk/) cobalt /ˈkoʊbɔːlt/ Cornwall /ˈkɔː(r)nwɔːl, ˈkɒrn-/ (also /ˈkɔː(r)nwəl, ˈkɒrn-/) Dundalk /ˈdʌndɔːlk/ (also /ˈdʌndɔːk/) falcon /ˈfɔːlkən/ (also /ˈfɔːkən, ˈfælk-/) Falkland /ˈfɔːlklənd/ (also /ˈfɔːklənd/) fall /ˈfɔːl/ fallen /ˈfɔːlən/ false /ˈfɔːls/ falter /ˈfɔːltə(r)/ gall /ˈɡɔːl/ hall /ˈhɔːl/ halt /ˈhɔːlt/ mall /ˈmɔːl/ malt /ˈmɔːlt/ Malta /ˈmɔːltə/ (also /ˈmɒltə/) Nepal /nᵻˈpɔːl/ (also /nᵻˈpɑːl, -ˈpæl/) pall /ˈpɔːl/ palsy /ˈpɔːlzi/ paltry /ˈpɔːltri/ Salisbury /ˈsɔːlzb(ɛ)ri/ (also /ˈsælzb(ɛ)ri/) salt /ˈsɔːlt/ scald /ˈskɔːld/ small /ˈsmɔːl/ Spalding /ˈspɔːldᵻŋ/ squall /ˈskwɔːl/ stalk /ˈstɔːlk/ (also /ˈstɔːk/) stall /ˈstɔːl/ talk /ˈtɔːlk/ (also /ˈtɔːk/) tall /ˈtɔːl/ thrall /ˈθrɔːl/ walk /ˈwɔːlk/ (also /ˈwɔːk/) wall /ˈwɔːl/ Walt /ˈwɔːlt/ Walter /ˈwɔːltə(r)/ waltz /ˈwɔːlts/

‹oo› as /oʊ/Edit

boor /ˈbɔə(r), ˈboʊr/ (also /ˈbʊə(r), ˈbuːr/) brooch /ˈbroʊtʃ/ (also /ˈbruːtʃ/) door /ˈdɔə(r), ˈdoʊr/ floor /ˈflɔə(r), ˈfloʊr/ moor, Moore /ˈmɔə(r), ˈmoʊr/ (also /ˈmʊə(r), ˈmuːr/) poor /ˈpɔə(r), ˈpoʊr/ (also /ˈpʊə(r), ˈpuːr/)

‹oo› as /ʊ/Edit

booger /ˈbʊɡə(r)/ boogie /ˈbʊɡi/ (also /ˈbuːɡi/) book /ˈbʊk/ Booker /ˈbʊkə(r)/ brook, Brooke /ˈbrʊk/ broom /ˈbrʊm/ (also /ˈbruːm/) cook /ˈkʊk/ cookie, cooky /ˈkʊki/ coop (enclosure) /ˈkʊp/ (also /ˈkuːp/) crook /ˈkrʊk/ crooked /ˈkrʊkᵻd, ˈkrʊkt/ good /ˈɡʊd/ groom /ˈɡrʊm/ (also /ˈɡruːm/) hood /ˈhʊd/ hoof /ˈhʊf/ (also /ˈhuːf/) hook /ˈhʊk/ hoop /ˈhʊp/ (also /ˈhuːp/) hooves /ˈhʊvz/ (also /ˈhuːvz/) look /ˈlʊk/ nook /ˈnʊk/ nookie, nooky /ˈnʊki/ oops /ˈʊps/ (also /ˈuːps/) roof /ˈrʊf/ (also /ˈruːf/) rook /ˈrʊk/ room /ˈrʊm/ (also /ˈruːm/) shook /ˈʃʊk/ soot /ˈsʊt/ (also /ˈsuːt/) squoosh /ˈskwʊʃ/ stood /ˈstʊd/ swoosh /ˈswʊʃ/ (also /ˈswuːʃ/) took /ˈtʊk/ tootsie /ˈtʊtsi/ whoop /ˈ(h)wʊp/ (also /ˈ(h)wuːp/) whoosh /ˈ(h)wʊʃ/ (also /ˈ(h)wuːʃ/) wood /ˈwʊd/ wooden /ˈwʊdən/ woof /ˈwʊf/ (also /ˈwuːf/) wool /ˈwʊl/ woolen, woollen /ˈwʊlən/ woolly, wooly /ˈwʊli/ Woolsey /ˈwʊlzi/

‹ou› as /ʌ/Edit

This list does not include:

  • Words where ‹ou› only represents /ə/.

adjourn /əˈdʒɜː(r)n, əˈdʒʌrn/ bourgeon /ˈbɜː(r)dʒən, ˈbʌrdʒ-/ country /ˈkʌntri/ couple /ˈkʌpəl/ courage /ˈkʌrᵻdʒ/ courier /ˈkɜːriə(r), ˈkʌr-/ (also /ˈkʊ(ə)riə(r), ˈkuːr-/) courteous /ˈkɜː(r)tiəs, ˈkʌrt-/ courtesy /ˈkɜː(r)t(ᵻ)si, ˈkʌrt-/ cousin /ˈkʌzᵻn/ double /ˈdʌbəl/ doublet /ˈdʌblᵻt/ doubloon /dʌˈbluːn/ Doug /ˈdʌɡ/ Douglas /ˈdʌɡləs/ flourish /ˈflʌrᵻʃ/ hiccough /ˈhɪkʌp/ (also /ˈhɪkəp/) journal /ˈdʒɜː(r)nəl, ˈdʒʌrn-/ journey /ˈdʒɜː(r)ni, ˈdʒʌrni/ joust /ˈdʒʌst/ (also /ˈdʒaʊst, ˈdʒuːst/) moustache /ˈmʌstæʃ, -stɑːʃ/ (also /məˈstæʃ, -ˈstɑːʃ/) nourish /ˈnʌrᵻʃ/ scourge /ˈskɜː(r)dʒ, ˈskʌrdʒ/ sojourn /ˈsoʊdʒɜː(r)n, -dʒʌrn/ southerly /ˈsʌðə(r)li/ (also /ˈsaʊðə(r)li/) southern /ˈsʌðə(r)n/ (also /ˈsaʊðə(r)n/) touch /ˈtʌtʃ/ tournament /ˈtɜː(r)nəmənt, ˈtʌrn-/ (also /ˈtʊə(r)nəmənt, ˈtuːrn-/) tourney /ˈtɜː(r)ni, ˈtʌrni/ (also /ˈtʊə(r)ni, ˈtuːrni/) trouble /ˈtrʌbəl/ young /ˈjʌŋ/ younger /ˈjʌŋɡə(r)/

‹ou› and ‹ow› as /oʊ/Edit

This sound historically never overlapped with ‹ou› or ‹ow› as /uː/ or post-Great Vowel Shift /aʊ/.

blow /ˈbloʊ/ blown /ˈbloʊn/ boulder, bowlder /ˈboʊldə(r)/ bourn, Bourne, bourne /ˈbɔə(r)n, ˈboʊrn/ (also /ˈbʊə(r)n, ˈbuːrn/) bow (shape) /ˈboʊ/ bowl /ˈboʊl/ course /ˈkɔə(r)s, ˈkoʊrs/ court /ˈkɔə(r)t, ˈkoʊrt/ dough /ˈdoʊ/ flow /ˈfloʊ/ flown /ˈfloʊn/ four /ˈfɔə(r), ˈfoʊr/ fourteen /ˈfɔə(r)ˈtiːn, ˈfoʊr-/ fourth /ˈfɔə(r)θ, ˈfoʊrθ/ glow /ˈɡloʊ/ gourd /ˈɡɔə(r)d, ˈɡoʊrd/ (also /ˈɡʊə(r)d, ˈɡuːrd/) grow /ˈɡroʊ/ grown /ˈɡroʊn/ growth /ˈɡroʊθ/ low, Lowe /ˈloʊ/ Lowell /ˈloʊəl/ (also /ˈloʊl/) lower (descend) /ˈloʊə(r)/ mould /ˈmoʊld/ moult /ˈmoʊlt/ mourn /ˈmɔə(r)n, ˈmoʊrn/ mow /ˈmoʊ/ mown /ˈmoʊn/ owe /ˈoʊ/ own /ˈoʊn/ poultry /ˈpoʊltri/ pour /ˈpɔə(r), ˈpoʊr/ row (line) /ˈroʊ/ Seymour /ˈsiːmɔə(r), -moʊr/ shoulder /ˈʃoʊldə(r)/ show /ˈʃoʊ/ shown /ˈʃoʊn/ slow /ˈsloʊ/ smoulder /ˈsmoʊldə(r)/ snow /ˈsnoʊ/ soul /ˈsoʊl/ source /ˈsɔə(r)s, ˈsoʊrs/ sow (seed) /ˈsoʊ/ sown /ˈsoʊn/ though /ˈðoʊ/ throw /ˈθroʊ/ thrown /ˈθroʊn/ tow /ˈtoʊ/ your, you're /ˈjɔə(r), ˈjoʊr/ (also /ˈjʊə(r), ˈjuːr/) yourn /ˈjɔə(r)n, ˈjoʊrn/ (also /ˈjʊə(r)n, ˈjuːrn/) yours /ˈjɔə(r)z, ˈjoʊrz/ (also /ˈjʊə(r)z, ˈjuːrz/)

Final unstressedEdit

arrow /ˈæroʊ/ barrow /ˈbæroʊ/ bellow /ˈbɛloʊ/ bellows (device) /ˈbɛloʊz/ (also /ˈbɛləz/) billow /ˈbɪloʊ/ borough /ˈbʌroʊ/ (also /ˈbʌrə/) borrow /ˈbɒroʊ/ bungalow /ˈbʌŋɡəloʊ/ burrow /ˈbʌroʊ/ elbow /ˈɛlboʊ/ fallow /ˈfæloʊ/ farrow /ˈfæroʊ/ fellow /ˈfɛloʊ/ follow /ˈfɒloʊ/ furlough /ˈfɜː(r)loʊ, ˈfʌr-/ gallows /ˈɡæloʊz/ (also /ˈɡæləz/) hallow /ˈhæloʊ/ harrow /ˈhæroʊ/ hollow /ˈhɒloʊ/ mallow /ˈmæloʊ/ Marlowe /ˈmɑː(r)loʊ, ˈmær-/ marrow /ˈmæroʊ/ meadow /ˈmɛdoʊ/ mellow /ˈmɛloʊ/ minnow /ˈmɪnoʊ/ morrow /ˈmɒroʊ/ Moscow /ˈmɒskoʊ/ (also /ˈmɒskaʊ/) narrow /ˈnæroʊ/ pillow /ˈpɪloʊ/ sallow /ˈsæloʊ/ shadow /ˈʃædoʊ/ shallow /ˈʃæloʊ/ sorrow /ˈsɒroʊ/ sparrow /ˈspæroʊ/ swallow /ˈswɒloʊ/ tallow /ˈtæloʊ/ thorough /ˈθʌroʊ/ (also /ˈθʌrə/) wallow /ˈwɒloʊ/ Wicklow /ˈwɪkloʊ/ widow /ˈwɪdoʊ/ willow /ˈwɪloʊ/ window /ˈwɪndoʊ/ Winslow /ˈwɪnzloʊ/ yellow /ˈjɛloʊ/

‹ou› as /uː/Edit

All these words imply ‹ou› that remained /uː/ after ‹ou› had regularly shifted to /aʊ/ in the Great Vowel Shift.

For historical reasons, this list also includes ‹ou› as /ʊ/ from older post-GVS /uː/.

bouche /ˈbuːʃ/ boulevard /ˈbuːl(ə)vɑː(r)(d), ˈbʊl-, -vær(d)/ cougar /ˈkuːɡə(r)/ could /ˈkʊd/ coupon /ˈkuːpɒn/ (also /ˈkjuːpɒn, ˈkɪup-/) courier /ˈkʊ(ə)riə(r), ˈkuːr-/ (also /ˈkɜːriə(r), ˈkʌr-/) couscous /ˈkuːskuːs/ couth /ˈkuːθ/ douche /ˈduːʃ/ Dougal /ˈduːɡəl/ ghoul /ˈɡuːl/ gourd /ˈɡʊə(r)d, ˈɡuːrd/ (also /ˈɡɔə(r)d, ˈɡoʊrd/) group /ˈɡruːp/ joust /ˈdʒuːst/ (also /ˈdʒaʊst, ˈdʒʌst/) Lou /ˈluː/ Louie /ˈluːi/ Louis /ˈluːᵻs/ mousse /ˈmuːs/ rouge /ˈruːʒ/ route /ˈruːt/ (also /ˈraʊt/) should /ˈʃʊd/ soup /ˈsuːp/ stoup /ˈstuːp/ through /ˈθruː/ tour /ˈtʊə(r), ˈtuːr/ tournament /ˈtʊə(r)nəmənt, ˈtuːrn-/ (also /ˈtɜː(r)nəmənt, ˈtʌrn-/) tourney /ˈtʊə(r)ni, ˈtuːrni/ (also /ˈtɜː(r)ni, ˈtʌrni/) troupe /ˈtruːp/ would /ˈwʊd/ wound (injury) /ˈwuːnd/ you /ˈjuː/ your, you're /ˈjʊə(r), ˈjuːr/ (also /ˈjɔə(r), ˈjoʊr/) yourn /ˈjʊə(r)n, ˈjuːrn/ (also /ˈjɔə(r)n, ˈjoʊrn/) yours /ˈjʊə(r)z, ˈjuːrz/ (also /ˈjɔə(r)z, ˈjoʊrz/) youth /ˈjuːθ/ youths /ˈjuːðz, ˈjuːθs/

‹olC› as /oʊlC/ invalid IPA characters (C) or final ‹ol› as /oʊl/Edit

bold, bowled /ˈboʊld/ bolster /ˈboʊlstə(r)/ bolt /ˈboʊlt/ Bolton /ˈboʊltən/ Colby /ˈkoʊlbi/ cold /ˈkoʊld/ Colgate /ˈkoʊlɡeɪt/ colt /ˈkoʊlt/ Colton /ˈkoʊltən/ control /kənˈtroʊl/ Dolby /ˈdoʊlbi/ dolt /ˈdoʊlt/ droll /ˈdroʊl/ extol /ᵻkˈstoʊl/ fold /ˈfoʊld/ Folger /ˈfoʊldʒə(r)/ folk /ˈfoʊlk/ (also /ˈfoʊk/) gnoll, knoll /ˈnoʊl/ gold /ˈɡoʊld/ golden /ˈɡoʊldən/ hold /ˈhoʊld/ holm /ˈhoʊlm/ (also /ˈhoʊm/) Holmes, holms /ˈhoʊlmz/ (also /ˈhoʊmz/) holster /ˈhoʊlstə(r)/ holt /ˈhoʊlt/ Holton /ˈhoʊltən/ jolt /ˈdʒoʊlt/ mold /ˈmoʊld/ molt /ˈmoʊlt/ molten /ˈmoʊltən/ old /ˈoʊld/ olden /ˈoʊldən/ olfactory /oʊlˈfækt(ɵ)ri/ (also /ɒlˈfækt(ɵ)ri/) Olsen, Olson /ˈoʊlsən/ patrol /pəˈtroʊl/ polder /ˈpoʊldə(r)/ Polk /ˈpoʊlk/ (also /ˈpoʊk/) polka /ˈpoʊlkə/ (also /ˈpoʊkə, ˈpɒlkə/) poll /ˈpoʊl/ poltergeist /ˈpoʊltə(r)ɡaɪst/ (also /ˈpɒltə(r)ɡaɪst/) roll /ˈroʊl/ scroll /ˈskroʊl/ smolder /ˈsmoʊldə(r)/ smolt /ˈsmoʊlt/ Sol, sol /ˈsoʊl/ (also /ˈsɒl/) sold /ˈsoʊld/ soldier /ˈsoʊldʒə(r)/ stroll /ˈstroʊl/ swollen /ˈswoʊlən/ told, tolled /ˈtoʊld/ toll /ˈtoʊl/ troll /ˈtroʊl/ volt /ˈvoʊlt/ Volta, volta /ˈvoʊltə/ (also /ˈvɒltə/) wold (forest) /ˈwoʊld/ yolk /ˈjoʊlk/ (also /ˈjoʊk/)

‹our› as /ə(r)/Edit

arbour /ˈɑː(r)bə(r), ˈærb-/ armour /ˈɑː(r)mə(r), ˈærm-/ behaviour /bɨˈheɪvjə(r)/ clamour /ˈklæmə(r)/ colour /ˈkʌlə(r)/ endeavour /ᵻnˈdɛvə(r), ɛn-/ favour /ˈfeɪvə(r)/ flavour /ˈfleɪvə(r)/ glamour /ˈɡlæmə(r)/ harbour /ˈhɑː(r)bə(r), ˈhærb-/ honour /ˈɒnə(r)/ humour /ˈhjuːmə(r), ˈhɪum-/ labour /ˈleɪbə(r)/ neighbour /ˈneɪbə(r)/ parlour /ˈpɑː(r)lə(r), ˈpær-/ rancour /ˈræŋkə(r)/ rigour /ˈrɪɡə(r)/ rumour /ˈruːmə(r), ˈrɪum-/ saviour /ˈseɪvjə(r)/ savour /ˈseɪvə(r)/ splendour /ˈsplɛndə(r)/ tumour /ˈtjuːmə(r), ˈtɪum-/ vigour /ˈvɪɡə(r)/

PALM lexical setEdit

This list does not include:

  • Words with a common alternate pronunciation with /æ/, /ɒ/ or /ɔː/.
  • Words in the START lexical set.

alms /ˈɑː(l)mz/ balm /ˈbɑː(l)m/ barrage /bəˈrɑːʒ, ˈbærɑːʒ/ blah /ˈblɑː/ bra /ˈbrɑː/ calm /ˈkɑː(l)m/ Chalmers /ˈtʃɑː(l)mə(r)z/ charade /ʃəˈrɑːd/ (also /ʃəˈreɪd/) collage /kɵˈlɑːʒ, koʊ-/ fa /ˈfɑː/ father /ˈfɑːðə(r)/ garage /ɡəˈrɑːʒ, -ˈrɑːdʒ, ˈɡærɑːʒ/ (also /ˈɡærᵻdʒ/) genre /ˈʒɑːnrə/ ha, hah /ˈhɑː/ la /ˈlɑː/ mirage /mɨˈrɑːʒ/ montage /mɒnˈtɑːʒ/ palm /ˈpɑː(l)m/ Prague /ˈprɑːɡ/ psalm /ˈsɑː(l)m/ qualm /ˈkwɑː(l)m/ ska /ˈskɑː/ spa /ˈspɑː/ svengali /svɛnˈɡɑːli, sfɛn-/ ta /ˈtɑː/ taco /ˈtɑːkoʊ/

Single ‹s› as /z/ or /ʒ/ after a short vowel in an open syllableEdit

-asm /-æzəm/ busy /ˈbɪzi/ chisel /ˈtʃɪzəl/ closet /ˈklɒzᵻt/ cousin /ˈkʌzᵻn/ doesn't (verb) /ˈdʌzənt/ Elisabeth /ɨˈlɪzəbəθ/ hasn't /ˈhæzənt/ -ism /-ɪzəm/ isn't /ˈɪzənt/ leisure /ˈlɛʒə(r)/ (also /ˈliːʒə(r)/) measure /ˈmɛʒə(r)/ misery /ˈmɪzəri/ peasant /ˈpɛzənt/ pheasant /ˈfɛzənt/ pleasant /ˈplɛzənt/ pleasure /ˈplɛʒə(r)/ posit /ˈpɒzᵻt/ present (noun) /ˈprɛzənt/ prison /ˈprɪzən/ resin /ˈrɛzᵻn/ risen /ˈrɪzən/ treasure /ˈtrɛʒə(r)/ visit /ˈvɪzᵻt/ wasn't /ˈwɒzənt, ˈwʌz-/

‹sl› as /l/Edit

aisle, isle /ˈaɪl/ Carlisle /ˈkɑː(r)laɪl, ˈkær-/ island /ˈaɪlənd/ islet /ˈaɪlᵻt/

‹ss› and ‹sc› as /z/Edit

brassiere /brəˈzɪə(r), -ˈziːr, ˈbræziɛə(r), -eɪr, ˈbræzɪə(r), -ziːr/ (also /ˈbræsiɛə(r), -eɪr, ˈbræsɪə(r), -siːr/) crescent /ˈkrɛzənt/ (also /ˈkrɛsənt/) dessert /dɨˈzɜː(r)t, -ˈzɛrt/ dissolve /dᵻˈzɒlv/

‹th› as /t/Edit

Thai /ˈtaɪ/ Thailand /ˈtaɪlænd/ Thames /ˈtɛmz, ˈteɪmz/ (also /ˈθeɪmz/) Thomas /ˈtɒməs/ Thompson /ˈtɒmpsən/ thyme /ˈtaɪm/ (also /ˈθaɪm/)

Initial /θw/Edit

thwack /ˈθwæk/ thwaite /ˈθweɪt/ thwap /ˈθwæp/ thwart /ˈθwɔː(r)t, ˈθwɒrt/ thwomp /ˈθwɒmp/

Silent ‹u› and ‹w›Edit

This list does not include:

  • Silent ‹w› in ‹wr›.

analogue /ˈænəlɒɡ, -lɔːɡ/ answer /ˈænsə(r), ˈɑːns-/ antique /ænˈtiːk/ baroque /bəˈrɒk, -ˈroʊk/ Basque /ˈbæsk, ˈbɑːsk/ beleaguer /bɨˈliːɡə(r)/ biscuit /ˈbɪskᵻt/ bisque /ˈbɪsk/ Borgue /ˈbɔː(r)ɡ, ˈbɒrɡ/ brogue /ˈbroʊɡ/ brusque /ˈbruːsk, ˈbrʊsk, ˈbrʌsk/ build /ˈbɪld/ built /ˈbɪlt/ buy /ˈbaɪ/ catalogue /ˈkætəlɒɡ, -lɔːɡ/ cheque /ˈtʃɛk/ chequer /ˈtʃɛkə(r)/ circuit /ˈsɜː(r)kᵻt, ˈsɪrk-/ cirque /ˈsɜː(r)k, ˈsɪrk/ clique /ˈklɪk, ˈkliːk/ conquer /ˈkɒŋkə(r)/ dengue /ˈdɛŋɡeɪ, ˈdɛŋɡi/ dialogue /ˈdaɪəlɒɡ, -lɔːɡ/ epilogue /ˈɛpᵻlɒɡ, -lɔːɡ/ Fenwick /ˈfɛnᵻk/ (also /ˈfɛnwᵻk/) fugue /ˈfjuːɡ, ˈfɪuɡ/ Greenwich /ˈɡrɛnᵻdʒ, -ᵻtʃ/ (also /ˈɡriːnwᵻtʃ, -wᵻdʒ/) grotesque /ɡroʊˈtɛsk/ guarantee /ɡærənˈtiː/ guaranty /ˈɡærənti/ guard /ˈɡɑː(r)d, ˈɡærd/ guardian /ˈɡɑː(r)diən, ˈɡærd-/ Guernsey /ˈɡɜː(r)nzi, ˈɡɛrnzi/ guess /ˈɡɛs/ guessed, guest /ˈɡɛst/ guide /ˈɡaɪd/ guild /ˈɡɪld/ guilder /ˈɡɪldə(r)/ guile /ˈɡaɪl/ guillotine /ˈɡiːɵtiːn, ˈɡɪlɵ-/ guilt /ˈɡɪlt/ guise /ˈɡaɪz/ guitar /ɡᵻˈtɑː(r), -ˈtær, ˈɡɪtɑː(r), -tær/ Guy, guy /ˈɡaɪ/ Hague /ˈheɪɡ/ intrigue /ˈɪntriːɡ, ᵻnˈtriːɡ/ knowledge /ˈnɒlᵻdʒ/ lacquer /ˈlækə(r)/ league /ˈliːɡ/ liquor, liquour /ˈlɪkə(r)/ liquorice /ˈlɪk(ɵ)rᵻʃ, -rᵻs/ masque /ˈmæsk, ˈmɑːsk/ masquerade /mæskəˈreɪd/ meringue /məˈræŋ/ monologue /ˈmɒnɵlɒɡ, -lɔːɡ/ morgue /ˈmɔː(r)ɡ, ˈmɒrɡ/ mosque /ˈmɒsk, ˈmɔːsk/ mosquito /məˈskiːtoʊ/ Norwich /ˈnɒrᵻdʒ, ˈnɔːr-, -ᵻtʃ/ (also /ˈnɔː(r)wᵻtʃ, ˈnɒr-, -wᵻdʒ/) oblique /ɵˈbliːk, oʊ-/ opaque /oʊˈpeɪk/ pique /ˈpiːk/ plague /ˈpleɪɡ/ plaque /ˈplæk/ Prague /ˈprɑːɡ/ prologue /ˈproʊlɒɡ, -lɔːɡ/ queue /ˈkjuː, ˈkɪu/ quiche /ˈkiːʃ/ racquet /ˈrækᵻt/ rogue /ˈroʊɡ/ sword /ˈsɔə(r)d, ˈsoʊrd/ synagogue /ˈsɪnəɡɒɡ, -ɡɔːɡ/ technique /tɛkˈniːk/ tongue /ˈtʌŋ/ toque /ˈtoʊk/ torque /ˈtɔː(r)k, ˈtɒrk/ unique /juːˈniːk, ɪu-/ vague /ˈveɪɡ/ vogue /ˈvoʊɡ/ Warwick /ˈwɒrᵻk, ˈwɔːr-/ (also /ˈwɔː(r)wᵻk, ˈwɒr-/) whole /ˈhoʊl/ wholly /ˈhoʊl(l)i/ whore /ˈhɔə(r), ˈhoʊr/ (also /ˈhʊə(r), ˈhuːr/)

‹u› as /ʊ/Edit

Bulgaria /bʊlˈɡɛəriə, -ˈɡeɪr-/ (also /bʌlˈɡɛəriə, -ˈɡeɪr-/) bull /ˈbʊl/ bullet /ˈbʊlᵻt/ Bullock, bullock /ˈbʊlək/ bully /ˈbʊli/ bulwark /ˈbʊlwə(r)k, -wɔː(r)k, -wɒrk/ (also /ˈbʌlwə(r)k, -wɔː(r)k, -wɒrk/) Bush, bush /ˈbʊʃ/ butch /ˈbʊtʃ/ butcher /ˈbʊtʃə(r)/ chutzpa, chutzpah, hutzpa, hutzpah /ˈxʊtspə, ˈhʊts/ Cush /ˈkʊʃ/ (also /ˈkʌʃ/) cushion /ˈkʊʃən/ cushy /ˈkʊʃi/ full /ˈfʊl/ fully /ˈfʊl(l)i/ hummus /ˈhʊməs/ (also /ˈhʌməs/) kibbutz /kɨˈbʊts/ (also /kɨˈbuːts/) mush /ˈmʊʃ/ (also /ˈmʌʃ/) pudding /ˈpʊdᵻŋ/ pull /ˈpʊl/ pulley /ˈpʊli/ pulpit /ˈpʊlpᵻt/ (also /ˈpʌlpᵻt/) push /ˈpʊʃ/ puss /ˈpʊs/ put /ˈpʊt/ schtup, shtup /ˈʃtʊp/ tush (tushie) /ˈtʊʃ/ tushie /ˈtʊʃi/ wuss /ˈwʊs/

‹ugh› as /f/Edit

cough /ˈkɒf, ˈkɔːf/ draught /ˈdræft, ˈdrɑːft/ enough /ɨˈnʌf/ laugh /ˈlæf, ˈlɑːf/ laughter /ˈlæftə(r), ˈlɑːft-/ rough /ˈrʌf/ roughen /ˈrʌfən/ rough /ˈrʌf/ slough (sluff) /ˈslʌf/ toughen /ˈtʌfən/ trough /ˈtrɒf, ˈtrɔːf/ (also /ˈtrɒθ, ˈtrɔːθ/)

‹ui› as /(j)uː/Edit

bruise /ˈbruːz, ˈbrɪuz/ cruise /ˈkruːz, ˈkrɪuz/ fruit /ˈfruːt, ˈfrɪut/ juice /ˈdʒuːs, ˈdʒɪus/ Muir /ˈmjʊə(r), ˈmjuːr, ˈmɪʊə(r), ˈmɪur/ nuisance /ˈnjuːsəns, ˈnɪus-/ puisne /ˈpjuːni, ˈpɪuni/ pursuit /pə(r)ˈs(j)uːt, -ˈsɪut/ recruit /rɨˈkruːt, -ˈkrɪut/ suit /ˈs(j)uːt, ˈsɪut/

‹wo› as /uː/ and ‹who› as /huː/Edit

two /ˈtuː/ who /ˈhuː/ whom /ˈhuːm/ who're /ˈhʊə(r), ˈhuːr/ whore /ˈhʊə(r), ˈhuːr/ (also /ˈhɔə(r), ˈhoʊr/) who's, whose /ˈhuːz/

‹wr› as /r/Edit

wraith /ˈreɪθ/ Wrangel, Wrangell, wrangle /ˈræŋɡəl/ wrap /ˈræp/ wrastle /ˈræsəl/ wrath /ˈræθ, ˈrɑːθ, ˈrɒθ, ˈrɔːθ/ wreak /ˈriːk/ wreath /ˈriːθ/ wreathe /ˈriːð/ wreaths /ˈriːðz, ˈriːθs/ wreck /ˈrɛk/ wren /ˈrɛn/ wrench /ˈrɛntʃ/ wrength /ˈrɛŋ(k)θ/ (also /ˈrɛnθ/) wrest /ˈrɛst/ wrestle /ˈrɛsəl/ wretch /ˈrɛtʃ/ wretched /ˈrɛtʃᵻd/ wriggle /ˈrɪɡəl/ Wrigley /ˈrɪɡli/ wright, write /ˈraɪt/ wring /ˈrɪŋ/ wrinkle /ˈrɪŋkəl/ wrist /ˈrɪst/ writ /ˈrɪt/ write /ˈraɪt/ writhe /ˈraɪð/ written /ˈrɪtən/ wrong /ˈrɒŋ, ˈrɔːŋ/ wrote /ˈroʊt/ wroth /ˈrɒθ, ˈrɔːθ, ˈroʊθ/ wrought /ˈrɔːt/ wrung /ˈrʌŋ/ wry /ˈraɪ/

/ʒ/ not from modern yod-coalescenceEdit

barrage /bəˈrɑːʒ, ˈbærɑːʒ/ beige /ˈbeɪʒ/ Beijing /ˈbeɪˈʒɪŋ/ (also /ˈbeɪˈdʒɪŋ/) collage /kɵˈlɑːʒ, koʊ-/ garage /ɡəˈrɑːʒ, ˈɡærɑːʒ/ (also /ɡəˈrɑːdʒ, ˈɡærᵻdʒ/) genre /ˈʒɑːnrə/ liege /ˈliːʒ/ (also /ˈliːdʒ/) luge /ˈljuːʒ, ˈlɪuʒ/ mirage /mɨˈrɑːʒ/ montage /mɒnˈtɑːʒ/ prestige /prɛˈstiːʒ/ (also /prɛˈstiːdʒ/) rouge /ˈruːʒ/